Abstract— Using intelligent agents and advances of agent-oriented platforms, especially Java-based platformssuch asJadex have promoted the implementation of distributed systems. Jadex issuitable forimplementingcomplex distributed systems.Jadex has simplified editing,debugging andrunning processes inmulti-agent systems. The terms of E-nursing and Nursing Information Nursing (NIS) have been used to refer to the incorporation of ICT into nursing.Nursing information systems as part of the health care systems deals with aspects of nursing is defined. Information Systems are one of the indicators of health development. To meet the information needs of clinical nurse managers, administrative and legal concerns have developed a computer file. Nursing information systems (NIS) strongly influence quality and efficiency of nursing care, and technical progress offers advanced opportunities to support nursing care.Implementation of NISsisalwaysfacedwith theproblemofinsufficienttraining ofend users. This paper presents a new model for controlling and reserving infrastructure in nursing systems using Jadex and Tropos as an agent-oriented methodology. As future work, we will implement similar models for other infrastructure systems.
Keywords- Nursing Care, Nurisng Information Systems (NIS), software engineering, Tropos methodology, Jadex.
An agent in a system is in charge of one or more specific tasks. In other words, each agent have some features that, being an independent, non-moralization, flexibility, responsive, purposeful, social, displacement and interactive . Some main methodologies to describe agents are Promotheus, MaSE, and Tropos . Tropos methodology has rectified the previous methodologies imperfections. So it helped the nonexperts to utilize by applying the user’s behavior and its effects on the system. Contrast to BDI systems [8,7] Jadex, does not develop the Agent-oriented programming language, but it constructs the software engineering techniques which are based-on Java and XML and BDI such an agent, consists of structures and behavior of components of the JADE [3,4] .A case study as WTPIM 3  has done in order to reduce water pollution in Malaysia. And also we can name some other applications in artificial intelligence such as: games, Puzzle, Marsworld, Garbage Collector, Blockworld and Cleanerworld .The paper is structured as follows, insection 2, an appropriatearchitectureformulti-agent systems which isbased onJava and Jadex, is described. Tropos methodology for software production is introduced in section 3. A Nursing Information system, designed and implemented through Jadex and Tropos, is presented in section4 as a case study. Section5 summarizes the results of the paper and offers directions for future work [5, 6].
Figure 1 shows an overview of the Jadex framework [3, 4]. Jadex framework consists of an API, an execution model, and predefined reusable generic functionality. The API provides access to the Jadex concepts when programming plans. Plans are plain Java classes, extending a specific abstract class, which provides useful methods e.g. for sending messages, dispatching sub goals or waiting for events. Plans are able to read and alter the beliefs of the agent using the API of the belief base. In addition to the plans coded in Java, the developer provides an XML based Agent Definition File (ADF), which specifies the initial beliefs, goals, and plans of an agent. The Jadex runtime engine reads this file to instantiate an agent model, and executes the agent by keeping track of its goals while continuously selecting and executing plan steps, based on internal events and messages from other agents.
Beliefs represent the agent’s knowledge about the world, itself and other agents. In Jadex belief allows objects to be stored optional in Java. The classes which are created by modeling tools or database design can be reusable. Objects are stored as a fact or a set of fact. By using the beliefs' names, we can create a belief database and also we can do settings, add or remove. Moreover, previous are saved in Agent’s beliefs database, and also execution the necessary rules are processed automatically, such as changing the beliefs. And we can define a domain for beliefs. So, the belief variation can begin a new goal or cause doing some invalid part of a plan that will follow the loss of that goal.
The goals can cause the agent’sbehaviors andactivities. There areseveralgoals, thatJadex can support just four goalsaccording tothe main goal:
Perform goals express the agent’s wish to directly engage into actions being already satisfied if something has been done.
Achieve goalsare associated with a desired world state.
Query goals: to retrievethe information.
Maintain goals are used to describe situations that should be preserved by the agent under all circumstances.
Plan determination for detection of the goals or control other events such as messages or change the beliefs are final job. The needed plans are selected and used from the plan libraries. For each plan, a plan head defines the circumstances under which the plan may be selected and a plan body specifies the actions to be executed. The most important parts of the head are the goals and/or events which the plan may handle and a reference to the plan body. In Jadex, plan coding requires definition of Head in ADF and body coding will be in Java class. The body is implemented with development Jadex classes that it can cause accessing the class to the plan. BDI like a function does some certain task such as sending message and following the beliefs is possible by sending some sub-goals. Besides, in failure or success the body may have some methods for cleaning operations required for a correct implementation of a plan.
This feature offers BDI agent beliefs, plans and events. Elements can be placed in a reuse unit with its confining potentials as they are only visible to themselves. There will be Import/Export mechanism to connect all types of capabilities since they define as the capabilities' external interfaces.
A.Jadex agent has two basic parts:
An Agent Definition File (ADF) written in XML and
A set of Java classes, which specialize Jadex built-in classes, to specify how plans are constructed out of beliefs and goals.
Figure.2.illustrates a basic part consists in a Jadex agent
In Tropos methodology, the problem domain is described with actors and their relationships. Comparing with other methods like MaSE system designing and implementation has several agents in two phases and seven steps. In addition there are some assistant tools but there is no particular pattern to create agent. Promotheus can be used by no experts because that is comprehensible and can be implemented easily, also supports three phases: recognize the features, design the instructions and design the details of new system. For each actor it is elaborated which individual goals she pursues and additionally on which other actors she depends in fulfilling her goals. Basically, two techniques are employed for refinement: and/or decomposition of goals and plans and means-end analysis of goals for the determination of plans that fulfill these goals [8, 7].
IV.Nursing information system (nis)
Nursing information systems (NIS) are computer systems that manage clinical data from a variety of healthcare environments, and made available in a timely and orderly fashion to aid nurses in improving patient care. Some of the features that are provided by Nursing Information Systems include:
Patient Charting: A patient’s vital signs, admission and nursing assessments, care plan and nursing notes can be entered into the system either as structured or free text. These are the stored in a central repository and retrieved when needed.
Staff Schedules: Nurse can self schedule their shifts using scheduling rules provided in shift modules. The shifts can later be confirmed or changed by a scheduling coordinator or manager. Shift modules are designed to handle absences, overtime, staffing levels and cost-effective staffing.
Clinical Data Integration: Here clinical information from all the disciplines can be retrieved, viewed and analyzed by nursing staff and then integrated into a patient’s care plan.
Decision Support: Decision support module can be added to Nursing Information Systems, and they provide prompts and reminders, along with guides to disease linkages between signs/symptoms, etiologies/related factors and patient populations. Online access to medical resources can also be made available.
V.modeling reservation subsystem in Nursing Information department through tropos and jadex
Electronic records produced for the patient in a NIS can be included electronic health records, electronic medical records, personal health records, electronic patient records and computerized patient records . Nurses evaluate their tasks using tele-nursing technology, and interested into their plans. They use the Internet, digital instruments and computers to improve their performance. The use of documentation is one way for the members of hospital information system to communicate with each other that help every nurse, doctors or other medical personnel aware of the operations on patients at different times. Table 1 shows comparison of nursing information systems with traditional systems.
Table 1. Comparison of NIS with traditional systems
The Tropos methodology is intended to implement the mentioned system. According to Figure 3 in appendix A, there are two actors which named Patient and Nursing Information Department and also Timetable as a common resource. Each patient should fill out the Timetable in order to reduce costs, save time and be on time at work. Nursing Information department also tries to cover patients and its own goals. More, according to figure 3, on patient's side, the filling out the Timetable will be handled by a plan which coordinates two tasks. In first step, the Department has to be searched– this is represented by the SearchInformation subgoal– and in second step Nursing Information Department should fill the Timetable parallel for all patients with the best conditions– represented by the Registration goal. If a filling out Timetable plan fails because one of the sub-goals was not succeed. Patient runs filling out Timetable Goal, Nursing Information Department waits for requests from patient. Therefore, the filling out Timetable goal is decomposed into three subgoals SearchInformation, Registration and Reporting.
This paper introduces the concepts of intelligent agent software engineering, its characteristics, Nursing Information Systems (NISs), and briefly explains Tropos methodology and Jadex as a Java-based platform. Then the paper presents a new distributed model for controlling and reserving infrastructure in Nursing Information systems using Jadex and agent-oriented methodology based on Tropos. We will implement similar models for other infrastructure systems in the future.
Andersen, K.V. and H.Z. Henriksen, "The First Leg of E-government Research: Domain and Application Areas 1998-2003", International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 1(4), 26-44, 2005.
Towards an Agent Oriented approach to Software Engineering: Anna Perini and Paolo Bresciani ITC-IRST Via Sommarive 18, 38055 Povo, Trento, Italy, Paolo Giorgini and Fausto GiunchigliaDep. of Information and Communication Tech.University of Trento, John Mylopoulos,Department of Computer Science University of Toronto ,M5S 3H5, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N.R., Kinny, D., “The Gaia Methodology for Agent-Oriented Analysis and Design.” Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems Vol. 3. No. 3 (2000) 285-312
Engineering goal-oriented agentsAlexander Pokahr, Lars Braubach, Andrzej Walczak, and Winfried Lamersdorf University of Hamburg Distributed Systems and Information Systems 22527 Hamburg, Germany
Braubach, L., Pokahr, A., Lamersdorf, W.: Jadex: A Short Overview, in: Main Conference Net.ObjectDays 2004, AgentExpo http://jadex.informatik.uni-hamburg.de
Formative and Summative Coursework Developing a BDI Multi-Agent System: University of Durham,Department of Computer Science Advanced Artificial Intelligence,Multi-Agent Systems, Lecturer: Dr. Rafael H. Bordini ,R.Bordini@durahm.ac.uk,Office 2.04, Extention 41727
BDI Agent Programming in AgentSpeak Using Jason, Rafael H. Bordini1 and Jomi F. H¨ubner2 1 Department of Computer Science University of Durham Durham DH1 3LE, U.K. , R.Bordini@durham.ac.uk.2 Departamento de Sistemas e Computa¸c˜ao , Universidade Regional de Blumenau , Blumenau, SC 89035-160, Brazil email@example.com
The Tropos Software Development Methodology: Processes, Models and Diagrams , Fausto Giunchiglia, John Mylopoulos, and Anna Perini, Department of Information and Communication Technology, University of Trentovia Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo, Italy - firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto.
13.Armstrong, N., and Hearnshaw, H., Powell, J., Dale, J.:Stakeholder perspectives on the development of a virtual clinic for diabetes Care: qualitative study. J.Internet Medical Research, Vol.9, No.3(2007)
APPENDIX A Figure 3- Refined actor/goal Nursing Office Operations using Tropos and JADEX