A. Theory # Organs of speech



Download 263.15 Kb.
Page1/3
Date conversion06.08.2017
Size263.15 Kb.
  1   2   3

powerpluswatermarkobject153444660 www.soflstudent.weebly.com


Answers to Phonetics and Phonology




UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONETICS

A. Theory

# Organs of speech: inwards



Fig 1. Organs of Speech

Lips (upper and lower) / nasal cavity (khoang mũi)  teeth (upper and lower)  alveolar ridge (chân răng)  toungue (tip, blade, front, back or root) / hard palate (ngạc cứng)  soft palate (ngạc mềm)  uvula (lưỡi gà)  pharynx (glottis – hầu / họng)  epiglottis (nắp thanh quản)  larynx (thanh quản)  vocal folds (vocal cords - dây thanh)  trachea (khí quản) / oesophagus (thực quản) ( lungs).



1. Define Phonetics and Phonology?

- Phonetics is the study of speech sounds which are utilized by all human languages to represent the meaning. It concerned with the describing the speech sounds which occur in the languages of the world.

- Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language.

Phonology deals with how these speech sounds are organised into systems for individual language.



2. What are the stages of speech chain during human communication in sounds?

Stages of speech chain are the steps in which the sounds are produced and used for communication. These stages of speaker differ from those of listener.

- Speaker: 3 stages


  • Psychological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain throught the 5 senses of human. It is the process of thinking and choosing what to say.

  • Physiological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain and then to the mouth through nervous system.

  • Physical stage: the process of producing and articulating the sounds. The mouth works to speak out the sounds.

- Listener: such stages are simplier. Nervous system carries the sounds from the ears up to the brain. The brain will analyse the sounds.

3. What is the difference between pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism and ingressive airstream mechanism? What airstream mechanism do English sounds belong to?

The difference between these two mechanism is the direction of the airstream. In pulmonic egressive mechanism, the airstream move outwards from the lung to the trachea (windpipe – khí quản) to pharynx (họng) and to the mouth, but the airstream in pulmonic ingressive mechanism move inwards from the outside.

English sound belong to the pulmonic egresive airstream mechanism and this mechasnism is also used in almost languages in the world.

4. What is voiced, voiceless sound? In what way(s) are voiced sounds different from voiceless ones?

- Voiced sounds are the sounds produced by the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords. In a voiced sound, the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords is a kind of vibration.

- Voiceless sound are the sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely between them and there is no vibration.

Voiced and voiceless sounds can be distinguished according to the following criteria:



Criteria

Voiced sound

Voiceless sound

State of the vocal cords

Rapid opening and closing

Are drawn apart

The airstream from the lungs

Being obstructed by the vocal cords

Passes out freely

Vibration

Made by the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords

There is no vibration

5. What is the difference between articulatory phonetics and acoustic phonetics?

Articulatory phonetics studies the physical processes involved in speech production while acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of speech sounds (linguistically relevant acoustic properties).

Articulatory phonetics examines:


  • The airstream mechanism: where the air used in speech starts from, and which direction it is travelling in

  • The state of the vocal cords: wherether or not the vocal cords are vibrating, which determines voicing

  • The state of the velum: whether it is raised or lowered, which determines whether the sound is oral or nasal

  • The place and manner of articulation: the horizontal and vertical positions of the tongue and lips

Acoustic phonetics studies the specific and measurable effects on the air involved in the production of the speech sound.

6. What is the difference between a vowel and a consonant in the English language? Give example to illustrate?

 Definition:

- Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation.

- Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the oral tract (organs of speech) unobstructed.

 Differences: vowel and consonant can be distinguished according to the following criteria:

Criteria

Vowel

Consonant

Airstream

Escapes freely from the oral tract

Being obstructed on the way out from the lungs

Nasal or oral

All vowels are oral sounds as the velum is raised while the sounds are produced

Eg. /i:/, /u:/, /:/, /:/, /:/; //, //, //, //, //, //, //



Consonants may be nasal when the velum is lowered or oral when the velum is raised

Eg. /m/, /n/, // (nasal); /p/, /d/, /k/, //…(oral)



7. Classify English speech sounds?

English speech sounds can be classified according to the following criteria: voicing, state of the velum, state of the vocal cords

- According to voicing criteria, English speech sounds can be divided into: voiced and voiceless sounds.

Eg. Voiced sounds such as: /b/, /v/, /d/, //, /z/, //, //…

Voiceless sounds such as: /p/, /f/, /t/, /k/, /s/, //, //…

- According to the state of the velum, there are nasal and oral sounds.

Eg. Nasal sounds: /m/, /n/, //

Oral sounds: /b/, /v/, /d/, //, //, // (consonants), or //, //, //, //, // (vowels)

- According to the state of the vocal cords, there are vowel and consonant.

Eg. Vowels: /i:/, /u:/, /:/, /:/, /:/; //, //, //, //, //, //, //

Consonants: /b/, /v/, /d/, //, /z/, //, //, /p/, /f/, /t/, /k/, /s/, //, //…

B. Practice

1. Fill in the blanks in the following passage

There are three principal airstream mechanisms: the pulmonic airstream mechanism, the velaric airstream mechanism and the glottalic airstream mechanism. In normal utterances in all languages of the world, the airstream is always flowing outwards if the pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved. Stops made with this mechanism are called plosives (tắc). The only mechanism that is used in some languages to produce some sounds with inward going air and some sounds with outward going air is the glottalic airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism acting ingressively are called implosives (đóng). Stops made with this mechanism acting egressively are called ejectives (bật). The mechanism which is used in the language to produce sounds only with inward going air is the velaric airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism are called clicks.



2. Fill in the names of the vocal organs in the spaces provided

UNIT 2 CONSONANTS

# Definitions:

  • Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation.

  • Voiced sounds are sounds produced by the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords. In a voiced sound, the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords is a kind of vibration.

  • Voiceless sounds are sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely and there is no vibration.

  • Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel. Eg. bat

  • Lenis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy. They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel.

# Criteria to classify English consonants:

  • Place of articulation

  • Manner of articulation

  • State of the velum (nasal or oral)

  • Position of the vocal cords (voiced or voiceless)

  • Force of articulation / degree of muscular tension (fortis or lenis)

!!! To descript an English consonant we should descript the following aspects:

Voicing  place of articulation  manner of articulation ( place of velum  force of articulation)

Eg. p: voiceless – bilabial – plosive (– oral – fortis)

Place

Manner


Bilabial

Labio-dental

Dental

Alveolar

Retroflex

Plato-alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Glottal

Plosive

p

b













t

d













k






Fricative







f

v





s

z

















h

Approximant

w



















r







j










Lateral



















l



















Affricate




























t

d













Nasal

m













n


















Table 1. English Consonants

(Voiceless sounds are on the left)



A. Theory

1. Classify all the English plosives, providing the words containing the sounds.

English plosives are classified according to the following 3 criteria:

- According to the place of articulation: there are 3 types

+ Bilabial plosive: /p/, /b/ eg. pet, pay, big, boy

+ Alveolar plosive: /t/, /d/ eg. tape, talk, date, dog

+ Velar plosive: /k/, // eg. key, kitchen, go, gap

- According to position of the vocal cords: voiced and voiceless

+ Voiced plosive: /p/, /t/, /k/ eg. pet, pay, tape, talk, key, kitchen

+ Voiceless plosive: /b/, /d/, // eg. big, boy, date, dog, go, gap

- According to force of articulation:

+ Fortis plosive: /b/, /d/, // eg. big, boy, date, dog, go, gap

+ Lenis plosive: /p/, /t/, /k/ eg. pet, pay, tape, talk, key, kitchen



2. List the bilabial consonants. For each bilabial, provide one word containing it.

There are 4 bilabial consonants in the English language: p, b, w, m

- Bilabial plosive: /p/, /b/ eg. pet, pay, big, boy

- Bilabial approximant: /w/ eg. wait, watch

- Bilabial nasal: /m/ eg. mother, meet

3. What is the distinctive feature that makes /p/ and /b/ different sounds?

/p/ and /b/ are bilabial plosive consonants, but the distinctive feature that makes them different sounds is the voicing. /p/ is a voiceless consonant while /b/ is a voiced one. We can realize such difference when these sounds are articulated by touching the Adam’s apple. When /b/ is articulated, there is a vibration, but there is no such vibration when /p/ is pronounced.



4. According to what are English consonants classified? Give examples

English consonants are classified according to 5 criteria:

 According to place of articulation:

- Bilabial: p, b, w, m eg. pay, boy, wait, man

- Labiodental: f, v eg. figure, velar

- Dental: ,  eg. think, this

- Alveolar: t, d, s, z, l, n eg. toy, date, size, zoo, long, name

- Retroflex: r eg. run, ray

- Palato-avleolar: , , t, d eg. shine, ship, measure, closure, watch, catch, fridge, jane

- Palatal: j eg. yet, yes, yellow

- Velar: k,,  eg. key, dog, king, thing

- Glottal: h eg. house, home

 According to manner of articulation:

- Plosive: p, b, t, d, k,, eg. pay, boy, toy, date, key, dog

- Fricative: f, v, , , s, z, , , h eg. five, van, think, this, sun, zoo, shine, measure, hot

- Approximant: w, r, j eg. wait, run, you

- Lateral: l eg. long, later

- Affricate: t, d eg. watch, catch, fridge, jane

- Nasal: m, n,  eg. main, nation, thing, king

 According to State of the velum:

- Nasal: m, n,  eg. main, nation, thing, king

- Oral: p, b, t, d, k, , f, v, ,, s, z, ,, w, r, j, l, t, d, h,

 According to State of the vocal cords:

- Voiced sounds: b, d, , v, , z, , w, r, j, l, d, m, n, 

- Voiceless sounds: p, t, k, f, , s, , h, t

 According to Force of articulation:

- Fortis consonants: voiceless sounds

- Lenis consonants: voiced sounds



5. What are the differences between a plosive and an affricate in English?

Criteria

Plosive

Affricate

Airstream

The airstream is stoped in the oral or nasal cavity by the as the lips contact or the soft palate raises forming a velic closure

The tongue comes up to make a contact with the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure and this contact is then slacken (loosen) to make a fricative.

Number of manners involved

Plosive

The combination between plosive and fricative

6. What is the distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative?

The distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative is the airstream: in alveolar plosive, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, then the airstream is completely obstructed while in an alveolar fricative, the close approximation of two articulators caused the airstream partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.



7. Classify the English fricatives according to the criteria for classification of the sounds. Give the words containing these consonants.

English fricatives can be classified according to the following criteria:

- Accroding to the Place of articulation:

+ Labiodental fricative: f, v eg. fingure, fan, vapour, van

+ Dental fricative: ,  eg. think, this

+ Alveolar fricative: s, z eg. sun, single, zoo, zero

+ Palato-avleolar fricative: ,  eg. shine, measure

+ Glottal fricative: h eg. horse, house, hat

- According to the State of the vocal cords:

+ Voiced sounds: v, , z,  eg. van, this, zoo, measure

+ Voiceless sounds: f, , s, , h eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot

- According to the Force of articulation:

+ Fortis: f, , s, , h eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot

+ Lenis: v, , z,  eg. van, this, zoo, measure



8. What are fortis consonants and what are lenis ones?

- Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel. Eg. bat

- Lenis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy. They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel.

9. What is the main difference in articulation between a velar plosive and a bilabial plosive?

Bilabial plosive is formed by the contact between the two lips while velar plosive is formed by the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate (the soft palate is raised to make velar closure).



10. State basic difference between fortis consonants and its lenis counterparts?

Criteria

Fortis

Lenis

Force of articulation

Relatively strong energy

Relatively weak energy

Voicing

Voiceless

Voiced

Proceeding vowel

Shorten

Lengthen

B. Practice:

1. Describe the consonant in the word “skinflint”: /‘skinflint/

s voiceless alveolar fricative (oral fortis)

k voiceless velar plosive (oral fortis)

n voiced alveolar nasal (lenis)

f voiceless labiodental fricative (oral fortis)

l voiced alveolar lateral (oral lenis)

t voiceless alveolar plosive (oral fortis)

2. Underline:

a. The words that begin with a bilabial consonant



mat knee sat bat rat pat

b. The words begin with a velar consonant

knot got lot cot hot pot

c. The words begin with a labiodental consonant



fat cat that mat chat vat

d. The words begin with a alveolar consonant



zip nip lip sip tip dip

e. The words begin with a detal consonant

pie guy shy thight thy high

f. The words begin with palato-alveolar consonant

sigh shy tie thigh thy lie

g. The words end with a fricative

race wreath bush bring breathe bang

rave rouge ray rose rough

h. The words end with a nasal



rain rang dumb deaf

i. The words end with a stop (plosive)

pill lip lit limb crab dog hide laugh back

j. The word begin with a lateral

nut lull bar rob one

k. The words that begin with a approximant



we you one run

l. The words end with an affricate



much back edge ooze

3. Write the symbol that corresponds to the following phonetic descriptions. Give an English word that contains this sound

a. voiced bilabial plosive b eg. big, ball, ban

b. voiceless alveolar fricative s eg. seven, sun, son

c. voiceless labiodental fricative f eg. fan, finger, farm

d. voiceless palato-alveolar affricate t eg. chain, watch

e. voiceless palato-alveolar fricative  eg. shine, ship

f. voiced labiodental fricative v eg. vapour, vanish

g. voiced velar plosive  eg. games, dog,

  1   2   3


The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2016
send message

    Main page