A Thaumatrope is a disk with a different picture on each side for example a bird one side and a cage the other, it’s held together by glue and string and when spun it looks like the bird is in the cage.This appers to us as a moving image therefor animation.
It was a cylinder spinning construction with different frames of animation printed on a strip placed around the inside. The way it works is that the audience looks in the slits at the top while its spinning and sees the different images forming an animation.
The kinetiscope was an early devise created for people to watch a moving picture through a peephole. It creates the illusion of movement by conveying a strip of film with a sequence of still images over a light source with a high-speed shutter.
A flip book is made up of images slightly different from the ones before much like the zoetrope, however its produced in the form of a springy book to create the animation you have to flip the pages quickly.
Cell animation otherwise known as traditional animation is a technique used by animators where they produce a sequence of images on transparent paper, they apply these images on a pre-drawn background for example the first fetcher film to use this technique was snow white all the backgrounds where watercolour and the moving images where painted onto the transparent sheets.
Rotoscoping is the rotated projection of a sequence of ether drawn or photographed action image frames so that the artist can trace from the frame or create an image to superimpose on it. Otherwise manipulating live footage by outlining footage and remaking it.
A quick Photoshop tutorial –
Draw on film
Drawn on film is an animation technique where instead of photographing the image it’s instead directly produced onto the image/film stock. On the blank film an artist can use what he likes to produce his work he can draw things on there as well as glue or stamp things.
Otherwise known as computer animation has been around since the late 60’s by mathematicians and physicists lead by N.Konstantinov they created a mathematical model of a moving cat across a screen, a special computer was then created The BESM-4 computer printed hundreds of frames that could be converted into usable film material. Digital applications is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images within film, TV, gaming etc.
Photographic still is a series of slightly different images produced one after the other creating an animation this technique is also used in stop-animation.
Claymation is a form of stop motion animation much like photographic stills its an object slightly different from the image that came before however takes a lot longer to produce as you have to take a picture then slightly move the subject yourself for 24 frame per second (24 photos of slight movement)
Elaborating on Claymation and photographic stills, stop frame creates the illusion of movement by physically manipulating an object or persona appears to move on its own.
Research on Animation Company’s and techniques
The Hanna Barbara Research
William Hanna and Joseph Barbara are 2 of the most iconic creative animators in the animation industry creating some of our most beloved childhood cartoons. Meeting in 1937 at MGM studios Hanna and Barbara became good friends with the same goals becoming successful animation producers.Working for MGM were they didn’t have as much creative freedom but dreamed of a day where they could 1up Disney in the animation industry as the producers of cartoons. They collaborated to create Tom & Jerry there first animation as a team which went on to get a nomination from the Oscars. Tom & Jerry was overseen by MGM and debuted in 1940 and in later years won Oscar 7 Oscars and had 6 nominations altogether. Over the 20 years since Tom & Jerry had been in production with MGM (1937-1957) MGM closed down, This left Hanna and Barbara at a stand point where it was then that they decided to create their own company Hanna-Barbara Productions. This not only gave them more creative freedom but also gave them the chance to establish themselves as successful producers and animators. Over the years they had built up a friendship with George Sidney alive-action director who in recent years aired Tom & Jerry alongside some of his films, helped them form a deal with Screen Gems. He then became a primary shareholder in the company and is recognised as one of Hanna Barbara’s founders. Screen Gems where in business with Hanna and Barbara for several years over this time Hanna-Barbara was its own company they created multiple successful TV shows, until they became a subsidiary of Taft Broadcasting in late 1966. During the years that followed they both won and were nominated for Emmys, a Golden Globe Award, and earned their star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 15 years of being in business with Taft Hanna-Barbara where purchased again in 1991 from the company Turner Broadcasting, Turner started broadcasting Hanna Barbara cartons on their new channel cartoon network until 1996 where Turner merged with Time Warner, and Hanna-Barbara became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation. Hanna and Barbara continued serving as mentors and creative consultants at warner brothers but only 5 years later Hanna died this marked the end of an era (2001), Barbara allowed time warner to have complete control of their company and it was absorbed into cartoon network, Barbara continued to work for Time warner until he died in 2006. Since then Warner brother have aired lots of the classic Hanna Barbra cartoons on there other channel Bommerang and there cartoons are still watched by children today, my persanel opinion is that I actually like theases cartoons more than disney and I think they achived there dream of 1uping disney with there iconic cartoons as they are far more memrable than the disneys animated shows and they will never be forgotten
3D-CGI quick Reserch
3-D CGI has been around longer than you think in 1968 a group of Russian mathematicians and physicists lead by N.Konstantinov created a mathematical model of a moving cat across a screen. A program was made for a special computer by the name of BESM-4. The BESM-4 computer printed hundreds of frames that could be converted into usable film material. However 3D CGI didn’t become relevant to film till 1976 in the iconic film Star Wars, Gorge Lucas was ahead of his time when thinking about the benefits of computer animation he later went on to hire John Lasseter to become an interface designer at Lucas film, Lasseter realized that computers could be used to make movies with three dimensional backgrounds and started creating films bringing about 3D CGI films like Toy Story he began to build a company based on his ideas he then went on to call Pixar. However none of this would have been possible if he had never been inspired by the film TRON (1982) which made use of 15 minutes of fully rendered CGI footage including the famous light cycle sequence. Over time 3D CGI evolved into the gaming and film industry become a everyday part of animation, this brings us to pixar.
In the 1960's the university of Utah set up the first computer graphics course Ed Camull an artist who didn’t believe he was good enough to become an animator was one of the students who was intrigued by the course, this was the real begging for Pixar and what ED would achieve was going to change film forever, the switch to physics changed Ed still an aspiring artist he had fallen in love with computer graphics, he saw it as an art form that could path the way for the future, the combination of art and science was inspired, his first film of his left hand where he managed to create curved 3d surfaces (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jjbax5HYHLQ) was a huge achievement and would be the first 3d animation to appear in a film ever. After graduating with a PHD in computer graphics he went to new york tech to be one of the first to incorporate 3D animation into film, this is where he created the soft where tween which was capable of transforming hand drawn animation into a digital medium, artists could now draw directly to the computer. George Lucas who’s interest in computer science had become a dream of moving it the world of computer animation he hired ED in 1979, Ed Camull was recruited by George Lucas fromThe New York Institute of Technology to head Lucas film’s Computer Division, his job was to create new technology for example edit droid a digital sound system a laser scanner and a powerful graphics computer, 1980 vol lebra was also a big deal, Loren Carpenter’s film was an animated work of art https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AfY6jS9LB4U.George Lucas was ahead of his time in believing computer animation was the way forward he began to use these techniques in his star wars films and was keen to find exceptional people who shared in his vision but no one shared his vision more than John Lasseter who would soon be a key part in creating the computer animated films we know and love today1983 john Lasseter had been out of work after being fired from Disney for not accepting there no for a computer animated product where he saw the potential Disney failed and lacked creativity and chose to stick to the winning Disney formula, not stepping to far out of there comfort zone. After meeting ED at a conference on computer graphics he was hired on the spot as there first animator his title “interface designer”, he worked on multiple things in the following years Thomas Porter's1984 pool ball image as well as the short film The Adventures of André & Wally B. the idea was to create characters with the computer, he was inspired by mikey mouse and the simplistic geometric shapes this would exceed the limitations of his animation boundaries thus creating André his first real computer animation, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Taq9LFbcvxE, John inspired ED’s team to to create new technology that would recreate some of the drawn animation effects, they where constantly achieving new goals and surpassing boundaries and limitations. John and Bill reeves created a phenomenon the stain glass man years later with they’re new found talent of art technogy. The stain glass man whom baffled animators at the time, wondering how this was possible, how was this donehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C
To improve upon all they have already done ED’s team created the Pixar image computer the most exceptional computer for image and graphics for its time, it transformed high resolution images into 3D visuals, it went on to help with satellite photo analyses and medical imagery, this was to expensive and hard to make a business from for George Lucas, however things where changing as 1986 Steve Jobs purchased the Computer Graphics Division fromGeorge Lucas and John and ED formed their independent company that they called “Pixar” named after the computer.Luxo Jr. was completed with the help of Jobs investment. The short film was John Lasseter’s directorial debut, is unveiled in August at SIGGRAPH and then screened for general audiences at Los Angeles-area theatres. Luxo Jr. will be the first three-dimensional computer animated film to be nominated for the Best Animated Short Film Oscar and went on to become the mascot for the revolutionary company, in years to come they would continue to create more and more outstanding shorts and include animation into TV ads to continue there success john hired 2 more animators who attend Cal arts johns former collage which supplied him with his animation knowledge, hiring Pete doctor and Andrew Stanton they began to learn the ways of the computer then went on in 1991 to help john create his dream his first feature Disney film, this would be the first full length animation feature film this was amazing it was extra ordinary it was the beginning of the future of computer animation, 1995 was the debut of the phenomenon we had been waiting for Toy Story a truly exceptional different and strange concept had been brought to the big screen, audiences loved it it was the first of its kind and went on to earn $192 milliondomestically and $362 million worldwide, this one film had pathed the way for a new industry and in 1996 John Lasseter receives a Special Achievement Oscar, over the years the company created more shorts and more films each exceptional and special but it wasn't till 2010 that John Lasseter is honoured with the Producers Guild of America's 2010 David O. Selznick Achievement Award in Motion Pictures, making him the first producer of animated films to receive this award. Now more than 1200 employees...or more...work at Pixar Animation Studios.
United Productions of America, the upa was established in 1941 during the war, it was created due to the Disney animators strike who where unhappy with the current projects and conditions within the company this sparked the new age of animation, new studios, new creative styles, new characters the strike had impacted the animation industry in ways that couldn’t be imagined at the time. After the strike was almost at its end no one at Disney was happy even with the improvements the threat of war and the attack on pearl harbour weeks after caused uproar and some animators within Disney found new homes, UPA amongst some of them. UPA unlike Disney didn’t focus on the Disney princess winning formula, its goal was to go out and create something extraordinary it was a new way of animating, they aimed to create realistic bold characters as well as using a striking simplistic flattened art form that became iconic and fluent in there animations, it was unlike the other company’s, Disney, MGM, Warner Brothers loony tunes. Its use of exceptional bright colours on a plain background and messy out of the line colours was different and with the arrival of Gerald McBoing Boing who in 1950 was the winner of the Academy Award for Best Animated Short came years of successes. During the 50’s UPA were nominated for twelve Academy awards. Not amongst the wins was “The tell tell Heart” today recognized as one of the most ground breaking animations of its time then was overlooked and posed unintreuged by the audiences, it was a fail dissimilar to UPA’s other successful animation Gerald McBoing Boing.
By the end of the decade UPA continued to go over budget, the company often wanted the best so spending more and more they stared to financially depend on Columbia pictures, after realising its first fetcher Arabian nights in 1959 it began taking a dive even though Arabian nights was successful it wouldn’t be till years later they would close down, slowly the exceptional but over budgeted animations where becoming to expensive and there live- action sequel to Arabian nights 20 years later in 1977 would be there last film, it was almost cruel there last project and was ironically released by Disney, it was unfortunate about the company and employees were saddled by its end Leo Salkin quoted “if god were merciful UPA would have survived”.
Hanna Barbara and 3d cgi Presentation
The legend of Korra was created and written by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, it was produced by Nickelodeon the same company that in previous years (2005) produced Avatar: The last airbender also written by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko. Avatar: The last airbender came before The legend of Korra and sets up for the shows current story arks. The legend of Korra was released on April 14th 2012 and will end the series Christmas 2014 with 52 episodes.
The show aired on Nickelodeon in America however the show has an anime style, that’s because the writers wanted to do a show based around the themes of china and its spiritual elements, they wanted a style that fitted to the show but not came across as American based, so having the use of anime but still American produced gave it that extra element even though it uses anime it distance’s itself from the cleashy anime of over doing the facial expressions and over the top styles but occasionally uses it for comical relief. They now had to find a studio that gave them what they were looking for, not only did they want to incorporate anime style but they wanted to use cgi and cell animation for a morecomplex effect the use of computer animation/ cgi was they could do more with the characters and scenes, the show is all about the different elements and has a lot of moments where 3d animation would be better to use, the use of flight and surround shots as well as the fight scenes and areas of the show where they showcases there powers (superpower characters), its also become useful for the shots of the city’s used within the Avatar world.
Studio Mir launched by Jae Myung Yoo, who was an animation director on Avatar: The Last Airbender, and who’s company have worked on other animated projects such as The Boondocks and an animated sequence in the live action film Think Like a Man, was the company who animated the show, using traditional animation almost all of the frames where drawn on paper by the animators then scanned for digital processing. Each episode comprises about 15,000 drawings. Using computer-generated imagery for elaborate scenes, the fights, the pro-bending arena scenes and the spirits, the combination of the 2 also make for a truly stunning piece of animation is it to be said one of the most visually beautiful animations out there today. The cell animation produced by the studio launched by Jae Myung Yoo try and be more inconspicus but with an avid fan page we can have glimpses into the studio that produces the show https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aS6DJ93drmw. The affect their amazing animations has on the show gives it a more in-depth and warmer feel, basic animation isn’t always the most interesting thing to look at but because this show is visually beautiful you become more intrigued as you watch it for example the wonderful fight sense are some of the best on TV https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdKuJ75MMqs \
The shows so good its spawned its own Game using the same style of animation for the game to fit into the world in the best way it can http://uk.ign.com/videos/2014/10/16/the-legend-of-korra-behind-the-scenes-with-titmouse-animation-studio
Robot chicken is a stop-motion TV series that’s a comedy aimed at an older audiences, using spoof and slapstick style comedy the show and its writers produce excellent animations using stop motion and create a spectacular sketch- comedy which mocks pop-culture. created and produced by Seth Green and Matthew Senreich it debuted as part of Cartoon Network’s Adult Swim line-up in 2006 but recently found a new home at Seth Green and Matt Senreich’s original production company Stoopid Monkey, then LLC merged with John Harvatine IV and Eric Towner’s Buddy Systems Studios to form the current hybrid incarnation: Stoopid Buddy Stoodios. Goldstein and Tom Root they aim was to create something truly funny, things that would not only make them laugh but others laugh to, they wanted to create the ultimate kid fantasy using Claymation (Seth Green)- “It’s the ultimate kid’s fantasy, it’s like when you were a kid and you were playing with your toys, you imagine them doing these crazy things. The great thing about Robot Chicken is we’re able to put it on the screen.” Seth’s choice to use stop motion is effective in the way it stands out from the other more aimed at adult cartoons like Family guy and south park, while they claim the show was aimed at kids in some aspect it does appear on CN’s Adult channel, the reason for Claymation and dolls are used in the TV series robot chicken was because the creators feel there was something “cute and homemade about it”, “The show almost feels like it was made in someone’s garage”. Robot chicken have become renowned for their especially funny spoofs the the DC comic universe and the star wars universe and incorporated as much of themselves into the characters as possible they include themselves in the voice cast and on occasion have been known to put themselves in the robot chicken universe - “We wanted to make a place that had a positive vibe and a strong culture of collaboration because we felt like that would empower the artists that we work with the best way” quotes Seth Green, there’s so much you can do with stop motion animation , it’s outstanding and different and is used in a way where people can see the funny side and clearly show who it’s target audience is. Seth green finds a way to continuously make us laugh and creates new sketches that are revelvent to the ever changing Pop-Culture but having elements of comical relief by mocking it. Being completely different to what was already on TV it gave it the edge of being different to everything else and a phenomenon in its style of animation.
Tracking log for my slides and pictures and whatever else task 1