Automobiles, or cars. Automobile



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The Automobile

It is hard for anyone today to imagine what life was like before there were automobiles, or cars. Automobiles have made it easy for people to travel within a city or across a continent. They have also influenced where people live. People once had to live near their jobs, but now they can live farther away and drive to work.



http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifYet automobiles have brought problems as well. Tens of thousands of people are killed or injured each year in traffic accidents. Cities are often congested with huge traffic jams. And gasoline is a limited resource that pollutes the atmosphere when burned as fuel.
Types of Automobiles

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photograph:convertibles are cars that have a top that can be folded down or removed altogether.







Convertibles are cars that have a top that can be folded down or removed altogether.
John Kelly—The Image Bank/Getty Images

photograph:minivans are popular with families. the cars have room for several passangers as well as all of the …







Minivans are popular with families. The cars have room for several passangers as well as all of the …
Simon Wilkinson—The Image Bank/Getty Images



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http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAutomobile bodies have come in many different types. In early days most cars were open, without a fixed top. Now, aside from convertibles, most cars are closed. The most common styles include coupes and sedans. A coupe is a two-door car with a small back seat. A sedan usually has four doors and seats four to six people. Sedans with a lift-up rear door are called hatchbacks. Sports cars are built low to the ground and usually have no back seat. Station wagons have extra carrying capacity. By the end of the 20th century, however, they had been mostly replaced by minivans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs).
Parts of an Automobile

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art:many parts work together to make an automobile run.







Many parts work together to make an automobile run.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.



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http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAll automobiles have certain basic parts. The body of an automobile is the outer shell that encloses the vehicle's mechanical parts and its passengers. Most auto bodies are made of steel, but some are made of strong plastics or fiberglass. The body is attached to the chassis. This consists of a frame that holds all the other major parts of the automobile together. Those other parts include the engine, a steering system, brakes, and the wheels.
How Automobiles Work

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifA driver operates a car by pressing on pedals to make it go and stop and by turning the steering wheel to guide where the car goes. The pedals and steering wheel work because they are part of a larger system.
Engine and Related Parts

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifMost automobiles are powered by internal-combustion engines. In such an engine a mixture of air and gasoline enters a tubelike cylinder through valves. There the mixture makes small explosions. Each explosion produces gases that expand rapidly and push against a device called a piston on one end of the cylinder. The piston goes up and down as the gases expand and contract. Rods connected to the pistons convert that movement into the power that eventually turns the wheels. Most automobile engines have four to eight cylinders.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifThe air-fuel mixture that enters the engine cannot ignite by itself. It needs an electric spark. This comes from devices called spark plugs. They get their electric current from a battery. The automobile's lights, horn, turn signals, windshield wipers, starter, and instruments such as the gasoline gauge are also powered by the battery.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAn exhaust system carries burned gases from the engine to the muffler. The muffler cools the gases. It also reduces their pressure. This reduces the noise coming from the tailpipe. Modern cars are also equipped with a device called a catalytic converter. The catalytic converter uses chemicals to reduce exhaust pollution.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAn internal combustion engine gets very hot. Cars therefore must have a cooling system. In a liquid cooling system, coolant (water and antifreeze) flows through passages around the cylinders and carries off this heat. The hot coolant is then pumped through a radiator to cool it off. Some engines are cooled by a flow of air and have no liquid coolant.
Power Train

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifThe engine provides power to make a car go, but something else must turn the wheels. The parts of the car that transmit, or deliver, power from the engine to the wheels are together called the power train. When a car is starting or moving uphill the engine must deliver more power than when it is cruising on level ground. The transmission uses gears to reduce or increase the speed and power of the engine. The drive shaft carries the power from the transmission to the axle, which connects the wheels.


Other Mechanical Parts

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifOnce a car is moving it is important to be able to make it stop. When a driver presses the brake pedal, pistons force fluid through small, flexible pipes to brakes at each wheel that stop the vehicle.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifThe wheels of an automobile are part of a system called the suspension system. This consists of springs that absorb bumps and shock absorbers that cushion the spring movement. The air-filled tires of an automobile also cushion the ride. The tires have rough surfaces that help keep them from sliding around on slippery or loose surfaces.


History

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photograph:two men ride an early automobile in about 1901. the first cars looked very different than the cars …






Two men ride an early automobile in about 1901. The first cars looked very different than the cars …
Library of Congress, Washington D.C.



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http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifThe first true automobile was a machine that had three wheels and was powered by steam. It was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France in 1769. It was heavy and moved very slowly. Many manufacturers produced steam-driven automobiles during the late 1890s and early 1900s. A disadvantage of steam was that water had to be brought to a boil before the car could go.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifDuring this same period other manufacturers produced cars run by electric motors. Electric cars ran smoothly and were easy to operate. However, they did not run well at high speeds. They also had to have their batteries recharged every 50 miles (80 kilometers) or so.


Gas Engines

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifÉtienne Lenoir of France developed a gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine in 1860. In 1876 the German Nikolaus Otto built an improved gasoline engine. Gasoline engines proved to be more reliable than the other kinds. The brothers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea built the first successful gasoline-powered car in the United States in 1893. Soon several people set up factories to produce cars.


Development of the Automobile Industry

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video:the development <a href=of the assembly line made cars, such as the model t, available to millions of …" align=bottom width=100 height=94 border=0>







The development of the assembly line made cars, such as the Model T, available to millions of …
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.



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http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifHenry Ford made his first automobile in Detroit in 1896. Ford introduced the assembly line in 1913. This made it easy to produce many cars very quickly. Assembly-line workers stay in one place and do only a single task as the parts pass by on a conveyor. Ford soon sold millions of cars. The Model T version was especially popular. Several other companies were established at this time as well.
Innovations

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifIn the period after World War I (1914–18), automobiles became easier to operate and more comfortable. Steel bodies and heaters became common.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAfter World War II (1939–45) automakers began using power steering, power brakes, and automatic controls for windows and seats. Air conditioning also became available.

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifIn the late 1950s, European compact cars like the Volkswagen Beetle caused a sensation. Automakers in the United States built their own compact cars starting in 1959.
The Problem of Oil

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifThe gasoline used in automobiles comes from oil. As the United States began to use up its own oil supplies, it looked to other countries for more. In 1973 the oil-producing countries stopped shipping as much oil to the countries that needed it. This caused high prices and long lines at gas stations. It also made automakers work to produce cars that did not use as much gasoline. Japanese companies were especially successful at this.




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photograph:hybrid cars use less gasoline than other cars. they rely on an electric motor for part of their …







Hybrid cars use less gasoline than other cars. They rely on an electric motor for part of their …
Toru Hanai—Reuters/Corbis



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http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAutomobiles also cause widespread air pollution. As gasoline is burned it produces harmful gases. New types of gasoline and catalytic converters helped ease the problem. Even so, some scientists blame these gases for a problem called global warming. The scientists and others became more concerned in the 1990s. Many drivers replaced their passenger cars with SUVs. Such automobiles use large amounts of gas and produce more of the harmful gases. By the 21st century some automakers had created vehicles that combined gasoline and electric power.
Safety

http://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/bolse2_art_all_tts_play.gifhttp://www.school.eb.com/bcom/images/dot.gifAutomobile safety is a continuing issue. Early cars were very dangerous to ride in. Since then automobile manufacturers have worked to create safer cars. They installed such devices as seatbelts and air bags to protect riders in a crash. They have also tried to improve the way cars are built and the materials used to build cars so that the cars will survive a crash better.


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