Branch Campus, Franchises, Twin Programs
In this category, the most frequent ones are the subsidiaries (branches), wherein the United States holds a larger presence. Amongst the most renown institutes are: Endicott College, Sylvan Learning Systems Inc., Nova Southeaster University, Columbus University, Florida State University, Westbridge University, Westhill University, Pacific Wester University, Jones University.
As far as the franchises, the Pacific Wester University, with campus in Honolulu, Hawaii, hosts in the Instituto Mexicano de Educación a Distancia (IMED) (Distance Education Mexican Institute) in Mexico. It also has an office in Argentina. The studies held in Mexico are addressed to adult education, bachelor’s degrees (licenciaturas), masters, and doctorates.
As it had been mentioned before, the North American Sylvan Learning Systems Inc., is one of the major investors worldwide along with the Apollo group. The Sylvan group has achieved a strong penetration in the Latin American market whereas they bought total or partially various establishments: Universidad de las Américas (University of the Americas) in Chile9 and in Ecuador, Universidad del Valle de México (Mexican del Valle University), Universidad Andrés Bello (Andres Bello University) also in Chile, Foreign Language Academy and Professional Studies (Chile), Universidad Iberoamericana (Ibero-American University) in Costa Rica and in Panama. (Rodríguez, 2004). According to the author, the total sum of the student’s registry in all the Sylvan institutes of Latin America adds up to more than 80.000 students.10
It is important to mention here the experience of the Universidad de Boloña (Bologna University), in Argentina. This university begins their activities in October 1998. The program is divided in a first cycle developed in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the second cycle in Bologna, Italy. The Master’s Degree in Foreign Affairs, European Union-Latin America combines its curriculum with Argentinean, Spanish, and Italian professors. The Master includes four official languages: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and English. The courses are organized in six two-semester terms, four of them are held in Buenos Aires and two in Bologna. Other two bimonthly terms are devoted to stages to be given at international companies and organizations (in Europe or Latin America) and to the preparation of the final thesis. Another important issue is that it counts with an important variety of students. The University of Bologna Campus in Buenos Aires has a Research Centre where a work-project focusing on the scientific-disciplinary areas is addressed towards the Master’s study Program. (Marquis, 2002).
In some countries, foreign academic institutions have offices to promote activities and agreements. In the case of Chile, we could outline: California University, Harvard University, Heidelberg Universitat, University of Michigan, Stanford University, State University of New York, Tufts University, and University of Wisconsin. It is to be noted that Chile does not allow for opening campuses of foreign universities, therefore they constitute a juridical party of international propriety. Among these, the SEK University is an organization founded in Spain that provides a range of courses starting from kinder levels up to university levels. This university also develops activities in Guatemala, Panama, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, and the Dominican Republic. Today, this organization has universities settled in Ecuador, Chile, and Spain. (González, 2004).
In this case, more than being new providers, they are already existing providers, in many occasions with new supply modalities.
The largest percentages in alliances are with the Spanish ones and the North American as well. Amongst the Spanish most renown universities are: Universidad de Salamanca (Salamanca University), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Polytechnic University of Valencia), Universidad de Barcelona (Barcelona University), Universidad de Sevilla (Sevilla University), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Madrid Complutense University), Instituto Empresa (Enterprise Institute). Among the North-American institutions are: Columbia University, Florida University, Nova Southeaster University, Berkeley, Pittsburgh, etc. In all these cases there is an important variety distributed among the countries; this means that the institutions do not necessarily repeat themselves.
With regard to Latin America, the Cuban institutions have a significant presence in other countries of the region; as the Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría (Jose Antonio Echeverria Superior Polytechnic Institute) and the Centro Nacional de Perfeccionamiento (National Perfection Centre). In Chile the most outstanding are: the Universidad de Chile (Chile University), Universidad de las Américas, Universidad Técnica Federico Sta. María (Federico Sta. María Technical University), among others.
In Latin America there exist institutions with regional characters, such as: Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar (Simon Bolivar Andean University), FLACSO11, CLACSO12, INCAE13, Escuela Agrícola Panamericana (Pan-American Agricultural School), Asociación Universitaria Iberoamericana de Postgrado (Iberoamerican Postgraduate University Association), Universidad Latinoamericana del Caribe (Caribbean Latin American University). These institutions are up-dating its communication and cooperation strategies with countries that integrate the affiliations.
The behavior of the articulations or alliances among the countries takes different forms. In most cases, there are no new providers, rather new forms of offerings from the existent providers. For instance, in the case of Mexico, there are more articulation programs among the public institutions; while in Argentina, the articulations are more among the private institutions. Yet, both countries show combination between the public sectors and the private. (García Guadilla, Didou & Marquis, 2002).