Chapter 2 The Rise of the Atlantic World



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Chapter 2 – The Rise of the Atlantic World

What events led to the Europeans coming to America and what effect did Europeans have on the continent when they established settlements?



  1. Changes in Europe

    1. Compare and contrast the Middle Ages time period with that of the Renaissance regarding culture and society.


    1. What religious upheavals occurred in the Renaissance era and what effect did they have on society in Europe?



  1. Europe Explores the Atlantic

    1. How did the Europeans use racism to create a “New Slavery”?



    1. What countries and explorers led discoveries of the New World, and what was the purpose for their explorations?




    1. How did the first Europeans treat their experience to the New World and what impacts did it have on the natives?



  1. Europe Establishes Footholds in North America – Chart is Created

    1. Spain

    2. France

    3. Netherlands

    4. Southern England

    5. New England

Country

Cause

Effect

Spain (St. Augustine)







France (Canada - Quebec)







Netherlands (Hudson River)







Southern England (Middle Colonies to Southern Colonies)







New England (Plymouth)







Country

Cause

Effect

Spain (St. Augustine)







France (Canada - Quebec)







Netherlands (Hudson River)







Southern England (Middle Colonies to Southern Colonies)







New England (Plymouth)








Using one of the following documents, do APPARTS with the following question:

Analyze the extent to which the Catholic church was the reason behind the movement of people to the New World.

Luther Rages “Against the Murdering and Robbing Bands of Peasants”

Martin Luther (1525)

In my preceding pamphlet [on the "Twelve Articles"] I had no occasion to condemn the peasants, because they promised to yield to law and better instruction, as Christ also demands (Matt. vii. 1). But before I can turn around, they go out and appeal to force, in spite of their promises, and rob and pillage and act like mad dogs. From this it is quite apparent what they had in their false minds, and that what they put forth under the name of the gospel in the “Twelve Articles” was all vain pretense. In short, they practice mere devil’s work, and it is the arch-devil himself who reigns at Muhlhausen,[1] indulging in nothing but robbery, murder, and bloodshed; as Christ says of the devil in John viii. 44, “he was a murderer from the beginning.” Since, therefore, those peasants and miserable wretches allow themselves to be led astray and act differently from what they declared, I likewise must write differently concerning them; and first bring their sins before their eyes, as God commands (Isa. lviii. 1; Ezek. ii. 7), whether perchance some of them may come to their senses; and, further, I would instruct those in authority how to conduct themselves in this matter.

With threefold horrible sins against God and men have these peasants loaded themselves, for which they have deserved a manifold death of body and soul.

First, they have sworn to their true and gracious rulers to be submissive and obedient, in accord with God’s command. … But since they have deliberately and sacrilegiously abandoned their obedience, and in addition have dared to oppose their lords, they have thereby forfeited body and soul, as perfidious, perjured, lying, disobedient wretches and scoundrels are wont to do. …

Second, they cause uproar and sacrilegiously rob and pillage monasteries and castles that do not belong to them, for which, like public highwaymen and murderers, they deserve the twofold death of body and soul. It is right and lawful to slay at the first opportunity a rebellious person, who is known as such, for he is already under God’s and the emperor’s ban. Every man is at once judge and executioner of a public rebel; just as, when a fire starts, he who can extinguish it first is the best fellow. Rebellion is not simply vile murder, but is like a great fire that kindles and devastates a country; it fills the land with murder and bloodshed, makes widows and orphans, and destroys everything, like the greatest calamity. Therefore, whosoever can, should smite, strangle, and stab, secretly or publicly, and should remember that there is nothing more poisonous, pernicious, and devilish than a rebellious man. Just as one must slay a mad dog, so, if you do not fight the rebels, they will fight you, and the whole country with you.

Third, they cloak their frightful and revolting sins with the gospel, call themselves Christian brethren, swear allegiance, and compel people to join them in such abominations. Thereby they become the greatest blasphemers and violators of God’s holy name, and serve and honor the devil under the semblance of the gospel, so that they have ten times deserved death of body and soul, for never have I heard of uglier sins. And I believe also that the devil foresees the judgment day, that he undertakes such an unheard-of measure; as if he said, “It is the last and therefore it shall be the worst; I’ll stir up the dregs and knock the very bottom out.” May the Lord restrain him! Lo, how mighty a prince is the devil, how he holds the world in his hands and can put it to confusion: who else could so soon capture so many thousands of peasants, lead them astray, blind and deceive them, stir them to revolt, and make them the willing executioners of his malice. …

And should the peasants prevail (which God forbid!),–for all things are possible to God, and we know not but that he is preparing for the judgment day, which cannot be far distant, and may purpose to destroy, by means of the devil, all order and authority and throw the world into wild chaos,–yet surely they who are found, sword in hand, shall perish in the wreck with clear consciences, leaving to the devil the kingdom of this world and receiving instead the eternal kingdom. For we are come upon such strange times that a prince may more easily win heaven by the shedding of blood than others by prayers.
Institutes: Calvin on Predestination and the Elect

John Calvin (1539)

Therefore we say that the Scripture shows that God, by His eternal and immutable counsel once for all determined both those whom He desired one day to admit to salvation and those whom He would give back to destruction. We affirm that this counsel as to the elect is founded upon His gratuitous mercy, without any respect to human merit; but to those whom He had handed over to damnation, by His just and blameless though incomprehensible judgment, the way of life is closed.



In the case of the elect we regard calling as an evidence of election, and justification another token of its manifestation, until they arrive in glory, where its fulness shall be found. Just as God seals His elect by calling and justification, so by shutting out the rejected ones either from the knowledge of His name or the sanctification of His spirit He makes known to them the judgment that awaits them.
The Scaffold Speech of a Condemned English Jesuit

Robert Johnson (1582)

Johnson. I am a Catholic, and am condemn’d for conspiring the queen’s death at Rheims, with the other company who were condemn’d with me. I protest, that as for some of them with whom I was condemn’d to have conspired withal, I did never see them before we met at the barr, neither did I ever write unto them, or receive letters from them: and as for any treasons, I am not guilty in deed nor thought …

Sheriff. Dost thou acknowledge the queen for lawful queen? Repent thee, and notwithstanding thy traitorous practices, we have authority from the queen to carry thee back.

Johnson. I do acknowledge her as lawful as Queen Mary was. I can say no more; but pray to God to give her grace, and that she may now stay her hand from shedding of innocent blood.

Sheriff. Dost thou acknowledge her supreme head of the church in ecclesiastical matters?

Johnson. I acknowledge her to have as full and great authority as ever Queen Mary had; and more with safety and conscience I cannot give her.

Sheriff. Thou art a traitor most obstinate.

Johnson. If I be a traitor for maintaining this faith, then all the kings and queens of this realm heretofore, and all our ancestors, were traitors, for they maintain’d the same.

Sheriff. What! You will preach treason also, if we suffer you!

Johnson. I teach but the Catholic religion.

Hereupon the rope was put about his neck, and he was willed to pray, which he did in Latin. They willed him to pray in English, that they might witness with him; he said, “I pray that prayer which Christ taught, in a tongue I well understand.” Aminister cried out, “Pray as Christ taught”: to whom Mr. Johnson replied, “What! do you think Christ taught in English?” He went on, saying in Latin his Pater, Ave, and Creed, and In manus tuas,[1] etc. And so the cart was drawn away, and he finish’d this life as the rest did …


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