Cidoc conceptual Reference Model



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Definition of the


CIDOC
Conceptual Reference Model



Produced by the ICOM/CIDOC

Documentation Standards Group,

Continued by the

CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group


Document Type: Current

Editorial Status: Under Revision [2/12/2016]

Version 6.2.2
December 2016

Current Main Editors: Patrick Le Boeuf, Martin Doerr, Christian Emil Ore, Stephen Stead

Contributors: Trond Aalberg, Detlev Balzer, Chryssoula Bekiari, Lina Boudouri, Nick Crofts, Gordon Dunsire, Øyvind Eide, Tony Gill, Günther Goerz, Monika Hagedorn-Saupe, Gerald Hiebel, Jon Holmen, Juha Inkari, Dolores Iorizzo, Juha Kotipelto, Siegfried Krause, Karl Heinz Lampe, Carlos Lamsfus, Jutta Lindenthal, Mika Nyman, Pat Riva, Lene Rold, Richard Smiraglia, Regine Stein, Matthew Stiff, Maja Žumer

Copyright © 2003 ICOM/CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group Table of Contents




Introduction 3

Objectives of the CIDOC CRM 3

Scope of the CIDOC CRM 3

Compatibility with the CRM 4

Utility of CRM compatibility 4

The Information Integration Environment 4

CRM-Compatible Form 5

CRM Compatibility of Data Structure 7

CRM Compatibility of Information Systems 7

Compatibility claim declaration 9

Applied Form 10

Terminology 10

Property Quantifiers 16

Naming Conventions 17

About the logical expressions of the CRM 18

Modelling principles 19

Monotonicity 19

Minimality 19

Shortcuts 20

Disjointness 20

About Types 20

Extensions 21

Coverage 21

Transitivity 22

Examples 22

Class & Property Hierarchies 24

CIDOC CRM Class Hierarchy 25

CIDOC CRM Property Hierarchy: 29

CIDOC CRM Class Declarations 32

E1 CRM Entity 33

E2 Temporal Entity 33

E3 Condition State 34

E4 Period 34

E5 Event 36

E6 Destruction 36

E7 Activity 37

E8 Acquisition 37

E9 Move 38

E10 Transfer of Custody 38

E11 Modification 39

E12 Production 40

E13 Attribute Assignment 40

E14 Condition Assessment 41

E15 Identifier Assignment 41

E16 Measurement 42

E17 Type Assignment 42

E18 Physical Thing 43

E19 Physical Object 44

E20 Biological Object 44

E21 Person 45

E22 Man-Made Object 45

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing 45

E25 Man-Made Feature 46

E26 Physical Feature 46

E27 Site 47

E28 Conceptual Object 47

E29 Design or Procedure 48

E30 Right 48

E31 Document 48

E32 Authority Document 49

E33 Linguistic Object 49

E34 Inscription 50

E35 Title 50

E36 Visual Item 50

E37 Mark 51

E38 Image 51

E39 Actor 52

E40 Legal Body 52

E41 Appellation 52

E42 Identifier 53

E44 Place Appellation 54

E45 Address 54

E46 Section Definition 54

E47 Spatial Coordinates 55

E48 Place Name 55

E49 Time Appellation 55

E50 Date 56

E51 Contact Point 56

E52 Time-Span 56

E53 Place 57

E54 Dimension 58

E55 Type 58

E56 Language 59

E57 Material 59

E58 Measurement Unit 60

E59 Primitive Value 60

E60 Number 61

E61 Time Primitive 61

E62 String 61

E63 Beginning of Existence 62

E64 End of Existence 62

E65 Creation 62

E66 Formation 63

E67 Birth 63

E68 Dissolution 64

E69 Death 64

E70 Thing 64

E71 Man-Made Thing 65

E72 Legal Object 65

E73 Information Object 65

E74 Group 66

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 67

E77 Persistent Item 67

E78 Curated Holding 68

E79 Part Addition 68

E80 Part Removal 69

E81 Transformation 69

E82 Actor Appellation 69

E83 Type Creation 70

E84 Information Carrier 70

E85 Joining 71

E86 Leaving 71

E87 Curation Activity 72

E89 Propositional Object 72

E90 Symbolic Object 73

E92 Spacetime Volume 73

E93 Presence 74

E94 Space Primitive 74

E95 Spacetime Primitive 75

E96 Purchase 76

E97 Monetary Amount 76

E98 Currency 76

CIDOC CRM Property Declarations 78

P1 is identified by (identifies) 79

P2 has type (is type of) 79

P3 has note 80

P4 has time-span (is time-span of) 80

P5 consists of (forms part of) 80

P7 took place at (witnessed) 81

P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 81

P9 consists of (forms part of) 82

P10 falls within (contains) 82

P11 had participant (participated in) 82

P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) 83

P13 destroyed (was destroyed by) 83

P14 carried out by (performed) 84

P15 was influenced by (influenced) 84

P16 used specific object (was used for) 84

P17 was motivated by (motivated) 85

P19 was intended use of (was made for): 85

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) 86

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) 86

P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) 87

P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through) 87

P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through) 87

P25 moved (moved by) 88

P26 moved to (was destination of) 88

P27 moved from (was origin of) 88

P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) 89

P29 custody received by (received custody through) 89

P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through) 90

P31 has modified (was modified by) 90

P32 used general technique (was technique of) 90

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 91

P34 concerned (was assessed by) 91

P35 has identified (was identified by) 91

P37 assigned (was assigned by) 92

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by) 92

P39 measured (was measured by) 92

P40 observed dimension (was observed in) 93

P41 classified (was classified by) 93

P42 assigned (was assigned by) 93

P43 has dimension (is dimension of) 94

P44 has condition (is condition of) 94

P45 consists of (is incorporated in) 95

P46 is composed of (forms part of) 95

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) 96

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) 96

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) 96

P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) 97

P52 has current owner (is current owner of) 97

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) 98

P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) 98

P55 has current location (currently holds) 98

P56 bears feature (is found on) 99

P57 has number of parts 99

P58 has section definition (defines section) 100

P59 has section (is located on or within) 100

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 100

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) 101

P67 refers to (is referred to by) 102

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by) 102

P69 has association with (is associated with) 102

P70 documents (is documented in) 103

P71 lists (is listed in) 103

P72 has language (is language of) 104

P73 has translation (is translation of) 104

P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of) 104

P75 possesses (is possessed by) 105

P76 has contact point (provides access to) 105

P78 is identified by (identifies) 105

P79 beginning is qualified by 105

P80 end is qualified by 106

P81 ongoing throughout 106

P82 at some time within 106

P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of) 107

P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of) 107

P86 falls within (contains) 107

P87 is identified by (identifies) 108

P89 falls within (contains) 108

P90 has value 108

P91 has unit (is unit of) 109

P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) 109

P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) 109

P94 has created (was created by) 110

P95 has formed (was formed by) 110

P96 by mother (gave birth) 111

P97 from father (was father for) 111

P98 brought into life (was born) 111

P99 dissolved (was dissolved by) 112

P100 was death of (died in) 112

P101 had as general use (was use of) 112

P102 has title (is title of) 113

P103 was intended for (was intention of) 113

P104 is subject to (applies to) 113

P105 right held by (has right on) 114

P106 is composed of (forms part of) 114

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 114

P108 has produced (was produced by) 115

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 115

P110 augmented (was augmented by) 116

P111 added (was added by) 116

P112 diminished (was diminished by) 116

P113 removed (was removed by) 117

P114 is equal in time to 117

P115 finishes (is finished by) 117

P116 starts (is started by) 118

P117 occurs during (includes) 118

P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) 119

P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) 119

P120 occurs before (occurs after) 119

P121 overlaps with 120

P122 borders with 120

P123 resulted in (resulted from) 120

P124 transformed (was transformed by) 121

P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) 121

P126 employed (was employed in) 122

P127 has broader term (has narrower term) 122

P128 carries (is carried by) 122

P129 is about (is subject of) 122

P130 shows features of (features are also found on) 123

P131 is identified by (identifies) 123

P132 spatiotemporally overlaps with 124

P133 is spatiotemporally separated from 124

P134 continued (was continued by) 124

P135 created type (was created by) 125

P136 was based on (supported type creation) 125

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) 126

P138 represents (has representation) 126

P139 has alternative form 127

P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) 127

P141 assigned (was assigned by) 128

P142 used constituent (was used in) 128

P143 joined (was joined by) 128

P144 joined with (gained member by) 129

P145 separated (left by) 130

P146 separated from (lost member by) 130

P147 curated (was curated by) 130

P148 has component (is component of) 131

P149 is identified by (identifies) 131

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 131

P151 was formed from (participated in) 132

P152 has parent (is parent of) 132

P156 occupies (is occupied by) 132

P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for) 133

P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of) 133

P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) 134

P164 during (was time-span of) 134

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 135

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 135

P167 at (was place of) 136

P168 place is defined by (defines place) 136

P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by) 136

P170 defines time (time is defined by) 136

P171 at some place within 136

P172 contains 137

P173 starts before the end of (ends after the start of) 137

P174 starts before (starts after the start of) 138

P175 starts within (includes the start of) 138

P176 ends before (starts after the end of) 139

P177 ends within (includes the end of) 139

P178 ends after or with (ends before or at the end of) 140

P179 had sales price (was sales price of) 140

P180 has currency (was currency of) 140

P181 has amount 140

References: 142

Editorial notes 143

Amendments to version 3.3 144

Amendments to version 3.3.1 145

Amendments to version 3.3.2 145

Amendments to version 3.4 150

Amendments to version 3.4.1 153

Amendments to version 3.4.2 153

Amendments to version 3.4.9 154

Amendments to version 4.2 154

Amendments to version 4.2.1 155

P16 used specific object (was used for) 155

P32 used general technique (was technique of) 156

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 156

P35 has identified (identified by) 156

Amendments to version 4.2.2 156

E1 CRM Entity 156

E3 Condition State 156

E4 Period 156

E15 Identifier Assignment 157

E29 Design or Procedure 158

E33 Linguistic Object 158

E41 Appellation 158

E42 Identifier 158

E51 Contact Point 159

E54 Dimension 159

E74 Group 159

E85, E80 have been added 160

E85 Joining 160

E80 Leaving 160

P3 has note 160

P36 161

P37 assigned (was assigned by) 161



P38 deassigned (was deassigned by) 161

P47 is identified by(identifies) 162

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of 162

P69 is associated with 162

P139 has alternative form 163

P142, P143, P144, P145, P146, P148 163

P142 used constituent (was used in) 163

P143 joined (was joined by) 163

P144 joined with (gained member by) 164

P145 separated (left by) 164

P146 separated from (lost member by) 164

P148 is identified by (identifies) 165

Amendments to version 4.2.4 165

Delete the word “domain” 165

E15 165

E42 165


E85 and E86 166

Amendments to version 4.2.5 167

Changes in the terminology 167

E89, E90 have been added: 168

E89 Propositional Object 168

E90 Symbolic Object 169

P148 has been changed 169

P67, P129 changed domain 170

P106 changed domain and range 170

Changes in the scope note of E7 Activity P16 170

P16 used specific object (was used for) 171

Changes to E54 171

Changes to the text of E28 173

E28 Conceptual Object 173

E28 Conceptual Object 173

Changes in the domain, range and superproperty of P137 174

P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies) (old) 174

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) (NEW) 174

P39 174

P39 measured (was measured by): 175



P39 measured (was measured by): 175

Amendments to version 4.2.5a 175

The range and the scope note of P20 has been changed 175

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) 175

The scope note of P21 has been changed and an example is added 176

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) 176

P105 has been superproperty of P52 176

The scope note of P105 has been changed 176

P105 right held by (has right on) 176

Proofreading: 176

Amendments to version 4.3 177

P68 usually employs (is usually employed by) 177

Compatibility 178

About Types 184

E55 Type 186

E66 Formation 187

P143 joined was joined by) 187

P144 joined with (gained member by) 187

P5 consists of 188

E78 Collection 188

E87 Curation Activity 188

P147 curated (was curated by) 188

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 189

Amendments to version 5.0 189

Compatibility claim declaration 189

E78 Collection 189

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 189

P144 joined with (gained member by) 190

Proofreading: 190

Amendments to version 5.01 191

Proofreading: 191

Amendments to version 5.02 191

E5 Event, E6 Destruction 192

E12 Production 192

E29 Design or Procedure 192

E35 Title 192

E70 Thing 192

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 193

E81 Transformation – issue 165 193

P4 has time-span (is time-span of) 193

P5 consists of (forms part of) 194

P14 carried out by (performed) – issue 170 194

P44 has condition (is condition of) – issue 144 194

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 194

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) – issue 169 194

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 194

P148 has component (is component of) 194

Proofreading: 195

Amendments to version 5.0.3 196

E11 Modification 196

E51 Contact Point 196

E89 Propositional Object 196

P2 has type (is type of) 196

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 197

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by) 197

P69 is associated with 197

P71 lists (is listed in) 197

P101 had as general use (was use of) 197

P111 added (was added by) 197

P113 removed (was removed by) 198

P128 carries (is carried by) 198

P149 is identified by (identifies) 198

Proofreading: 198

Amendments to version 5.0.4 199

Change the text in objectives of the CIDOC CRM 199

P109 is subproperty of P49 200

P111 is subproperty of P16 200

Proofreading: 200

Amendments to draft version 5.1 (November 2012) 200

Change the authors list in the first page of CIDOC-CRM 200

Change in the scope note of E41 200

New property P151 has been added 201

Changes in the scope note of E90 Symbolic Object 202

Changes in the scope note of P50, P52, P55, P54 203

P88 consists of (forms part of) has been deleted 203

The range of P142 used constituent (was used in) is changed 203

New property P150 has been added 204

New property P152 has been added 205

Proofreading: 205

Amendments to draft version 5.1.1 205

Addition to the monotonicity text in page xvi 205

The range of P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 206

The name of the property P69 is associated with 206

Examples in E28 Conceptual Object 206

The scope note of E90 Symbolic Object 206

New property for E55 Type about narrower term partitive 207

The range of P142 used constituent (was used in) 207

Examples have been added to E7 Activity 208

Amendments 5.1.2 208

The scope note of E74 is changed 208

Multiple Instantiation 209

P138 represents (has representation) 209

P69 has association with (is associated with) 210

P56 bears feature (is found on) 211

Co reference statement 211

Scope note of P32 used general technique (was technique of) 212

Spatiotemporal Entities and Properties 212

Proofreading 216

Amendments 6.0 216

Inverse of a property 216

E2 Temporal Entity 216

E4 Period 217

E39 Actor 218

E74 Group 219

P134 continued (was continued by) 219

P69 has association with (is associated with) 219

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 220

P138 represents (has representation) 220

P152 has parent (is parent of) 220

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 220

E93 Spacetime Snapshot 222

P157 is at rest relative to (occupied) 223

P158 occupied 223

P159 occupied 224

P161 has spatial projection 225

P9 consists of (forms part of) 225

P89 falls within (contains) 226

E31 Document 226

E73 Information Object 227

E70 Thing 227

Inverse Subproperties of P130 227

E84 Information Carrier 227

P128 carries (is carried by) 228

Proofreading: 228

Amendments 6.1 228

In First Order Logic representation 228

E73 Information Object 228

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 229

E59 Primitive Value 229

E91 Co-Reference Assignment 230

P158 occupied, P159 occupied 230

P152 has parent 230

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 230

P72 has language (is language of) 231

Amendments 6.2 231

E4 Period 231

E18 Physical Thing 233

E53 Place 235

E85 Joining, E86 Leaving 236

E92 Spacetime Volume 236

E93 Spacetime Snapshot 236

E94 Space Primitive 237

P7 took place at (witnessed) 238

P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 238

P9 consists of (forms part of) 239

P10 falls within (contains) 239

P25 moved (moved by) 240

P26 moved to (was destination of) 240

P27 moved from (was origin of) 241

P46 is composed of (forms part of) 242

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 243

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 243

P132 overlaps with 244

P133 is separated from 244

P156 occupies 245

P160 has temporal projection 246

P161 has spatial projection 246

P164 is restricted by 247

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 247

P167 was at (was place of) 248

P168 place is defined by (defines place) 248

Proofreading: 248

Amendments 6.2.1 248

The scope note of P49 248

The scope note of E10 249

P130 shows features of (features are also found on) 250

Transitive properties 251

P132 overlaps with 251

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 252

P133 is separated from 252

P164 during (was time-span of) 253

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 253

P167 was at (was place of) 253

Knowledge Creation Process 253

Proofreading: 254

Amendments 6.2.2 254

E10 Transfer of Custody 254

E78 Collection 254

E93 Presence 255

E94 Space Primitive 256

E95 Spacetime Primitive 257

E96 Purchase 258

E97 Monetary Amount 259

E98 Currency 259

P1 is identified by (identifies)/ P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) 260

P7 took place at (witnessed) 260

P10 falls within (contains) 261

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 261

P115 finishes (is finished by) 261

P130 shows features of (features are also found on) 261

P132 overlaps with 262

P133 is separated from 263

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 263

P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) 264

P164 during (was time-span of) 265

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 265

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 266

P167 at (was place of) 266

P168 place is defined by (defines place) 267

P169 defines spacetime volume (spacetime volume is defined by) 267

P170 defines time (time is defined by) 268

P171 at some place within 268

P172 contains 268

P173 starts before the end of (ends after the start of) 269

P174 starts before (starts after the start of) 269

P175 starts within (includes the start of) 270

P176 ends before (starts after the end of) 270

P177 ends within (includes the end of) 270

P178 ends after or with (ends before or at the end of) 271

P179 had sales price (was sales price of) 271

P180 has currency (was_currency_of) 272

P181 has amount 272

Transitivity 273

Proofreading: 273




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