Cidoc conceptual Reference Model



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Definition of the


CIDOC
Conceptual Reference Model



Produced by the ICOM/CIDOC

Documentation Standards Group,

Continued by the

CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group

Version 6.2.1
October 2015

Current Main Editors: Patrick Le Boeuf, Martin Doerr, Christian Emil Ore, Stephen Stead

Contributors: Trond Aalberg, Detlev Balzer, Chryssoula Bekiari, Lina Boudouri, Nick Crofts, Gordon Dunsire, Øyvind Eide, Tony Gill, Günther Goerz, Monika Hagedorn-Saupe, Gerald Hiebel, Jon Holmen, Juha Inkari, Dolores Iorizzo, Juha Kotipelto, Siegfried Krause, Karl Heinz Lampe, Carlos Lamsfus, Jutta Lindenthal, Mika Nyman, Pat Riva, Lene Rold, Richard Smiraglia, Regine Stein, Matthew Stiff, Maja Žumer

Copyright © 2003 ICOM/CIDOC CRM Special Interest Group Table of Contents




Introduction 3

Objectives of the CIDOC CRM 3

Scope of the CIDOC CRM 3

Compatibility with the CRM 4

Utility of CRM compatibility 4

The Information Integration Environment 4

CRM-Compatible Form 5

CRM Compatibility of Data Structure 7

CRM Compatibility of Information Systems 7

Compatibility claim declaration 9

Applied Form 10

Terminology 10

Property Quantifiers 16

Naming Conventions 17

Modelling principles 18

Monotonicity 18

Minimality 18

Shortcuts 19

Disjointness 19

About Types 19

Extensions 20

Coverage 20

Examples 21

Class & Property Hierarchies 22

CIDOC CRM Class Hierarchy 24

CIDOC CRM Property Hierarchy: 28

CIDOC CRM Class Declarations 31

E1 CRM Entity 32

E2 Temporal Entity 32

E3 Condition State 33

E4 Period 33

E5 Event 35

E6 Destruction 35

E7 Activity 36

E8 Acquisition 36

E9 Move 37

E10 Transfer of Custody 37

E11 Modification 38

E12 Production 39

E13 Attribute Assignment 39

E14 Condition Assessment 40

E15 Identifier Assignment 40

E16 Measurement 41

E17 Type Assignment 41

E18 Physical Thing 42

E19 Physical Object 42

E20 Biological Object 43

E21 Person 43

E22 Man-Made Object 44

E24 Physical Man-Made Thing 44

E25 Man-Made Feature 45

E26 Physical Feature 45

E27 Site 46

E28 Conceptual Object 46

E29 Design or Procedure 46

E30 Right 47

E31 Document 47

E32 Authority Document 48

E33 Linguistic Object 48

E34 Inscription 48

E35 Title 49

E36 Visual Item 49

E37 Mark 50

E38 Image 50

E39 Actor 51

E40 Legal Body 51

E41 Appellation 51

E42 Identifier 52

E44 Place Appellation 52

E45 Address 53

E46 Section Definition 53

E47 Spatial Coordinates 54

E48 Place Name 54

E49 Time Appellation 54

E50 Date 55

E51 Contact Point 55

E52 Time-Span 55

E53 Place 56

E54 Dimension 57

E55 Type 57

E56 Language 58

E57 Material 58

E58 Measurement Unit 59

E59 Primitive Value 59

E60 Number 59

E61 Time Primitive 60

E62 String 60

E63 Beginning of Existence 60

E64 End of Existence 61

E65 Creation 61

E66 Formation 62

E67 Birth 62

E68 Dissolution 62

E69 Death 63

E70 Thing 63

E71 Man-Made Thing 63

E72 Legal Object 64

E73 Information Object 64

E74 Group 65

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 65

E77 Persistent Item 66

E78 Collection 66

E79 Part Addition 67

E80 Part Removal 67

E81 Transformation 68

E82 Actor Appellation 68

E83 Type Creation 69

E84 Information Carrier 69

E85 Joining 69

E86 Leaving 70

E87 Curation Activity 70

E89 Propositional Object 71

E90 Symbolic Object 71

E92 Spacetime Volume 72

E93 Presence 73

E94 Space Primitive 73

CIDOC CRM Property Declarations 74

P1 is identified by (identifies) 75

P2 has type (is type of) 75

P3 has note 75

P4 has time-span (is time-span of) 76

P5 consists of (forms part of) 76

P7 took place at (witnessed) 77

P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 77

P9 consists of (forms part of) 77

P10 falls within (contains) 78

P11 had participant (participated in) 78

P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) 79

P13 destroyed (was destroyed by) 79

P14 carried out by (performed) 79

P15 was influenced by (influenced) 80

P16 used specific object (was used for) 80

P17 was motivated by (motivated) 81

P19 was intended use of (was made for): 81

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) 82

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) 82

P22 transferred title to (acquired title through) 82

P23 transferred title from (surrendered title through) 83

P24 transferred title of (changed ownership through) 83

P25 moved (moved by) 83

P26 moved to (was destination of) 84

P27 moved from (was origin of) 84

P28 custody surrendered by (surrendered custody through) 85

P29 custody received by (received custody through) 85

P30 transferred custody of (custody transferred through) 85

P31 has modified (was modified by) 86

P32 used general technique (was technique of) 86

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 87

P34 concerned (was assessed by) 87

P35 has identified (was identified by) 87

P37 assigned (was assigned by) 88

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by) 88

P39 measured (was measured by) 88

P40 observed dimension (was observed in) 89

P41 classified (was classified by) 89

P42 assigned (was assigned by) 89

P43 has dimension (is dimension of) 90

P44 has condition (is condition of) 90

P45 consists of (is incorporated in) 90

P46 is composed of (forms part of) 91

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) 91

P49 has former or current keeper (is former or current keeper of) 92

P50 has current keeper (is current keeper of) 92

P51 has former or current owner (is former or current owner of) 93

P52 has current owner (is current owner of) 93

P53 has former or current location (is former or current location of) 94

P54 has current permanent location (is current permanent location of) 94

P55 has current location (currently holds) 94

P56 bears feature (is found on) 95

P57 has number of parts 95

P58 has section definition (defines section) 96

P59 has section (is located on or within) 96

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 96

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) 97

P67 refers to (is referred to by) 97

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by) 98

P69 has association with (is associated with) 98

P70 documents (is documented in) 99

P71 lists (is listed in) 99

P72 has language (is language of) 99

P73 has translation (is translation of) 100

P74 has current or former residence (is current or former residence of) 100

P75 possesses (is possessed by) 100

P76 has contact point (provides access to) 101

P78 is identified by (identifies) 101

P79 beginning is qualified by 101

P80 end is qualified by 102

P81 ongoing throughout 102

P82 at some time within 102

P83 had at least duration (was minimum duration of) 103

P84 had at most duration (was maximum duration of) 103

P86 falls within (contains) 103

P87 is identified by (identifies) 104

P89 falls within (contains) 104

P90 has value 104

P91 has unit (is unit of) 105

P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) 105

P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) 105

P94 has created (was created by) 106

P95 has formed (was formed by) 106

P96 by mother (gave birth) 106

P97 from father (was father for) 107

P98 brought into life (was born) 107

P99 dissolved (was dissolved by) 107

P100 was death of (died in) 108

P101 had as general use (was use of) 108

P102 has title (is title of) 108

P103 was intended for (was intention of) 109

P104 is subject to (applies to) 109

P105 right held by (has right on) 110

P106 is composed of (forms part of) 110

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 110

P108 has produced (was produced by) 111

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 111

P110 augmented (was augmented by) 112

P111 added (was added by) 112

P112 diminished (was diminished by) 112

P113 removed (was removed by) 113

P114 is equal in time to 113

P115 finishes (is finished by) 113

P116 starts (is started by) 114

P117 occurs during (includes) 114

P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) 114

P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) 115

P120 occurs before (occurs after) 115

P121 overlaps with 116

P122 borders with 116

P123 resulted in (resulted from) 116

P124 transformed (was transformed by) 117

P125 used object of type (was type of object used in) 117

P126 employed (was employed in) 117

P127 has broader term (has narrower term) 118

P128 carries (is carried by) 118

P129 is about (is subject of) 118

P130 shows features of (features are also found on) 119

P131 is identified by (identifies) 119

P132 overlaps with 119

P133 is separated from 120

P134 continued (was continued by) 120

P135 created type (was created by) 120

P136 was based on (supported type creation) 121

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) 121

P138 represents (has representation) 122

P139 has alternative form 122

P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) 123

P141 assigned (was assigned by) 123

P142 used constituent (was used in) 123

P143 joined (was joined by) 124

P144 joined with (gained member by) 124

P145 separated (left by) 125

P146 separated from (lost member by) 125

P147 curated (was curated by) 126

P148 has component (is component of) 126

P149 is identified by (identifies) 126

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 127

P151 was formed from (participated in) 127

P152 has parent (is parent of) 127

P156 occupies (is occupied by) 128

P157 is at rest relative to (provides reference space for) 128

P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of) 129

P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) 129

P164 during (was time-span of) 130

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 130

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 131

P167 at (was place of) 131

P168 place is defined by (defines place) 131

References: 132

Editorial notes 133

Amendments to version 3.3 134

Amendments to version 3.3.1 135

Amendments to version 3.3.2 135

Amendments to version 3.4 140

Amendments to version 3.4.1 143

Amendments to version 3.4.2 143

Amendments to version 3.4.9 144

Amendments to version 4.2 144

Amendments to version 4.2.1 145

P16 used specific object (was used for) 145

P32 used general technique (was technique of) 146

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 146

P35 has identified (identified by) 146

Amendments to version 4.2.2 146

E1 CRM Entity 146

E3 Condition State 146

E4 Period 146

E15 Identifier Assignment 147

E29 Design or Procedure 148

E33 Linguistic Object 148

E41 Appellation 148

E42 Identifier 148

E51 Contact Point 149

E54 Dimension 149

E74 Group 149

E85, E80 have been added 150

E85 Joining 150

E80 Leaving 150

P3 has note 150

P36 151


P37 assigned (was assigned by) 151

P38 deassigned (was deassigned by) 151

P47 is identified by(identifies) 152

P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of 152

P69 is associated with 152

P139 has alternative form 153

P142, P143, P144, P145, P146, P148 153

P142 used constituent (was used in) 153

P143 joined (was joined by) 153

P144 joined with (gained member by) 154

P145 separated (left by) 154

P146 separated from (lost member by) 154

P148 is identified by (identifies) 155

Amendments to version 4.2.4 155

Delete the word “domain” 155

E15 155


E42 155

E85 and E86 156

Amendments to version 4.2.5 157

Changes in the terminology 157

E89, E90 have been added: 158

E89 Propositional Object 158

E90 Symbolic Object 159

P148 has been changed 159

P67, P129 changed domain 160

P106 changed domain and range 160

Changes in the scope note of E7 Activity P16 160

P16 used specific object (was used for) 161

Changes to E54 161

Changes to the text of E28 163

E28 Conceptual Object 163

E28 Conceptual Object 163

Changes in the domain, range and superproperty of P137 164

P137 is exemplified by (exemplifies) (old) 164

P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) (NEW) 164

P39 164


P39 measured (was measured by): 165

P39 measured (was measured by): 165

Amendments to version 4.2.5a 165

The range and the scope note of P20 has been changed 165

P20 had specific purpose (was purpose of) 165

The scope note of P21 has been changed and an example is added 166

P21 had general purpose (was purpose of) 166

P105 has been superproperty of P52 166

The scope note of P105 has been changed 166

P105 right held by (has right on) 166

Proofreading: 166

Amendments to version 4.3 167

P68 usually employs (is usually employed by) 167

Compatibility 168

About Types 174

E55 Type 176

E66 Formation 177

P143 joined was joined by) 177

P144 joined with (gained member by) 177

P5 consists of 178

E78 Collection 178

E87 Curation Activity 178

P147 curated (was curated by) 178

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 179

Amendments to version 5.0 179

Compatibility claim declaration 179

E78 Collection 179

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 179

P144 joined with (gained member by) 180

Proofreading: 180

Amendments to version 5.01 181

Proofreading: 181

Amendments to version 5.02 181

E5 Event, E6 Destruction 182

E12 Production 182

E29 Design or Procedure 182

E35 Title 182

E70 Thing 182

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 183

E81 Transformation – issue 165 183

P4 has time-span (is time-span of) 183

P5 consists of (forms part of) 184

P14 carried out by (performed) – issue 170 184

P44 has condition (is condition of) – issue 144 184

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 184

P65 shows visual item (is shown by) – issue 169 184

P107 has current or former member (is current or former member of) 184

P148 has component (is component of) 184

Proofreading: 185

Amendments to version 5.0.3 186

E11 Modification 186

E51 Contact Point 186

E89 Propositional Object 186

P2 has type (is type of) 186

P33 used specific technique (was used by) 187

P68 foresees use of (use foreseen by) 187

P69 is associated with 187

P71 lists (is listed in) 187

P101 had as general use (was use of) 187

P111 added (was added by) 187

P113 removed (was removed by) 188

P128 carries (is carried by) 188

P149 is identified by (identifies) 188

Proofreading: 188

Amendments to version 5.0.4 189

Change the text in objectives of the CIDOC CRM 189

P109 is subproperty of P49 190

P111 is subproperty of P16 190

Proofreading: 190

Amendments to draft version 5.1 (November 2012) 190

Change the authors list in the first page of CIDOC-CRM 190

Change in the scope note of E41 190

New property P151 has been added 191

Changes in the scope note of E90 Symbolic Object 192

Changes in the scope note of P50, P52, P55, P54 193

P88 consists of (forms part of) has been deleted 193

The range of P142 used constituent (was used in) is changed 193

New property P150 has been added 194

New property P152 has been added 195

Proofreading: 195

Amendments to draft version 5.1.1 195

Addition to the monotonicity text in page xvi 195

The range of P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 196

The name of the property P69 is associated with 196

Examples in E28 Conceptual Object 196

The scope note of E90 Symbolic Object 196

New property for E55 Type about narrower term partitive 197

The range of P142 used constituent (was used in) 197

Examples have been added to E7 Activity 198

Amendments 5.1.2 198

The scope note of E74 is changed 198

Multiple Instantiation 199

P138 represents (has representation) 199

P69 has association with (is associated with) 200

P56 bears feature (is found on) 201

Co reference statement 201

Scope note of P32 used general technique (was technique of) 202

Spatiotemporal Entities and Properties 202

Proofreading 206

Amendments 6.0 206

Inverse of a property 206

E2 Temporal Entity 206

E4 Period 207

E39 Actor 208

E74 Group 209

P134 continued (was continued by) 209

P69 has association with (is associated with) 209

E75 Conceptual Object Appellation 210

P138 represents (has representation) 210

P152 has parent (is parent of) 210

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 210

E93 Spacetime Snapshot 212

P157 is at rest relative to (occupied) 213

P158 occupied 213

P159 occupied 214

P161 has spatial projection 215

P9 consists of (forms part of) 215

P89 falls within (contains) 216

E31 Document 216

E73 Information Object 217

E70 Thing 217

Inverse Subproperties of P130 217

E84 Information Carrier 217

P128 carries (is carried by) 218

Proofreading: 218

Amendments 6.1 218

In First Order Logic representation 218

E73 Information Object 218

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 219

E59 Primitive Value 219

E91 Co-Reference Assignment 220

P158 occupied, P159 occupied 220

P152 has parent 220

P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) 220

P72 has language (is language of) 221

Amendments 6.2 221

E4 Period 221

E18 Physical Thing 223

E53 Place 225

E85 Joining, E86 Leaving 226

E92 Spacetime Volume 226

E93 Spacetime Snapshot 226

E94 Space Primitive 227

P7 took place at (witnessed) 228

P8 took place on or within (witnessed) 228

P9 consists of (forms part of) 229

P10 falls within (contains) 229

P25 moved (moved by) 230

P26 moved to (was destination of) 230

P27 moved from (was origin of) 231

P46 is composed of (forms part of) 232

P62 depicts (is depicted by) 233

P109 has current or former curator (is current or former curator of) 233

P132 overlaps with 234

P133 is separated from 234

P156 occupies 235

P160 has temporal projection 236

P161 has spatial projection 236

P164 is restricted by 237

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 237

P167 was at (was place of) 238

P168 place is defined by (defines place) 238

Proofreading: 238

Amendments 6.2.1 238

The scope note of P49 238

P130 shows features of (features are also found on) 239

Transitive properties 240

P132 overlaps with 240

P150 defines typical parts of (defines typical wholes for) 241

P133 is separated from 241

P164 during (was time-span of) 242

P166 was a presence of (had presence) 242

P167 was at (was place of) 242

Knowledge Creation Process 243

Proofreading: 243



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