Valencia High School AP/IB Art History Mrs. Schultz
Content Area 2: Ancient Mediterranean
Chapter 3: Egypt
3500 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E. (9 WORKS)
Deeply Held Religious Beliefs
Belief in the Afterlife
List of Required Works (AP Students):
Palette of King Namer. Predynastic Egypt. c. 3000 – 2920 B.C.E. Greywacke. (p.54-55, 57-58, 66)
Seated scribe. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2620- 2500 B.C.E. Painted limestone. (p. 65-66)
Great Pyramids (Menkaura, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2550- 2490 B.C.E. Cut Limestone. (p. 60-63)
King Menkaura and queen. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2490- 2472 B.C.E. Greywacke. (p. 64-65)
Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall. Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties. Temple: c. 1550 B.C.E.; hall c. 1250 B.C.E. Cut sandstone and mud brick. (p. 72-73)
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1473- 1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, and red granite. (p. 69-70)
Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. New kingdom (Amarna), 18th Dynasty. c. 1353- 1335 B.C.E. Limestone. (p. 78)
Tutankhamun’s tomb, innermost coffin. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1323 B.C.E. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones. (p. 78)
Last judgment of Hu- Nefer, from his tomb (page from the Book of the Dead). New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty. c. 1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll. (p.80)
List of Required Vocabulary:
canon/ canon of proportion
ben-ben/ fetish stone
Inundation of the Nile
convention (versus innovation)
cardinal points of the compass
corbeled arch/ corbeling
post: column (types of capitals: bell and bud) shaft drum base (of column)
lintel: entablature limestone tensile strength of stone obelisk
Sculpture: negative relief/positive relief types of stone: diorite, granite, slate atlantids
Painting: fresco secco technique of wall painting twisted perspective
1: How is the concept of hierarchy expressed in the design of New Kingdom temples?
2: Why is there very little change (of style) in Egyptian art and architecture (except Amarna period)?
3: Why did Egyptian craftsmen adhere to a “canon of proportion” and strict conventions of representing the human figure in Egyptian painting, relief and sculpture?
4: Understand how contextual issues relate to the function of Egyptian painting, sculpture and architecture?
5: Understand how the function of Egyptian painting and tomb sculpture determines style.
6: Why did Egyptian painters concentrate on conceptual reality rather than presenting an optical reality?
Egyptian Sculpture: Conventions of representing the human figure
1: Idealized flawless body (youth), perfect facial feature (prime of life), no emotion, serenity
2: Timelessness figure compact, without gesture, with no protruding breakable parts, carved in diorite (hardest stone available), to last for all time
3: Power and Authority iconography reflects kingship and religious power and the divinity of pharaoh.
4: Stereotypical Poses figures carved according to a canon of proportion and gestures
following established conventions
Egyptian Painting: Conventions of representing the human figure in Egyptian Art
(wall painting, relief sculpture)
1: Twisted Perspective used- two points of view combined into the representation of a single figure.
2: Canon of proportion: always used in representing figures
3: Formalization of anatomy and stance = rigidity, lack of sense of movement
4: Hierarchical organization of figures within a composition (relief and painting, but also sculpture groups)
5: Little of no depth within composition registers used to organize figures
6: Literal presentation of information conceptual ordering of symbols, motifs, hieroglyphics, patterns