Corbicula an annotated bibliography 1774 2005



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CORBICULA

AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1774   2005


Clement L. Counts, III

Department of Biological Sciences

Richard A. Henson School of Science

Salisbury University

Salisbury, Maryland 21801
and
Department of Natural Sciences

University of Maryland Eastern Shore

Princess Anne, Maryland 21853
and
Research Associate, Section of Mollusks

Carnegie Museum of Natural History

4400 Forbes Avenue

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-4080


How to cite this document:
Counts, Clement L., III. 2006. Corbicula, an annotated bibliography. . 436 pages.

ABSTRACT
A bibliography containing over 2,500 references to the literature concerning fossil and Recent species of bivalves in the genus Corbicula is presented for the period 1774   2005. Annotations, usually in the form of the published abstract, are provided for most of the works listed.

INTRODUCTION

As the size of this document testifies, there has been considerable interest in bivalves in the genus Corbicula for many years. This interest in the United States was first manifested in paleontological works on the Tertiary of North America. Later, interest was concerned with curiosity about an exotic bivalve that found its way from the Orient to the waters of the North American West Coast. Still later, this interest became more acute as corbiculid bivalves became a serious fouling pest in various agricultural and industrial facilities, particularly at electric power generating facilities. It is this interest that has generated two international symposia and nearly all of the published accounts of the biology, biochemistry, and physiology of corbiculid bivalves.

Other bibliographies on corbiculid bivalves have appeared in the past. Linstow (1922) provided a small bibliography concerning the paleontology of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774). More recent works have included those of Sinclair (1971), Dundee (1974), Corbin (1977) and Mattice et al. (1979). Sinclair's bibliography was chiefly concerned with Corbicula in the United States and was arranged by various subject headings. Dundee's bibliography included all the known exotic molluscs in the North American fauna and therefore included Corbicula as only one of many species covered. The most complete bibliography to date was that of Mattice et al. (1979) who included many papers on fossil and recent species. However, many papers were not included and there was no arrangement of the citations other than an alphabetical listing and keying papers to broad subject headings. However, these bibliographies were the most complete works to date and were extremely useful in providing a logical starting point to develop a comprehensive bibliography on the literature concerning these bivalves.
METHODS
Titles of publications concerning bivalves in the genus Corbicula were assembled by several means. These included searches of the literature cited sections of recently published papers, the published bibliographies of Sinclair (1971), Dundee (1974), and Mattice et al. (1979) as well as the pages of Corbicula Newsletter. Searches were also made of the computerized data bases assembled by Biological Abstracts, the Zoological Record, Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, and the National Technical Information Service. For those years not contained in the data base, searches were made of the printed volumes. Titles included in the bibliography include published books, papers, abstracts, and reports to various governmental agencies. In a few instances, titles published in the popular press are included. Additional computerized database searches were made in Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, BioOne, Ecology Abstracts, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management Abstracts, and Water Resources Abstracts.

Where possible, copies of all materials were obtained and titles, pagination, and plate and figure numbers verified. This was accomplished by conducting searches of the book, journal, and reprint collections of the following institutions: the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP); British Museum (Natural History) [BM(NH)]; Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH); Library of Congress; Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (LACM); Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ); Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN); Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm; University of Delaware; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Maryland Eastern Shore; University of Pennsylvania; University of Rhode Island; United States National Museum (USNM); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Zoologisk Museum, Universitetets Copenhagen (ZMUC); Zoologisches Museum von Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, German Democratic Republic (ZMHU); Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Leningrad (AH CCCP). The period covered was between 1774 (during which O. F. Müller published his description of three species of corbiculids) and 1987. Where possible, an abstract is presented for the work listed.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to thank Drs. George M. Davis, Arthur E. Bogan, and Robert Robertson (ANSP), Drs. Yaroslav Starobogatov and Z. I. Izzatullaev (AH CCCP), Solene Morris (BM[NH]), Dr. Alan Solem (FMNH), Dr. James H. McLean (LACM), Dr. Ruth D. Turner (MCZ), Dr. Simon Tillier, (MNHN, Paris), Drs. Joseph Rosewater, Arthur H. Clarke, and M. G. Harasewych (USNM), Dr. Rudolf Killias (ZMHU), and Dr. Jorgen Knudsen (ZMUK) for their help and for permitting me to use the extensive libraries of their respective institutions.

Special thanks are extended to Mrs. Bertha Ritter, Coastal Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, who so diligently typed the draft manuscript, and to Mrs. Mildred Weer, Librarian, University of Delaware College of Marine Studies, who assisted me in locating some of the more rare and or obscure papers cited. Dr. Edward R. Urban, Jr. provided assistance in locating materials in the Library of Congress, and Dr. Carla Schrier for help with translations. Last, but certainly not least, thanks are due to Dr. Timothy A. Pearce, Asstant Curator and Head of Section of Mollusks, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for bringing this document to wider dissemination through e-publication at the CMNH.

Finally, I wish to thank Dr. Roy Oleröd, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, and his family for allowing me to share the warmth and friendship of their home during my stay in Sweden. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Marguerite B. and Ellsworth W. Smith and Joseph Rosewater.

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Aarab, N., P. Mora, M. Daubèze and J.-F. Narbonne. 2005. In vitro detection and quantification of testosterone metabolites in aquatic organisms. Analytical Letters 38(4):629-640.

Abbott, R. T. 1975. Beware the Asiatic freshwater clam. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 23:15.

A warning to tropical fish hobbyists not to stock Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) because of the potential for accidental introduction into local streams or ponds.

Abbott, T. M. 1979. Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) vertical distributions in Dale Hollow Reservoir, Tennessee. IN: Proceedings of the First International Corbicula Symposium, J. C. Britton, Ed. Texas Christian University Research Foundation (Ft. Worth). pp. 111 118.

Differences between population densities and shell sizes between the epilimnion (8 m) and hypolimnion (12 m) were examined. Highly significant differences between 8 m and 12 m were shown for shell lengths, widths, heights, and population density. Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) at 8 m were larger by an average length of 3.3 mm, height of 2.8 mm, and width of 1.2 mm. Densities at 8 m and 12 m averaged 376.6/m2 and 1215.9/m2, respectively. Temperature differences at 8 m and 12 m were hypothesized as a major factor producing the highly significant reduction of shell sizes at 12 m. Intraspecific competition appeared to reduce the larval recruitment to the populations at both depths as evidenced by no shell lengths less than 12 mm at 12 m and infrequent shell lengths less than 16 mm at 8 m.

Abbott, T. M., J. Cairns, Jr. and K. L. Dickson. 1976. Corbicula manilensis (Asiatic clam) population zonation within a stratified reservoir. Association of Southeastern Biologists, Bulletin 23(2):39. [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Abbott, T. M. and E. L. Morgan. 1975. Characteristics of Asiatic clam, Corbicula manilensis populations in deep oligotrophic reservoir. Midwest Benthological Society, 22nd Annual Meeting, Tennessee Technical University (Cookeville). [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Abbott, T. M. and E. L. Morgan. 1974. Asiatic clam Corbicula manilensis densities, size, distributions and substrate preferences in Dale Hollow Reservoir Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 49:59. [Abstract]

See Abbott, T. M., 1979.

Accordi, B. 1951. Esame geologico paleontologico della campionatura di un pozzo terebrato a Cartura (Padova). [Geological and paleontological examination of the core of a well drilled at Cargura]. Memorie dell'Instituto Geologico della Universita di Padova 16:1 18.

The well was drilled through Quaternary beds. Forty nine species of Foraminifera and 86 species of Mollusca (including Corbicula sp.) are listed.

Achard, M., M. Baudrimont, A. Boudou and J. P. Bourdineaud. 2004. Induction of a multixenobiotic resistance protein (MXR) in the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea after heavy metals exposure. Aquatic Toxicology 67(4):347-357.

Multixenobiotic resistance mechanisms (MXR) related to the mammalian P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter protein (P-gp) are known to occur in several marine invertebrates. In the present work, we report on the induction of an MXR protein by various heavy metals in the gills of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea. The evaluation of the MXR protein level was assessed by Western blot using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against the human P-gp (C219). A field transplantation experiment, where clams were caged in a gradient relative to an industrial site, demonstrated a positive relationship between MXR levels and (a) metal pollution (Cd and Zn) in the environment and (b) metal bioaccumulation in the gills. To establish this correlative relationship, clams were exposed to different levels of cadmium (15-60 mu gl super(-1)) for up to 15 days in a controlled laboratory experiment. MXR protein levels increased in time for all treatments (including the control). However, the highest levels of MXR protein titer were expressed in clams that had been exposed to the lowest dose of cadmium. The causes for this observed inverse relationship between the exposure dose and the MXR induction is discussed. MXR protein titer was also shown to be induced by other heavy metals (zinc, inorganic mercury, and copper).

Adams, H. and A. Adams. 1858. The Genera of Recent Mollusca. Van Voorst (London). Volume 2. 661 pp.



Corbicula compressa 'Mousson' Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula moussoni Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula pullata Philippi, 1850, Corbicula pulchella (Mousson, 1848), and Corbicula rivalis ('Busch' Philippi, 1850) are discussed from the Indonesian Archipelago. Corbicula fluminea, Corbicula fluviatilis, Corbicula grandis, and Corbicula woodiana are also discussed.

Adams, W. and E. Leloup. 1939. Resultants scientifiques du Voyage aux Indes Orientales Neerlandaises de Ll. Bk. le Prince el la Princesse Leopold de Belgique. Gastropoda   Pulmonata, Scaphopoda et Bivalvia. Memoirs du Muséum Royal d'Histoire Naturelle Belgique (Hors Serie) 2(20):1 126.

The systematics and distribution of Corbicula gracilis Prime, 1860, and Corbicula javanica Mousson, 1849, in the Dutch East Indies are discussed.

Adegoke, O. S. 1977. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Ewekoro Formation (Paleogene) of southwestern Nigeria. Bulletins of American Paleontology 71(295):1 379.



Corbicula serrodentata sp. nov. is described (p. 280) and figured (Pl. 44, Figs. 10 14, 21, 22) from three fragmentary specimens. Other unidentifiable corbiculids are also described. Fossil assemblages, stratigraphy and paleoecology of the Ewekoro Formation are discussed.

Afanas'eva, G. A. 1978. New chonetaceans from the Devonian of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. Azerbaijan S.S.R. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 3:64 71. [Russian]

Agache, R., F. Bourdier and R. Petit. 1964. Le Quaternaire de la basie Somme: tentative de synthese. Bulletin de la Société Geologique de France (7)5:422 442.

Fossil Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is reported from Quaternary beds of the Somme in France.

Agrawal, H. P. 1976. Aquatic and amphibious molluscs of Himachal Pradesh, Pt. I. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 71:129 142.

Corbicula occidens (Deshayes, 1854) is reported from the Simla Hills of Bilaspur District at Bhakra Nagal for the first time. Other species from the Simla Hills, collected by parties from the High Altitude Zoology Field Station, Solan, are discussed.

Agrawal, H. P. 1977. New records of fresh water pelecypods from Madhya Pradesh, India. Newsletter of the Zoological Survey of India 3(4):139 141.



Corbicula occidens (Deshayes, 1854), Corbicula picta Clessin, 1879, and Corbicula inflata Clessin, 1879 are reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, central India.

Ahlstedt, S. A. 1981. The molluscan fauna of Copper Creek (Clinch River system) in southwestern Virginia. Bulletin of the American Malacological Union 1981:4 6.



Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) is reported from 2 of 36 localities in a 60 mile reach of Copper Creek surveyed in May 1980. The relationship of other molluscan species to the Cumberlandian fauna is discussed.

Ahlstedt, S. A. 1983. The molluscan fauna of the Elk River in Tennessee and Alabama. American Malacological Bulletin 1:43 50.

From June through September 1980, approximately 201 km of the Elk River was surveyed to document the Cumberlandian mussel fauna from tributary streams located in the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau region. Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) was found throughout the river in association with 38 other species of freshwater mussels.

Ahlstedt, S. A. and J. J. Jenkinson. 1987. A mussel die off in the Powell River, Virginia and Tennessee, in 1983. IN: Proceedings of the Workshop on Die Offs of Freshwater Mussels in the United States, R. J. Neves, Ed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg). pp. 21 28.

The occurrence of a black material on the gills of Corbicula killed with permanganate is noted along with the formation of manganese dioxide.

Ahmad, T. A. 1990. Pyruvate kinase from the muscle of the bivalve Corbicula fluminalis. Paper delivered as poter/paper 33, Biochemical Society Meeting No. 635, Aberdeen (UK), 18-20 Jul 1990.

Ahmed, M. M. 1975. Systematic Study on Mollusca from Arabian Gulf and Shatt Al Arab, Iraq. Center for Arab Gulf Studies, University of Basrah, Iraq. 78 pp.

Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) and Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) are reported from the marshes of the Tigris River near Qurna and Shatt Al Arab on the Euphrates River from collections made during 1970 1971. Water salinity at Shatt Al Arab was 0.54   0.90 ppt.

Aikawa, T., Y. Aikawa and S. Horiuchi. 1982. Distribution of acid proteinase activity in molluscs. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10(2):175 180.

Acid proteinases with a pH optimum around 3 were demonstrated in various tissues of 12 molluscan species (including Corbicula japonica). Enzymes strongly inhibited by pepstatin were predominant and the molecular weight of those from two species were in the region of 38,000   68,000, suggesting that they were cathepsin D type proteinases.

Akhtar, S. 1978. On a collection of freshwater molluscs from Lahore. Biologia 24(2):437 447.

Ten species of gastropods and 4 species of bivalves were reported from Lahore, Pakistan. The morphology and ecology of Corbicula regularis Prime, 1860 and Corbicula striatella Deshayes, 1854 are described. The potential for exploitation of the molluscs of the region as a poultry and fish food is discussed.

Al Hassan, L. A. J., and K. D. Soud. 1985. Phenotypes of phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucose mutase and general protein in some freshwater molluscs from Basrah, Iraq. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 13(3):319 323.

Electrophoretic variants of phosphoglucose isomerase (EC.5.3.1.9) and phosphoglucose mutase (EC.2.7.5.1) were studied in eight species of freshwater molluscs [including Corbicula fluminalis and Corbicula fluminea]. Two phenotypes of phosphoglucose isomerase were observed in Melanopsis nodosa and one phenotype was observed in the remaining species. Onephenotype of phosphoglucose mutase was observed in all the species. Phosphoglucose isomerase is inferred to be a dimer encoded at a single polymorphic locus in Melanoides nodosa. There are two alleles at this locus. Phosphoglucose mutase is inferred to be a monomer encoded at a single monomorphic locus in all species. The electrophoretic analysis revealed that to differentiate the different numbers of the six families studied but, on the other hand, it is considered a good taxonomic criterion to differentiate Melanopsis nodosa and Theodoxus jordani.

Aldrich, F. A. 1961. Seasonal variation in the benthic invertebrate fauna of the San Joaquin River estuary of California, with emphasis on the amphipod, Corophium spinicorne Stimpson. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 113(2):21 28.

Surveys of the benthic invertebrate fauna of the San Joaquin River in the vicinity of Antioch, California, indicated a relatively constant species composition in May and August, 1955. Dominant littoral species were Corbicula fluminea and the ectoproct Conopeum commensale. The dominant form living in the river bottom was the tube dwelling amphipod Corophium spinicorne, with numbers of this species increasing with an increase in the chloride content of the water. The incidence of C. spinicorne was found to be associated with brackish water and depths where the subtrata were predominantly sand, gravel, or clay.

Aldridge, D. W. 1976. Growth, reproduction and bioenergetics in a natural population of the Asiatic freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis Philippi. Master of Arts Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington. ix + 97 pp.

Aldridge, D. W. and R. F. McMahon. 1976. Population growth and reproduction in the life cycle of Corbicula manilensis Philippi. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 39th Annual Meeting (Arlington, Texas). [Abstract].

See below.

Aldridge, D. W. and R. F. McMahon. 1978. Growth, fecundity, and bioenergetics in a natural population of the Asiatic freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis Philippi, from north central Texas. Journal of Molluscan Studies 44(1):49 70.

Bi weekly to monthly samples were collected from September 1974 to January 1976 from a natural population of Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) in Lake Arlington, Texas, to investigate its life cycle, reproduction and bioenergetics. Two spawning periods occurred during 1975, late April until late July resulting in a spring generation; and late August through early December leading to a fall generation. The mean reproductive output was 387 veligers/clam/day (S.D. + 129) for the spring period and 319.8 veligers/clam/day (S.D. + 222.3) for the fall spawning period for a total spring release of 388,495 veligers/m2 and fall release of 752,325 veligers/m2. Spawning was initiated at 19oC and inhibited at summer temperatures above 32oC. Maximum veliger release occurred at 25.7oC.



Corbicula manilensis reached sexual maturity at a shell length of 10 mm. The life span was approximately 14 17 months, while some individuals survived up to 24 months. Annual average shell length was about 35 mm. A peak density of 94.6 clams/m2 occurred in December 1975, and a low density of 17.7 clams/m2 during June 1975. The annual accumulation of shell calcium carbonate was approximately 317 g CaCO3/m2/year, the equivalent of 10 g CaCO3/clam/year.

Average standing crop organic carbon biomass values over the life span of the spring and fall generations were 1.1 g/cm2 and 0.9 g/cm2, respectively, and that of the entire population, 2.6 g/cm2. Total annual assimilation of the Corbicula manilensis population was 14.6 g C/m2/year of which 29% was utilized in respiration leaving the remaining 71% as annual net productivity (non respired assimilation) (10.4 g C/m2/year). Reproduction accounted for 15.3% of the annual net productivity leaving 84.7% for growth. Turnover ratios (net productivity to average standing crop in carbon per square meter ratios) were 4.8 (spring generation) and 5.5 (fall generation), equivalent to turnover times of 91 and 95 days, respectively. Annual turnover ratio for the whole population was 4.1 or a turnover time of 91 days.

Alexander, K. M. 1972. Biochemical investigations on edible molluscs of Kerala. 1. A study on the nutritional value of some bivalves. Fisheries Technology, Cochin 9(1):42-47.

Data on the biochemical constituents and food values of 5 commercially important edible bivalves of Kerala, Lamellidens corrianus, Corbicula striatella, Mytilus edulis, Vellorita cochinensis and Ostrea cucullata have been presented. Physiological significance of the variations have been discussed. Present study reveals that the bivalve meat compares favourably with the common food fishes with regard to their caloric value and hence would be an excellent and economic source of nutrition for our people.

Aliev, A. D. 1960. On the molluscan fauna of lower Kura. Izvestiya Akademyii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR 5:115 118.

Corbicula fluminalis is reported from the Kura River of Azerbaijan, U.S.S.R.

Alimov, A. F. 1974. Growth regularities in fresh water bivalve mollusks. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 35(4):576 589. [Russian with English summary]

The linear growth of the species occurring in the largest masses which belong to the Unionidae, Dreissenidae, and Corbiculidae (Corbicula fluminalis [Müller, 1774], Corbicula purpurea Prime, 1863, and Corbicula tibetensis Prashad, 1929 can be approximated by the Bertalanffy equation. Changes in the constants of this equation under the effect of some factors of the environment (oxidability, calcium content, temperature) were studied. Every species is characterized by a proper range of optimum values of separate environmental factors. The growth constant of the Bertalanffy equation is functionally dependent upon the values of these factors. The greatest length of the adult animal rises with an increase of the sum total of the effective temperatures of the habitat. The results obtained made it possible to introduce the functional dependencies of the indices of the varying values of the environmental factors into the equation of linear growth.

Alimov, A. F. 1975. The rate of metabolism in freshwater bivalve mollusks. Ekologiya 1:10 20. [Russian with English summary. English translation in: Soviet Journal of Ecology 6:6 13. 1975.]

Metabolic rate in freshwater bivalve molluscs was demonstrably exponentially dependent upon their weight. No statistically reliable differences were found in metabolic rates of molluscs having the same weight but referred to different taxa. Corbicula sandai Reinhardt, 1878 had the lowest metabolic rate while Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) had the highest.

Alizade, A. N. 1945. Freshwater molluscan fauna of Azerbaijan. Izvestia Academii Nauk Azerbaijan SSR 6.

Alizade, A. N. 1946. Hydrobiology of Lake Adzhikabul. Trudy Institute of Zoology Azaerbaijan SSR 11.

Allan, J. A. and J. O. G. Sanderson. 1945. Geology of Red Deer and Rosebud Sheets, Alberta. Reports of the Research Council of Alberta 13:1 115.



Corbicula occidentalis ventricosa var. nov. is described (p. 90) and figured (Pl. 5, Figs. 18, 19, 25, 26).

Allen, H. J. 2002. Development, validation, and evaluation of a continuous, real-time, bivalve biomonitoring system. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of North Texas.

Allen, H. J., W. T. Waller, M. F. Acevedo, E. L. Morgan, K. L. Dickson and J. H. Kennedy. 1994. Use of remotely sensed valve movements of Corbicula fluminea to evaluate episodic toxicity events and ambient toxicity. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15th Annual Meeting: Ecological Risk: Science Policy, Law and Policy, Denver, Colorado, 30 October-3 November 1994. (World Meeting Number 944 5003), Poster Paper No. WB29

Allen, H. J., W. T. Waller, M. F. Acevedo, E. L. Morgan, K. L. Dickson and J. H. Kennedy. 1996. A minimally invasive technique to monitor valve-movement behavior in bivalves. Environmental Technology 17(5):501-507.

A real time, minimally invasive method to observe valve movement of bivalves using proximity sensors and a personal computer has been developed. The method is being evaluated as a tool to assess both episodic toxicity events and ambient toxicity. The method described minimizes contact with the animal to the anchoring of one valve and the placement of a small aluminum foil disk on the other valve, and allows the measurement of the distance that a clam's valves are open. Using proximity sensors and an aluminum foil target, valve movements of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea were measured and digitally recorded using a data acquisition board and a personal computer. One advantage of this method is its use of readily available stock electronics. In its final form, we envision an in situ biological monitoring system using C. fluminea deployed in aquatic systems in association with automated physical/chemical monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

Allen, J. 1950. Australian Shells. Charles T. Branford Co. (Boston). xxi + 487 pp.

A discussion of the distribution, ecology, and taxonomy of the Australian species of Corbiculidae appears on page 402. Species discussed are Corbicula spp., Corbicula australis (Lamarck, 1818), Corbicula nepeanensis (Lesson, 1830), Corbicula maroubra (Iredale, 1943), Corbicula ovalina Deshayes, 1854, Corbicula desolata Tate, 1887, and Corbicula prolongata Prime, 1861.

Anazauna, K. 1929. First instance of Echinostoma revolutum in Kan and its infection route. Taiwan Igakknai Zasshi 288:221 241. [Japanese with English summary]

Many specimens of E. revolutum, a common avian trematode in Formosa, were obtained from fecal samples of a female patient. Eggs were found in feces and she was treated with Filmaron oil. This is the first report of this species in man. Examinations of freshwater Mollusca revealed that Corbicula producta, which Formosans eat raw, pickled over night, or half boiled, is the possible source of the parasite. Immersion in 5% saline solution killed the cysts in 10 min.; in diluted Formosan "samshu", they lived no longer than 30 min.; and in soy sauce the were killed in 5 min.; in 1% aqueous acetic acid all were killed in 7 hrs.; in 10% aqueous aqueous acetic acid or in 3% HCl, they did not live longer than 10 min. Experiments on chickens, ducklings, mice and dogs with the encysted larvae from C. producta gave positive results. In Taichu and Taihoku prefectures the occurrence of this parasite in man is placed at 2.8   6.5%.

Ancey, C. F. 1880. Description des mollusques nouveaux. Le Naturalist 42:334.



Corbicula bavayi sp. nov. is described (p. 334) from the Maroni River, Cayenne, South America.

Ancey, C. F. 1891. Mollusque noveaux de l'Archipel d'Hawaii, de Madagascar, et de l'Afrique equatoriale. Bulletin de Société Malacologique France 7:339 347.



Corbicula sikorae sp. nov. is described (p. 345) from the River Mangoro, Madagascar.

Anderson, F. M. 1905. A stratigraphic study in the Mount Diablo Range of California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 3rd Series, Vol. 2, Geology. pp. 105 206.



Corbicula dumbelei sp. nov. is described.

Anderson, F. M. and G. D. Hanna. 1925. Fauna and stratigraphic relations on the Tejon Eocene at the type locality in Kern County, California. California Academy of Sciences Occasional Papers No. 11. 249 pp.



Corbicula williamsoni sp. nov. is described (pp. 164 165) and figured (Pl. 1, Fig. 4; Pl. 3, Fig. 2) from the Tejon Formation, California Eocene, Kern County.

Anderson, K. B., C. M. Thompson, R. E. Sparks and A. A. Paparo. 1976. Effects of potassium on adult Asiatic clams, Corbicula manilensis. Illinois Natural History Survey, Biological Notes No. 98. 7 pp.

The threshold concentration of potassium for foot immobilization response in Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) was 120 mg/l. The 96 hr. LC50 was 225 mg/l. The possibility that naturally occurring concentrations of potassium in North American rivers could limit the zoogeographic dispersal of C. manilensis is discussed.

Anderson, R. V. and D. J. Holm. 1987. Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae) infesting unionid mollusks (Pelecypoda: Unionidae) and Corbicula fluminea (Pelecypoda: Corbiculidae) in Pool 19, Mississippi River. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4(1):61 64.

A population of Corbicula fluminea and eight species of cohabiting unionid molluscs were examined for the presence of the oligochaete, Chaetogaster limnaei. The molluscs were collected in Navigation Pool 19, upper Mississippi River. Infestation of C. limnaei in C. fluminea was significantly greater than in the unionids. A decline in the occurrence and abundance of C. limnaei infesting C. fluminea was found in the winter when the bivalve's population also declined. Of the unionid molluscs, Leptodea fragilis had the highest rate of infestation and the highest number of C. limnaei per individual.

Andres, S., M. Baudrimont, Y. Lapaquellerie, F. Ribeyre, N. Maillet, C. Latouche and A. Boudou. 1999. Field transplantation of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along a polymetallic contamination gradient (River Lot, France): I. Geochemical characteristics of the sampling sites and cadmium and zinc bioaccumulation kinetics. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(11):2462-2471.

Specimens of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were transplanted from a clean lacustrine site to four stations along a polymetallic gradient in the river Lot (France), downstream from an old Zn ore treatment facility. The bivalves were held in benthic cages for a 5-month exposure period, April to September 1996; mollusk growth and metal bioaccumulation kinetics (Cd, Zn) were followed by subsampling the cages at t = 0, 21, 49, 85, 120, and 150 d. Rates of Cd bioaccumulation in the whole soft bodies and in individual organs were greater at the upstream stations located close to the pollution source, but there was no direct proportionality between Cd in the bivalves and in the unfiltered or filtered river water samples. Unlike the case for Cd, rates of Zn bioaccumulation did not reflect the contamination gradient. Marked growth differences were measured among the four stations, reflecting both nutritional differences and changes in the degree of metal contamination; these growth differences produced markedly different trends when metal bioaccumulation was expressed in terms of burdens rather than concentrations.

Andrusov, D. 1953. Nove paleontologike nalezy v karpatskom paleogene. [Nouvelles decouvertes de fossiles dans le Paleogene des Karpates]. Geologiya Sbornik (Bratislavia) 4(1 2):431 496.

The bivalves (including Corbicula sp.) and gastropods from the Paleogene of the Carpathian Mountains are described.

Andrusov, N. I. 1963. Apsheron layers. IN: Choisen (sic) Works, Vol. 2. Akademii Nauk SSSR (Moscow). pp. 333 568. [Russian]



Corbicula fluminalis apscheronica var. nov. is described (p. 430) and figured (Pl. 2, Figs. 22 25) from the Aspheron Layers of the Russian (Caucasian) Pleistocene.

Androussov, N. I. 1923. Étage Apcheronien (Aspcheronien). Memoirs Committee Geologique, St. Petersburg 110:1 294.



Corbicula fluminalis apscheronica is described (p. 117) from the Russian (Caucasian) Pleistocene.

Anistratenko, V. V. and Ya. I. Starobogatov. 1990. Stroenie zamkov rekovin nekotorykh dvustvorchatykh molluskov (Mollusca, Bivalvia) po novoj sisteme indeksatsyi zubov [Hinge structure in some bivalves (Mollusca, Bivalvia) under new system of tooth indexation]. Vestnik Zoologii, 1990(2):75-76. [Russian only]

A previously proposed (Skarlato and Starobogatov, 1986) new system of tooth indexation aimed both at abbreviated marking of hinge teeth and revealing features of resemblance and difference in the hinge structure reflecting systematic principal proposition of species is under consideration. The hinge of representatives of Cerastoderma genus is the most typical and complete. The hinge of Corbicula genus is closely akin to it. They differ only in the following point, i.e. Cerastoderma has only two cardinal teeth in the right shell and Corbicula - three. Parvilucina is the partially inverted Pisidioidea hinge. They both differ greatly from Cerastoderma hinge in the main point, i.e. cardinal teeth of their right shell are homologous to one front lateral tooth and not two as in case with Cerastoderma. Gouldia hinge may be represented as the inverted and partially reduced Corbiculidae hinge. Carditida hinge is alike to Cerastoderma hinge but without outer lateral teeth in the right shell.

Annandale, N. 1916. Preliminary report on the fauna of the Tale Sap or Inland Sea of Singgora. Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam 2:90 102.

Three unnamed species of Corbicula are reported to be a component of the benthos of Tale Sap. All of them are species already reported from the Malay Peninsula and the countries of Indo China.

Annandale, N. 1916. Zoological results of a tour in the Far East. The Mollusca of Lake Biwa, Japan. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 6:41 74.



Corbicula sandai and Corbicula viola are reported from Lake Biwa.

Annandale, N. 1918. Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 6:317.



Corbicula sandai is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. Aquatic molluscs on the Inle Lake and connected waters. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 14:103 182.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. A new species of Taia from Chindwin Valley, upper Burma. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 14:213 214.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1918. Freshwater shells from Mesopotamia. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 15:159 170.

The genus Corbicula is discussed.

Annandale, N. 1921. The aquatic fauna of Seistan. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 18(5):235 253.



Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) is one of three species of molluscs found in the Seistan Desert springs. Specimens were collected in the pools, watercourses and desert springs at Hamun and appeared to show little response to their environment.

Annandale, N. and C. Dover. 1923. Advances in our knowledge of the fauna of the fresh and brackish waters of India, with a bibliography for the years 1912   1922. Journal of the Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series) 18(10):527 554.

A review of the literature on Indian Mollusca (including bivalves in the genus Corbicula) with a bibliography.

Annandale, N. and B. Prashad. 1924. Report on a small collection of molluscs from Chekiang Province of China. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 16(1):27 49.



Corbicula fluminea was collected in the Grand Canal at Hangchow. Corbicula largillierti was also collected in the Ch'ienting River, 30 miles west of Hangchow.

Annandale, N., B. Prashad and A. U. Din. 1921. The aquatic and amphibious molluscs of Manipur. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 22(4):529 631.

The genus Corbicula is represented in the collections from Manipur by three species. Of these, Corbicula striatella is common throughout India and Burma. Corbicula occidens has a wide distribution in the Central Provinces, United Provinces, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Sikkim, and Assam. Corbicula subradiata is newly reported in India. Corbicula occidens was found in Manipur in a muddy channel flowing into Loktak Lake near Potsengban Bungalow. Corbicula striatella was collected in a small stream near Waikhong on the Manipur Burma Road. Corbicula subradiata was taken from a shallow stream near Potsengbam and from a large, shallow, artificial tank called Ningyang Pukri at Imphal.

Annandale, N., B. Prashad and S. W. Kemp. 1919. The Mollusca of the inland waters of Baluchistan and of Seistan. Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) 18:17 63.

The ecology, distribution, and morphology of Corbicula fluminalis (Müller, 1774) from Baluchistan and Seistan are discussed and compared with Corbicula cor Prime, 1864 and Corbicula crassula Prime, 1864.

Annis, C. G. 1986. Corbicula manilensis: a potential indicator of copper and lead pollution in aquatic environments. Master of Science Thesis, Florida Institute of Technology (Melbourne). xi + 117 pp.

Anonymous. 1963. Little creatures clog big canals. Reclamation Era 49:96 98.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1969. Ordinary general meeting: 18 June 1969. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London No. 1660:388 390.

Corbicula fluminalis is discussed in relation to the intermitant disappearance of rich shell bearing Ipswichian beds exposed due to accumulation of scree in the Stour Valley, England.

Anonymous. 1973. Chinese clams clog United States rivers. Marine Pollution Bulletin 4(4):54.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Biology briefs: Chinese mollusk threatens U.S. waterways. Bioscience 23:411.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Here come the clams. Newsweek 81:66.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. Chinese clam invasion. Saturday Review, May:54.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Anonymous. 1973. The case of the Chinese clams: what do we do? Science News 103:306.

Popular account of the infestation of the Delta Mendota Canal, California.

Anonymous. 1974. Chinese clam in American waters. Marine Resources Digest   MarineBiology Digest 5(9):8 9.

The dispersal rate of Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844) in nearctic rivers is discussed.

Anonymous. 1976. Keeping track of mussels. TVA Today 6(6):4 5.

Popular account of the invasion of United States waters by Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1844).

Appleton, C. C. and P. La Hausse de Lalouviere. 1987. Some population characteristics of the bivalves of the Pongolo River floodplain. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 13(1):14 19.

Estimates of the density, structure, and standing crop of populations of the freshwater bivalve molluscs Caelatura framesi, Aspatharia wahlbergi, and Corbicula africana on the Pongolo River floodplain, Natal, South Africa, were made from the samples of shells stranded in the mud of several lakes during the recent drought. Where possible, these estimates were compared to data from sampling prior to the drought. Evidence is presented indicating that recruitment success on the floodplain varies both temporally and from lake to lake.

Applied Biology, Inc. 1982. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study. U.S. Army Engineer District (Savannah, Georgia). Report No. A161970.

Clarks Hill Lake is characterized by a large annual temperature variation and development of strong thermal gradients during summer stratification. Deep hypolimnion waters gradually become depleted of dissolved oxygen by late summer. Clarks Hill Lake waters are soft and have low carbonate  bicarbonate buffering capacity, resulting in fluctuations in pH, conductivity and various other physicochemical parameters between the epilimnion and hypolimnion during summer stratification.

Total phosphate concentrations are high. The Savannah and Broad rivers and the Georgia and South Carolina Little rivers are major sources of phosphate input into the lake. Total phosphate levels have increased at lake and tributary stations since 1973. Although total phosphate levels are high, they are within the range of those observed in other southeastern lakes and reservoirs.

Determination of various pesticide concentrations in sediments and in tissue samples from Corbicula, white catfish and largemouth bass showed no apparent contamination or biomagnification of these parameters within the lake. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments, tissues and whole water samples were generally higher at tributary stations than in lake stations.

Primary productivity in the lake is generally limited by low orthophosphate and nitrate concentrations. Present nutrient concentrations are below critical values at which algal blooms commonly occur. Phytoplankton densities and chlorophyll a measurements showed a seasonal pattern of increasing productivity from early spring through the fall. Standing crops were high at tributary stations and lowest near the dam. A similar pattern of density distribution was also noted for the zooplankton community.

The benthic and drift macroinvertebrate communities of the lake were low in density and diversity as compared to other southeastern lakes and reservoirs. The benthos was predominated by Corbicula fluminea, and the drift community was predominated by chironomid insects.

The overall condition of the lake was considered mesotrophic, characteristic of waters with moderate nutrient concentrations. Data from major tributaries entering the lake suggest that the Georgia and South Carolina Little rivers, the Broad and upper Savannah rivers are eutrophic.

Araujo, R., J. M. Remon, D. Moreno and M. A. Ramos. 1995. Relaxing techniques for freshwater molluscs: Trials for evaluation of different methods. Malacologia 36(1-2):29-41.

Twelve different methods of relaxing freshwater molluscs were tested to find the most suitable for future research and conservation in scientific collections. In addition to drowning, different concentrations of the following agents were tested: phenoxyethanol, MS 222, clove oil, pentobarbital, sodium pentobarbital, diethylether, chloroform, and urethan. Also menthol, lime tree, and valerian were tried. Tests were made with species of main groups of freshwater molluscs: Pisidium amnicum, Corbicula fluminea, and Unio sp. among bivalves; Melanopsis sp., Bithynia tentaculata, Valvata piscinalis, Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, Pseudamnicola cf. luisi, and Horatia sturmi among prosobranch gastropods; and Lymnaea peregra and Ancylus fluviatilis among pulmonate gastropods. Relaxation condition of specimens after narcosis, response to fixative fluids, action time and availability of narcotic agents were considered for evaluation. There was considerable variation between species in their susceptibility to narcotic agents, suggesting that many factors may be involved in the response of freshwater molluscs to narcotization. Among tested agents, sodium pentobarbital and especially, pentobarbital, were the most suitable for relaxing freshwater molluscs. No overdosing troubles were registered in trials with pentobarbital. Results with menthol were unpredictable, although it may be used over a wide range of species.

Arias, J. A. 2004. Population dynamics and growth rate of Corbicula fluminea in two lotic systems of East Texas. Master of Science Thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University. viii + 86 pp.

Arita, J., K. Takemura, Y. Nagashima and K. Shiomi. 2001. Purification and properties of a proteinaceous toxin from the brackishwater clam (Corbicula japonica). Toxicon 39(7):1061-1067.

Water extracts from the brackishwater clam (Corbicula japonica) are lethal to mice upon i.v. injection. Further mouse assays confirmed that the toxicity exhibits a regional variation but no seasonal or sexual variations. The C. japonica toxin was purified from foot muscle, the most toxic tissue, successively by hydrophobic chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, hydrophobic FPLC on Phenyl Superose and cation-exchange FPLC on Mono S. The purified toxin had an i.v. LD50 of 11 μg/kg against mice. It was a weakly basic protein (pI 7.7) with a mol. wt of 23,000 and was rich in Gly, Glx and Asx but devoid of Met. Analysis of the purified toxin by a protein sequencer afforded no N-terminal amino acid. In addition to C. japonica, two species of freshwater clams belonging to the genus Corbicula, C. leana and C. sandai, were newly found to be toxic, although much less potent than C. japonica. Despite the difference in anatomical distribution of toxins among the three species of Corbicula clams, both C. leana and C. sandai toxins were closely similar in stability and mol. wt to the C. japonica toxin.

Arkawa, I., M. Sugita, O. Itasaka and T. Hori. 1968. Occurrence of three phosphosphingolipids other than ceramide aminoethylphosphonate in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula sandai. Memoirs, Faculty of Education, Shiga University of Natural Sciences 18:41 46.

Arnold, G. L. 1994. An analysis of phenotypic variation in four North Carolinian populations of the exotic mussel Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774). Honors Essay: Dept. of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 62 pp.

Arriola, F. J. and D. K. Villaluz. 1939. Snail fishing and duck raising in Laguna de Bay, Luzon, Philipp. (sic). Journal of Science (Manila) 69(2):173 187.

The use of Corbicula manilensis as a food in the Philippines is discussed.

Arthur, J. F. and N. W. Cederquist. 1976. Sediment Transport Studies in the Delta-Mendota Canal and the California Aqueduct. Proceedings of the Third Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference, Denver, Colorado, March 22-25. Water Resources Counci (Washington, D.C.), Sedimentation Committee. pp 4-88 - 4-100.

The Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC), completed in 1951, has experienced capacity problems, currently attributed to a combination of design deficiency and the accumulation of sediment and clam deposits. The findings of studies conducted in 1973-74 on the sediment-clam deposition problem in the DMC were summarized and it was concluded that sediment in the water is bound by the excreta of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula manilensis). This accumulation of sediment-clam deposits causes a reduction in canal capacity, in addition to the design deficiency loss. Also, sediment transport characteristics of the DMC and the California Aqueduct were compared. Significant differences between the two intake facilities were indicated. Approximately 70% of the sediment entering the Aqueduct was deposited in Clifton Court Forebay and Bethany Reservoir, while only 10% was deposited in the DMC intake channel. The difference in sediment deposition was attributed to differences in design and operation of the intake facilities. The concentration of total suspended solids entering the DMC was found to vary directly with total delta export and vary inversely with the solids concentration of the Sacramento River, the primary source of delta export water.

Asahina, E. 1941. An ecological study of Corbicula japonica group, the brackish water bivalve, with special reference to the environmental factors of its habitat in Hokkaido. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 10:43 152. [Japanese with English summary]

Asahina, E. 1943. Bottom fauna in the coastal lakes of Tokachi. I. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 55(4):137 154. [Japanese]

Limnological studies of the benthos of Yudo numa, one of four coastal lakes of Tokachi, Hokkaido, were performed in autumn 1942. The lake is brackish and is divided into lower, middle, and upper basin. The molluscs, especially Cingula kurilensis and Macoma balthica, dominate the benthos. The pH is low throughout and where lowest, the molluscs are few in number. The high concentration of dissolved calcium in the lower basin may be due to the large number of shells present. The high productivity of the sandy substrata is due to Corbicula japonica. With respect to productivity, the lake belongs to the first order of brackish lakes.

Asahina, E. 1943. Bottom fauna in the coastal lakes of Tokachi. II. Zoological Magazine (Tokyo) 55(6):207 115. [Japanese]

Limnological studies of the benthos of Oikamanai numa, one of four coastal lakes of Takachi, Hokkaido, were performed in the autumn of 1942. This brackish water lake consists of a narrow channel and a main basin. The channel, with high salinity and sandy bottom, is 3.6 m deep at its deepest point. The main basin, with low salinity and muddy substratum, is 0.5   0.7 m deep. The bottom fauna of the channel is represented by Corbicula japonica and Nereis japonica. In the main basin, Chironomus larvae and Limnodrilus sp. dominate. The weight of production of the channel is large (280 g/m3) owing to the existence of C. japonica. Notes on the benthos of Chobushinuma and Horokayanto, both belonging to the four lakes of Tokachi, are also given.

Asaka, A. and M. Sakai. 1981. Acute toxicity of Validamycin A to some fresh water organisms. Journal of the Takeda Research Laboratories 40(1 2):83 89. [Japanese with English summary]

Acute toxicity of Validamycin A to fish, Crustacea, and molluscs (including Corbicula sandai Reinhardt, 1878) was investigated at 23.5oC. The 48 hr. TLm was greater than 40 ppm.

Attaway, M. 1992. The effect of season, reproductive state, and temperature on the uptake and depuration of lead acetate by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Master of Science Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham. vi + 65 pp.

Atwill, E. R. 1998. Corbicula fluminea as an environmental assay for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. Technical Completion Report, University of California Water Resources Center (Davis, California). v + 42 pp.

Aucour, A.-M., S. M. F. Sheppard and R. Savoye. 2003. δ13C of fluvial mollusk shells (Rhone River): A proxy for dissolved inorganic carbon? Limnology and Oceanography 48(6):2186-2193.

The relationship between the delta super(13)C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and modern mollusk aragonite from rivers was calibrated for the purpose of reconstructing DIC paleochemistry from the shell record. The δ13C values of aragonitic bivalves (Dreissena polymorpha, Corbicula fluminea), prosobranch gastropods (Bithynia tentaculata, Theodoxus fluviatilis, Viviparus viviparus), and an air-breathing pulmonate gastropod (Limnea auricularia) were analyzed from several locations on the Rhone River (-13.7 ppt to -6.0 ppt) and its major tributary, the Saone River (-11.4 ppt to -10.2 ppt). The δ13CDIC varied from -11.5 ppt to -7.5 ppt, and the δ13C of particulate inorganic matter (POM) varied from -31.7 ppt to -25.4 ppt. At a given site, the δ13C of all species except the pulmonate were within 1 ppt of each other. Whole-shell δ13C correlated positively with δ13CDIC, with a slope close to unity. Bioaragonite-DIC fractionations were 0-1.5 ppt for bivalves and 0-2.7 ppt for gastropods (excluding the pulmonates). Applying these fractionations, bivalves that live in open water are a reliable proxy, monitoring the average δ13CDIC value to within its natural similar to 2ppt temporal variation within the growth period. For the suspension feeders (bivalves) using POM as a food source, the δ13C of whole shells and bulk POM indicated that the incorporation of carbon derived from respiratory sources lay in the range 10-30%. Fine-scale analyses of growth increments of C. fluminea could not be related simply to δ13C DIC because metabolic and seasonal variations in δ13CDIC produced similar isotopic fluctuations (≤ 2.5ppt).

Audoin, J. V. 1827. Explication des Plaches. IN: Descriptions de l'Egypte ou Recueil des Observations et des Recherches qui ont ete Faites en Egypte Pendant l'Expedition de l'Armée Francaise, M. J. C. de Savigny (Paris, 1917).

Cyrena consobrina is discussed from Egypt and figured (Pl. 7, Fig. 7).

Ax, P. and A. Schmidt-Rhaesa. 1992. The fastening of egg capsules of Multipeniata Nasonov, 1927 (Prolecithophora, Platyhelminthes) on bivalves -- an adaptation to living conditions in soft bottom. Microfauna Marina 7:167-175.

Multipeniata from Jusan Lake (Japan, Aomori Prefecture) fastens its egg capsules to the shell of living Corbicula japonica (Bivalvia). The capsules are mainly deposited at the hinge region of the shell. This phenomenon is interpreted as an evolutionary adaptation to the invasion of a soft bottom habitat.

Abaychi, J. K. and Y. Z. Mustafa. 1988. The Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea: An indicator of trace metal pollution in the Shatt al-Arab River, Iraq. Environmental Pollution 54(1):109-122.

The potential of Corbicula fluminea (Müller) as an indicator for trace metal pollution was investigated. Laboratory experiments show that Corbicula has the capability to accumulate and eliminate trace metals in relation to their concentrations in ambient water. However, an effect of individual size was observed. Seasonal variations in the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in Corbicula, water and particulate matter from the upper section of the Shatt al-Arab River were studied. Sediment samples were also analysed. Metal concentrations were determined by means of flameless AAS. It was found that Corbicula is a suitable bio-indicator for monitoring of trace metal pollution. Metal concentrations in Corbicula tissues correlated better with their corresponding concentrations in particulate matter than with the dissolved form.

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