V2X-Related Technology Terms and Concepts Intelligent and connected vehicles come equipped with advanced devices such as sensors, controllers and actuators while combining modern communication and network technologies to enable information sharing and exchange between vehicles and vehicles, vehicles and pedestrians, vehicles and infrastructure, and vehicles and the cloud to deliver a safe, efficient, comfortable and fuel-saving driving experience. Intelligent and connected vehicles also possess functions such as complicated environment perception, intelligent decision making and collaborative control. They are designed to ultimately perform all the driving tasks that a human driver can (the definition in China’s Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Technology Roadmap). Connected Vehicle (V2X) Technology – which includes vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) technologies – represents one of GM’s most promising solutions for addressing safety, mobility and environmental challenges. GM has been working with other stakeholders for more than a decade to help establish royalty-free Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) standards in the U.S. and Europe, which are now ready to be used with V2X technologies. GM has been a leader in the development of V2X since 2002 and was the first automaker to make a commitment to bring connected vehicle technology to the market. Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V)incorporates other more specific types of communication:
Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication technologies allow a vehicle to transmit and receive messages about speed, position, heading, brake status, and other information to and from nearby vehicles. Examples of vehicle to vehicle applications include Control Loss Warning, Forward Collision Warning, Blind Spot Warning and Intersection Movement Assist.
Based on DSRC and positioning technology, V2V offers an operational range of up to 300 meters between vehicles to facilitate identification of intersecting paths that may potentially result in a collision if no driver or vehicle action is taken.
The longer detection distance and ability to “see” around corners or “through” other vehicles helps V2V-equipped vehicles perceive some threats sooner than sensors, cameras or radar can, and warn drivers accordingly.
Additionally, a V2V system is not subject to the same weather, light or cleanliness constraints associated with vehicle-resident sensors (e.g., cameras and lidar).
Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication technologies allow a vehicle to “talk” with traffic lights and other infrastructure components with the aim of improving traffic safety and/or efficiency. This allows vehicles to receive information, including the timing of traffic lights and alerts from other roadside devices, as demonstrated by features such as Red Light Violation Warning and Reduced Speed Zone Warning.
Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P) is a potential peer-to-peer wireless capability that could warn drivers about V2P-enabled pedestrians who might be stepping into the roadway from behind a parked vehicle or V2P-enabled bicyclists who are riding in the vehicle’s blind spot.
V2V Safety Applications that GM will demonstrate at Tech Day include:
Electronic Emergency Brake Light (EEBL): Warns the driver of another vehicle that is braking hard farther ahead in the flow of traffic. The braking vehicle does not necessarily have to be in the direct line of sight of the following vehicle, and can be separated by other vehicles. The EEBL warning is particularly useful when the driver’s line of sight is obstructed by other vehicles or bad weather conditions such as fog or heavy rain.
* An application enabled by V2V alone.
Intersection Movement Assist (IMA): Warns the driver when it is not safe to enter an intersection due to a high probability of collision with other vehicles at controlled (with stoplights) and uncontrolled (with stop, yield or no signs) intersections.
* An application enabled by V2V alone.
Forward Collision Warning (FCW): Warns the driver of an impending rear-end collision with another vehicle ahead in traffic in the same lane and direction of travel.
* The FCW systems using radar or cameras cannot provide a warning fast enough for very high-speed rear-end collisions, especially when a block-of-sight vehicle exists and cuts out at the last second. V2V, in contrast, has that capability based on its longer range (up to 300 meters) regardless of weather and/or block-of-sight conditions. Thus, preventing rear-end collisions is one area where V2V can provide some benefits not potentially covered by radar- and camera-based systems.
Blind Spot Warning/Lane Change Warning (BSW/LCW): Warns the driver during a lane change attempt if the blind spot zone into which the driver intends to switch is, or will soon be, occupied by another vehicle traveling in the same direction. The application also provides the driver with advisory information if another vehicle in an adjacent lane is positioned in the original vehicle’s blind spot zone when a lane change is not being attempted.
Control Loss Warning (CLW): Warns the driver when a vehicle ahead is in an emergency control loss event (defined as activation of the anti-lock braking system, traction control system or stability control system).
V2I Safety Applications that GM will demonstrate at Tech Day include:
Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW): Warns the driver of an approaching signalized intersection when the potential of running a red light is determined based on vehicle kinematic data and data received from the infrastructure, including Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) and intersection geometry (MAP) information.
Reduced Speed Zone Warning (RSZW): Provides information to the driver when approaching a work zone and vehicle speed is higher than the speed limit or changes in the roadway such as a lane closure require a lane change.
Level of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles
Intelligent and connected vehicles involve intelligent technology and connectivity technology. The level of intelligent and connected vehicles can be rated based on these two kinds of technology. The China Level of Connected Vehicles is based on the SAE Level of Driving Automation while taking China's complicated road traffic conditions into account. Typical road conditions that intelligent systems can adapt to are included in different levels of driving automation.
SAE Level of Driving Automation
Level 1: Driver Assistance – An automated system in the vehicle can sometimes assist the human driver in conducting some parts of the driving task.
Level 2: Partial Automation – An automated system in the vehicle can conduct some parts of the driving task, while the human driver continues to monitor the driving environment and performs the rest of the driving tasks.
Level 3: Conditional Automation – An automated system can both conduct some parts of the driving task and monitor the driving environment in some instances, but the human driver must be ready to take back control when the automated system requests.
Level 4: High Automation – An automated system can conduct driving tasks and monitor the driving environment, and the human driver need not take back control. However, the automated system can operate only in certain environments and under certain conditions.
Level 5: Full Automation – An automated system can perform all driving tasks under all conditions that a human driver could.
Level 1: Information Interaction Assistance – An automated system in the vehicle can sometimes assist the human driver in conducting some parts of the driving task.
Level 2: Collaborative Perception – Based on vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure, vehicle to pedestrian, and vehicle to background communication technologies, the vehicle can obtain real-time information on the surrounding traffic environment and perceptive information from vehicle-resident sensors.
Level 3: Collaborative Decision Making and Control – Based on vehicle to vehicle, vehicle to infrastructure, vehicle to pedestrian, and vehicle to background communication technologies, the vehicle can obtain real-time reliable information on the surrounding traffic environment and vehicle decision-making information. Meanwhile, traffic participants – including vehicles and the infrastructure – can collaboratively make decisions and implement controls.