Early Modern Period



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c. Eventually – grandson – Philip V can rule

1. Spain loses land to England

2. Spain can’t unite with France

f. By 1750 military strength starting to fade

g. Still center of culture for Europe

h. Accomplishments

i. Established academies for study of commerce and science

ii. Close ties between the Catholic Church and the French state formed

iii. Solidified autocratic control over France

iv. Most ornate and expensive palace in Europe was built at Versailles

v. Sponsored writers and musicians

vi. Engaged in costly wars that strained the royal treasury

i. Characteristics of absolute monarchies

i. maintenance of strong armies

ii. establishment of elaborate bureaucracies

iii. high taxes to support the frequent wars

iv. believed in divine right of kings

v. territorial expansion a goal

j. Characteristics of European nation states

i. well-suited to continent full of various cultural groups

ii. governs people who share a common culture, common language

iii. has definite geographic boundaries

iv. enjoys sovereignty

v. created rivalries and divisions that often led to war

2. Social

G. England

1. Political

a. Mid 1400s war between two powerful families

i. The War of the Roses

ii. House of Lancaster vs. the House of York

iii. New ruling dynasty – the Tudors – Henry VIII and Elizabeth

iv. Accomplishments

a. broke with the Catholic Church and fromed the Church of England

1. monarch at the head

b. Wales was absorbed into the domain of England

c. Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588

1. Marked beginning of Spanish decline, Egnland ascendancy

d. Encouraged the arts – High Renaissance bloomes

e. Literary achievement notable – Ben Johnson and William Shakespeare

a, Henry VIII – 1509-1547 - Church of England

i. Henry VIII nullified pope’s authority in England – Act of Supremacy

a. Divorce wife and marry Ann Boleyn for male heir

1. Daughter was Elizabeth – oversaw golden/bloody age

b. Elizabethan Age – 1558-1603

i. Commercial expansion

a. Muscovy Co mpany – first joint stock company – to Russia

b. British East India Company

ii. Exploration and colonization in the New World

a. Sped up after defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588

b. Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe

c. First English colonies in Virginia – Jamestown

iii. Religious battles unleashed by Protestant Reformation

a. Anglicans – Church of England battling Catholics

b. Puritans regularly persecuted

c. James I power in 1607

i. Attempted to accommodate Catholics and Puritans – problems persisted

a. Puritans didn’t recognize king for religious matters

1. James claims divine right

2. Pilgrims find a new home in New World

d. Charles I – 1625

i. Petition of Right – desperate for money – Parliament has power of purse

a. Limited taxes

b. Forbid unlawful imprisonment

c. Ignores petition after getting funds – doesn’t let parliament meet 11 yrs

ii. 1640 Scotland doesn’t like Charles rule

a. Parliament called back

1. Long parliament – 20 years – 1640-1660

2. Refused to give him money to fight Irish

3. Charles sends troops to arrest parliament members

4. Leads to civil war

b. Roundheads – Oliver Cromwell vs. Charles’s Cavaliers

1. Roundheads win – king executed

2. Cromwell rose to power as Lord Protector

a. Beginnings of English Commonwealth

e. Oliver Cromwell

i. Religious intolerance

a. Violence against Catholics/Irish

1. Encouraged Protestants to move to Northern Ireland

a. Led to conflicts later

2. Much resentment

ii. Upon Cromwell’s death – Charles II brought to throne for limited monarchy

a. Stuart Restoration

f. Charles II – 1660

i. Closet Catholic – gave religious rights to people

ii. Habeus Corpus – no unlawful arrests without due process

g. James II – openly Catholic

i. Believed in Divine Right of Kings

a. People feared he’d make a Catholic nation

ii. Fled to France under Glorious Revolution

a. Replaced in 1688 by son-in-law and daughter – William and Mary

h. William and Mary – 1689

i. Protestant rulers of the Netherlands

ii. English Bill of Rights – created constitutional monarchy

a. England’s future rulers Anglican

b. Powers limited

c. laws passed by parliament now laws of the land

d. all taxes only levied by parliament

e. citizens allowed to petition monarch with grievances

f. freedom of speech within Parliament

iii. Radical replacement of sitting king, set precedent for making royalty figureheads

2. Social

a. Elizabethan Age

i. Shakespeare wrote his masterpieces

H. Tokugawa Japan

1. Political

a. History

i. The Warring States Period – 1467-1600 – Era of Independent Lords

a. Open defiance of the Shogun led to political fragmentation

i. small regions fighting against each other

ii. Governed by a series of military governments – shogunates

iii. By late 1300s/1400s, becoming increasingly decentralized

b. 200 daimyo – feudal lords fought each other

i. Samurais followed bushido – way of the warrior

1. Some left masters/masters killed - ronin

c. “samurai military aristocracy” further established

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