Environmental and Social Management Framework for the Costa Rica Telecommunications Sector Modernization Project



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E1930

V1

Government of Costa Rica



Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunications

Universal Service Fund for Telecommunications

(FONATEL)




Environmental and Social Management Framework for the Costa Rica Telecommunications Sector Modernization Project


Report


Table of Contents


Acronyms 6

Excecutive Summary 8

Introduction 8

Legislative and Institutional Background 9

Environmental and Social baseline 10

Potential impacts of the Project 11

Reference Framework for the Environmental Management of Telecommunication Projects 12

Screening, appraisal and implementation process for FONATEL 14

Action Plan for the Implementation of the Reference Framework 15

1 Introduction 16

1.1 Objective and Scope of the ESMF 16

1.2 Contents of the ESMF 16

1.3 Applicable guidelines 17



2 Project description 18

2.1 Background 18

2.2 Objective 18

2.3 Key Development Issues and Rationale for World Bank Involvement 18



2.3.1 Proposed World Bank Objective(s) 20

2.3.2 Preliminary description of the World Bank Project Components 20

2.4 World Bank Safeguard Policies Triggered 21



3 Legislative, Regulatory and institutional framework 24

3.1 Executive Summary 24

3.2 Institutional Roles and Responsibilities for the Telecommunications and Environmental Sector 24

3.2.1 Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAE) 24

3.2.2 National Environmental Technical Secretariat (SETENA) 26

3.2.3 The Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) 28

Description 28



3.2.4 Radiográfica Costarricense S.A. (RACSA) 28

3.2.5 Radio Control Office 29

3.2.6 Public Services Regulatory Agency (ARESEP) 30

3.2.7 Ministry of Health 31

3.2.8 Ministry of Labor and Social Security 32

3.2.9 Other Entities 33

3.3 Legal Framework Of Costa Rica 34

Table 3.1 Costa Rica’s Legal Framework 34

3.4 Legislative Review of the Telecommunications Sector 36



3.4.1 Relevant Regulations for Managing Environmental Impacts 37

Telecommunications Infrastructure in Protected Areas 37

EIA Regulations and Permitting Procedures 38

3.4.2 Laws Regulating the Exploitation of Telecommunications Services 40

3.4.3 Environmental, OHS, and Labor Regulations Applicable to Construction Works 41

3.5 Gap Assessment of the Legislative and Institutional Framework in Costa Rica 48



3.5.1 Analysis of Costa Rica’s Legislative and Institutional Framework 48

3.5.2 Gap Analysis of the World Bank Safeguard Policies 49

3.6 Future Regulatory Overview 57



3.6.1 General Telecommunications Law (File N°16398) 57

3.6.2 Law for the Strengthening and Modernization of Public Entities of the Telecommunications Sector (File N° 16524) 58

3.7 Options for Modernizing the Existing Framework 58



4 General environmental and social baseline 60

4.1 General environmental baseline in Costa Rica 60



4.1.1 Geography and Topography 60

Figure 4.1. Map of Central America 60



4.1.2 Geology and vulnerability to natural disasters 61

Figure 4.2 Most important earthquakes from 1983 to 2003 62

Figure 4.3 Major Volcanoes of Costa Rica 63

4.1.3 Hydrology 64

4.1.4 Climate 64

Figure 4.4 Precipitations in Costa Rica 64



4.1.5 Ecosystems 65

4.1.6 Vegetation 65

4.1.7 Wetlands and Mangroves 66

4.1.8 Land use 66

Figure 4.5 Extent of Forest and other wooded land 66



4.1.9 Biodiversity in Costa Rica and Protected Areas 66

Figure 4.6 Conservation Areas as defined by SINAC 67



4.1.10 Migratory Birds Corridors 67

Figure 4.7 Bird migration routes to the South (winter migration) 69

Figure 4.8 Bird migration routes to the North (spring migration) 70

4.2 General socioeconomic baseline in Costa Rica 71



4.2.1 Political Divisions 71

Figure 4.9 Political Map of Costa 71



4.2.2 Population 71

Figure 4.10 Distribution of Population in Urban and Rural Areas 72

Figure 4.11 Distribution of Population per region 72

4.2.3 Indigenous Communities 72

Figure 4.12 Indigenous Reserves in Costa Rica 73



4.2.4 Economy in Costa Rica 73

4.2.5 Telecommunication infrastructure 74

4.2.6 Other infrastructure 74

4.3 Rapid risk assessment baseline 74



4.3.1 Technical Risk Assessment 75

Figure 4.13 Environmental Constraints 75



4.3.2 Environmental Risk Assessment 76

4.3.3 Socioeconomic Risk Assessment 76

5 potential l impacts of the project 77

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Potential Environmental Impacts 77

5.2.1 Terrestrial Habitat Alteration 78

5.2.2 Migratory Birds 78

5.2.3 Aquatic Habitat Alteration 79

5.2.4 Visual Impacts 79

5.2.5 Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste 80

5.2.6 Emissions to Air 81

5.2.7 Noise 81

Table 5.1 Potential Environmental Impacts 81

5.3 Potential socio-economic, community health and safety impacts 83

5.3.1 Investments in the telecommunications sector 83

5.3.2 Economic conditions 83

5.3.3 Indigenous Communities 84

5.3.4 Land acquisition and modification of land use 85

5.3.5 Cultural and archaeological findings 85

5.3.6 Public health and EMF 85

5.3.7 Public Safety 85

5.3.8 Physical and aircraft security 86

Table 5.2 Potential Socio-economic Impacts 86

5.4 Potential Occupational Health And Safety Risks 88

5.4.1 Contingencies 88

5.4.2 Electrical safety 88

5.4.3 Electromagnetic fields (occupational) 88

5.4.4 Optical fiber safety 88

5.4.5 Elevated and overhead work 88

5.4.6 Fall protection 89

5.4.7 Confined space entry 89

5.4.8 Motor vehicle safety 89

Table 5.3 Potential Occupational Health and Safety Hazards 90



6 Reference framework for the environmental management of telecommunications projects 92

6.1 Project Implementing Agency 92

Figure 6.1. Screening, appraisal and implementation process for FONATEL 93

6.2 Project screening, review and implementation Process 94

6.3 Step 1: Site Selection and Screening 94

Table 6-2 Risk assessment for subproject categories 95



6.3.1 Evaluation Criteria 95

Table 6.3 Pass-fail criteria 95



6.3.2 Evaluation of Site Criteria 97

6.4 Step 2: Categorization and Appraisal process 97



6.4.1 Categorization 97

Table 6.4. Category scoring in appraisal procedure following Form D1 97

Figure 6.5. Decision paths in the project categorization and appraisal process by SETENA 99

6.4.2 Appraisal 99

6.5 Step 3: Approval, Disclosure and Public Consultation 102



6.5.1 Approval 102

6.5.2 Disclosure and Public Consultation 102

6.6 Step 4: Implementation 103

Figure 6.6. Subproject implementation supervision 104

6.7 Step 5: Monitoring and evaluation 105



7 Action plan for implementation of the reference Framework and urgent regulatory measures 107

7.1 Contents 107

7.2 Action Plan for the Implementation of the Reference Framework 107

7.2.1 Capacity building and technical assistance requirements 107

Table 6.2 Action Plan for implementation of the framework 109

7.3 Guidelines for the development of regulations for environmental protection 112

7.4 Guidelines for the development of regulations for sharing of telecommunication infrastructure 112

7.5 Environmental and Social Assessment Manual for FONATEL Projects 113

8 Public consultation and disclosure process 114

8.1 Process for Public Consultation 114

Table 8.1 Key stakeholder groups identified 114

8.2 Proposed Disclosure Plan 114



LIST OF ANNEXES
Annex 1 World Bank Group, Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines: Telecommunications, Environmental, Occupational Health and Safety, Community Health and Safety (April 30, 2007)
Annex 2 EBRD Sub-Sectoral Environmental Guidelines for Telecommunications
Annex 3 World Bank Safeguard Polices
Annex 4 GIS Maps
Annex 5 Inventory of International Best Practice for Managing Environmental Impacts in the Telecommunications Sector
Annex 6 Rapid Environmental Valorization (Valoración Ambiental Rápida or VAR)
Annex 7 Protocol for Establishing Telecommunications Facilities in Costa Rica
Annex 8 Measures for Mitigating Environmental and Social Impacts
Annex 9 Environmental and Social Assessment Manual for Subprojects Funded by FONATEL
Annex 10 Sample Language of Environmental Contract Clauses
Annex 11 World Bank Environmental Site Sensitivity Compliance Criteria
Annex 12 Content of an Environmental Monitoring Report
Annex 13 Guidelines for Regulations for Environmental Protection in the Telecommunications Sector
Annex 14 Photo Log of the Environmental Assessment during ERM site visit (June 2007)
Annex 15 Data Sources
Anexo 16 Marco de Planificación para Poblaciones Indígenas (IPPF)

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