Experiment Guide of Sectional Anatomy Edited by Li Zhenping Liu Shuwei Ding juan Shan Dong University School Of Medicine



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Experiment Guide of Sectional

Anatomy

Edited by Li Zhenping Liu Shuwei Ding juan

Shan Dong University School Of Medicine

2005. 4
Purpose: Comparing the transverse, sagittal and coronal continuous sectional anatomy with ultrasound, CT and MRI images based on the knowledge of systematical anatomy and regional anatomy in order to master the morphology and location variation regularity of main structures in continuous sections and provide detailed anatomy for modern imaging diagnosis and clinic surgery.
Chapter 1 Head

  1. Master general baselines of sectional anatomy of head

Reid base line (RBL)

Frankfort horizontal plane,FHP

Supraorbitomeatal line, SML

Intercommissural line



  1. Bony marks

superciliary arch, frontal tuber, parietal tube, zygomatic arch, zygomatic arch, mamillary process, lateral occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line

3Cranial bones, cerebral gyri and cerebral sulci

4Observation of cranial continuous sections
Section 3 Serial transverse sections of head

  1. Transverse section through sagittal suture

key structures: parietal bone, sagittal suture

  1. Transverse section through superior sagittal sinus and superior cerebral vein

Key structures: superior sagittal sinus, superior cerebral vein

3. Transverse section through the paracentral lobule

Key structures: medial frontal gyrus, paracentral lobule, precuneus

4. Transverse section through upper part of central sulcus

This is 13th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the frontal bone and parietal bone .



Key structures: central sulcus, frontal lobe, parietal lobe

5. Transverse section through lower part of paracentral lobule

This is 11th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the frontal bone, parietal bone and paracentral lobule



Key structures: precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule

6. Transverse section through upper part of cingulate gyrus

This is 10th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the cingulate sulcus, cingulated gyrus and parietooccipital sulcus



Key structures: cingulated gyrus, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe

7. Transverse section through the centrum semiovale

This is 9th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the lower part of cingulate gyrus and structures superior to the corpus callosum.



Key structures: centrum semiovale, cerebral falx

8. Transverse section through upper part of lateral ventricle

This is 8th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through upper part of lateral ventricle and trunk of corpus callosum.



Key structures: trunk of corpus callosum, lateral ventricle, caudate nucleus

9. Transverse section through upper part of third ventricle

This is 7th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through interventricular foramen.



Key structures: basal nucleus, internal capsule, lateral ventricle, third ventricle

10. Transverse section through pineal body

This is 6th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the internal capsule, interthalamic adhesion and superior colliculus.



Key structures: basal nucleus, internal capsule, pineal body

11. Transverse section through anterior commissure

This is 5th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through the anterior commissure and superior colliculus.



Key structures: anterior commissure, midbrain, cerebellum

12. Transverse section through suprasellar cistern

This is 4th section superior to the Reid base line and pass through mamillary body.



Key structures: mamillary body, midbrain, cerebellum

13. Transverse section through optic chiasma

This is 3rd section superior to the Reid base line and pass through optic chiasma and infundibulum.



Key structures: optic chiasma, infundibulum, fourth ventricle

14. Transverse section through hypophysis

This is 2 nd section superior to the Reid base line and pass through hypophysis and sphenoid sinus.



Key structures: hypophysis, cavernous sinus, pons, cerebellum

15. Transverse section through carotid canal

This is 1 st section superior to the Reid base line and pass through sphenoidal sinus.



Key structures: carotid canal, sphenoidal sinus, frontal sinus, ethmoidal sinus

16. Transverse section through foramen magnum of occipital bone

This is 1 st section inferior to the Reid base line and pass through foramen magnum of occipital bone.



Key structures: head of mandible, medulla oblongata, ethmoidal sinus
Section 4 Serial transverse sections of maxillofacial region

  1. Transverse section through the superior rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle

This section passes through the superior rectus muscle and superior oblique muscle, which is the 5th section above the Reid’s base line .

Key structures : Orbit, Superior rectus muscle , Superior oblique muscle, Frontal sinus.

  1. Transverse section through canalis opticus

This section passing through optic nerve and optic commissure , which is the 4th section above the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: ethmoidal sinus,eyeball,tear gland,optic nerve,optic chiasma,midbrain,tentorium of cerebellum

  1. Transverse section through cavernous sinus

This section passing through cavernous sinus,which is the 3rd section above the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: sphenoidal sinus,cavernous sinus,ethmoidal sinus,orbit,eyeball, zygomatic,bone, pons, cerebellum.

  1. Transverse section through inferior orbital fissure

This section passing through inferior orbital fissure,which is the 2 nd section above the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: sphenoid bone, sphenoidal sinus,sphenoidal sinus, nasal septum,pons, cerebellum, temporal bone.

5. Transverse section through head of mandible

This section passing through Reid’s base line ,which is the 1st section above the Reid’s base line.



Key structures: condylar process, pterygopalatine spaces,nasal septum,maxillary sinus, skull base,pons, cerebellar peduncle.

6. Transverse section through neck of mandible

This section passing through the upper of great occipital foramen,which is the 1st section below the Reid’s base line.



Key structures: tonsilla of cerebellum, posterior lacerate foramen,nasal pharynx,nasal pharynx,parapharyngeal space, parotid,infratemporal space

7. Transverse section through atlantooccipital joint

This section passing through atlantooccipital joint,which is the 2nd section below the Reid’s base line.



Key structures: maxillary sinus,pharyngeal recess,parotid,atlas,infratemporal space,tonsilla of cerebellum,cerebellomedullary cistern

On this section, the inferior nasal concha is lateral to nasal septum;the maxillary sinus is lateral to inferior meatus of nose;the infratemporal space is post-lateral to the maxillary sinus. From the medial to llateral , internal pterygoid muscle,external pterygoid muscle,temporal process of mandible,condylar process,infratemporal space,temporal muscle and jugomaxillary muscle are seen .



  1. Transverse section through atlanto-axial joint

This section passing through atlanto-axial joint,which is the 3rd section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: atlanto-axial joint, parotid gland , pterygomandibular space,masseter space.

  1. Transverse section through upper part of vertebra dentata This section passing through upper part of vertebra dentatawhich is the 4th section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: palatine tonsil,parotid gland, retropharyngeal space,pretvertebral space,parapharyngeal space

  1. Transverse section through inferior part of vertebra dentata

This section passing through inferior part of vertebra dentata,which is the 5th section below the Reid’s base line.
Key structures: faucial tonsil, uvula,parotid gland,tongue, lateropharyngeal space

  1. Transverse section through mandibular angle

This section passing through mandibular angle,which is the 6th section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: tongue,throat,submandibular space,retropharyngeal space

  1. Transverse section through superior part of mandibular body

This section passing through superior part of mandibular body,which is the 7th section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: tongue, sublingual space

  1. Transverse section through laryngopharynx and epiglotti

This section passing through body of 4th cervical vertebra,which is the 8th section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: sublingual space, submaxillary space ,submandibular gland,bifurcation of common carotid artery

  1. Transverse section through basihyal bone

This section passing through 4 th , 5 th cervical intervertebral discs and basihyal bone,which is the 9th section below the Reid’s base line.

Key structures: larynx,lingual bone,epiglottis
Section 5 Serial sagittal sections of head

  1. Right surface of the median sagittal plane

Key structures: corpus callosum, cerebral hemisphere, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, hypophysis

  1. Left surface of the median sagittal plane

Key structures: corpus callosum, marginal ramus of cingulate sulcus, fornix, central sulcus

  1. The sagittal section through genu of internal capsule

This is 2 nd section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through genu of internal capsule.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, internal capsule, tentorium of cerebellum, cavernous sinus

  1. The sagittal section through globus pallidus

This is 3 rd section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through right globus pallidus.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, internal capsule, cerebellum

  1. The sagittal section through putamen

This is 4th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through right putamen.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, cerebellum, facial cranium

  1. The sagittal section through internal jugular vein

This is 5th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through right internal jugular vein.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, cerebellum, internal pterygoid muscle, external pterygoid muscle

  1. The sagittal section through styloid process

This is 6th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through right styloid process.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, cerebellum, parotid gland, external pterygoid muscle

  1. The sagittal section through medial part of articulatio mandibularis

This is 7th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through medial part of right articulatio mandibularis.

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, cerebellum, parotid gland

9. The sagittal section through lateral part of articulatio mandibularis

This is 8th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through lateral part of right articulatio mandibularis.



Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral sulci, articulatio mandibularis, parotid gland

  1. The sagittal section through external acoustic meatus

This is 9th section right to the median sagittal plane and pass through external acoustic meatus

Key structures: squamous part of temporal , temporalis, parotid gland
Section 6 Serial conoral sections of head

1. Coronal section through frontal sinus and frontal pole of cerebrum



Key structures: frontal sinus, frontal pole of cerebrum, nasal septum

2. Coronal section through frontal crest

Key structures: frontal lobe, fossa orbitalis, nasal cavity

3. Coronal section through crista galli of ethmoid bone

Key structures: frontal lobe, fossa orbitalis, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, oral cavity

4. Coronal section through middle part of maxillary sinus

Key structures: frontal lobe, fossa orbitalis, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, oral cavity



5. Coronal section through posterior part of maxillary sinus

Key structures: frontal area, cingulate gyrus, fossa orbitalis, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, oral cavity

6. Coronal section through temporal pole

Key structures: frontal area, cingulate gyrus, fossa orbitalis, temporal pole, sphenomaxillary fossa

7. Coronal section through genu of corpus callosum

Key structures: genu of corpus callosum, anterior horn of lateral ventricle, anterior clinoid process, external pterygoid muscle

  1. Coronal section through hypophysis

Key structures: hypophysis, Broca area, septal area, nucleus accumbens septi, internal capsule

9. Coronal section through mamillary body

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, hippocampus, internal capsule

10. Coronal section through red nucleus and substantia nigra



Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, lateral ventricle, internal capsule, red nucleus, substantia nigra

  1. Coronal section through cerebellar peduncle

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, transverse temporal gyri, internal geniculate body, external geniculate body, inferior olivary nucleus

  1. Coronal section through pineal body and quadrigeminal bodies

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, pineal body, quadrigeminal bodies

  1. Coronal section through splenium of corpus callosum

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, splenium of corpus callosum, tentorium of cerebellum

  1. Coronal section through posterior horn of lateral ventricle

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, optic radiation, cerebellum

  1. Coronal section through cerebellar falx

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, tentorium of cerebellum, cerebellar falx

  1. Coronal section through confluence of sinus

Key structures: cerebral gyri, cerebral suli, confluence of sinus

Imaging experiments

In negatoscope, observe CT and MRI images of head comparatively:

  1. cranial bones, cerebral sulci, cerebral gyri, basal ganglia region, cerebral ventricle, sella region

  2. geminate cistern: cistern of longitudinal fissure of cerebrum, cistern of lateral fossa of cerebrum, cistern of cerebral peduncle, cisterna ambiens, cistern of pontocerebellar trigone

  3. ungeminate cistern:

dorsal: cisterna pericallosa, cistern of velum interpostitum cistern of the great cerebral vein,cistern of corpus quadrigemina, superior cistern of cerebellum, cerebellomedullary cistern, cerebellar stream

ventral: cistern of lamina terminalis, chiasma cistern, interpedumcular cistern, pontine cistern, medullary cistern

4)maxillofacial region(fossa orbitalis, temporal bone, nose, paranasal sinus, pharynx, floor of mouth, salivary gland, fascia and interspace)


Section 8 Applied anatomy of cerebral vessels

  1. Observation of cerebral vessels

internal carotid artery, vertebral artery, segmentation, branches, course and distribution of anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery.

  1. Imaging experiments

In negatoscope, observe T2-weighted (transverse, sagittal, coronal sections) MRI images of head comparatively to identify internal carotid artery, vertebral artery, segmental representation of anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery.
Chapter 2 Cervical part

1. Observation of serial sectional anatomy cervical part

1) Observation of serial Transverse sectional anatomy of cervical part

2) Observation of layers of cervical fascia and the region of fascia

3) Observation of serial Transverse sectional anatomy of larynx



2. Imaging experiment

In negatoscope, observe CT and MRI images comparatively

1) Transverse sectional CT and MRI images of cervical part

2) Observation of Transverse sectional CT of larynx


Chapter 3 Thorax

1. Key structures of thorax touching:

jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphoid process, papillae, costal arch, rib, intercostal space



2. Successive observation of sectional specimen:

Transverse-Sectioanal Anatomy of thorax

Section 1: Transverse section Through 1st Thoracic Vertebral Body

Key structures: bronchus, esophagus, carotid sheath

Section 2: Transverse section Through Cupula of Pleura and Apex of Lung

Key structures: trachea, esophagus, cupula of pleura, apex of lung, subclavian artery, stellate ganglion, carotid sheath

Section 3: Transverse section Through Left and Right Venous Angles Uniting into Brachiocephalic Vein

Key structures: subclavian artery and vein, common carotid artery, trachea, esophagus, apex of lung

Section 4: Transverse section Through Jugular Notch

Key structures: apex of lung, trachea, blood vessels of neck root

Section 5: Transverse section Through 3rd Thoracic Vertebral Body

Key structures: 3rd thoracic vertebral body, three main branches of aortic arch, trachea, esophagus, thymus, left and right brachiocephalic veins

Section 6: Transverse section Through Confluence of Superior Vena Cava

Key structures: 4th thoracic vertebral body, bilateral pulmonary superior lobes, three main branches of aortic arch, bronchus and esophagus

Section 7: Transverse section Through Aortic Arch

Key structures: 4th thoracic intervertebral disc, 1st intercostal space, aortic arch, superior recess of pericardium, thymus, bilateral pulmonary superior lobes

Section 8: Transverse section Through Arch of Azygos Vein

Key structures: arch of azygos vein, 4th thoracic vertebral body, ascending aorta, descending aorta, superior recess of pericardium

Section 9: Transverse section Through Bifurcation of Pulmonary Trunk

Key structures: 5th thoracic vertebral body,pulmonary trunk,bifurcation of pulmonary trunk,left and right principal bronchi, bilateral pulmonary oblique fissures

Section 10: Transverse section Through Sinus of Pulmonary Trunk

Key structures: sinus of pulmonary trunk, left coronary artery, interlobar artery, middle bronchus, bronchus lobaris superior sinister

Section 11: Transverse section Through Superior Lobar Vein of Bilateral Lungs

Key structures: aortic sinus, right ventricular outflow tract, left and right superior pulmonary veins

Section 12: Transverse section Through Left and Right Inferior Pulmonary Vein

Key structures: left and right inferior pulmonary veins, bilateral ventricles and atriums, interatrial and interventricular septums, structures in hilum of lung

Section 13: Transverse section Through Common Basal Vein

Key structures: left and right ventricles, left and right atriums, interatrial and interventricular septums, superior and inferior trunks of bilateral pulmonary inferior basal veins

Section 14: Transverse section Through Three Chamberses Heart

Key structures: left and right ventricles, right atrium

Section 15: Transverse section Through Vena Caval Foramen

Key structures: left and right ventricles, right atrium

Section 16: Transverse section Through Left and Right Pulmonary Ligaments

Key structures: 6th costal cartilage, 8th and 9th thoracic intervertebral discs, left and right pulmonary ligaments, structures in posterior mediastinum

3. Imaging experiment

Comparative observation on negatoscope:

1) Mediastinal window on CT images (heart, sinus and recess of pericardium, great vessels, mediastinal space) and Transverse sectional MR images.

2) Sagittal and coronal sectional MR images of mediastinum (heart, sinus and recess of pericardium, great vessels, mediastinal space).

3) Sonogram of heart.

4) ATS map and Transverse section manifestation of pulmonary regional nodes.

5) Pulmonary window of 1st and 2nd hilums of lung on CT images.

6) Partition and CT images of pulmonary segments in Transverse section.

7) CT images of pleura and pleural recesses.


Chapter 4 Abdomen

1. The observation of the consecutive sectional specimens
Section 3 The consecutive transverse sectional specimens of the abdomen

1. Transversesection through the right fornix of the diaphragm (section one)

Key structures: diaphragm,right lobe of liver,inferior vena cave.

2. Transversesection through the second Porta Hepatis (section two)
Key structure: the second porta hepatis, stomach,coronary ligament.

3. Transverse section Through the Esophageal Hiatus (section three)

Key structure: esophageal hiatus,left heptic vein, intermediate hepatic vein, right hepatic vein,falciform ligament of liver, coronary ligament of liver.

4. Transverse section Through the Gastric cardia(section four)

Key structure: gastric cardia,bare area of live, bear area of stomach.

5. Transverse section Through Angular Part of left Hepatic Portal Vein (section five)

Key structure: angular part of left hepatic portal vein,liver,stomach,spleen.

6. Transverse section Through the Sagittal part of left Hepatic Portal Vein (section six)

Key structure: angular part of left hepatic portal vein,liver,stomach,spleen.

7. Transverse section Through the Porta Hepatis(section seven)

Key structure: right hepatic portal vein, hepatogastric ligament, right triangular ligament of liver.

8. Transverse section Through the Porta Hepatis inferiorly(section eight)

Key structure: liver pedicle,right notch of porta hepatis, right and left suprarenal gland,spleen, gastrosplenic ligament.

9Transverse section Through the CeliacTrunk(section nine)

Key structure: celiac trunk,omental foramen, lesser omentum, splenorenal ligament,perisplenic pace.

10Transverse section Through the superior Mesenteric Artery(section ten)

Key structure: superior mesenteric artery,portocaval space, pancreas, omental bursa.

11. Transverse section Through the Synthesis of the Hepatic Portal Vein(section eleven)

Key structure: synthesis of the hepatic portal vein,pancreas, omental bursa.

12. Transverse section Through the Hilus of the Kidney superiorly(section twelve)

Key structure:pancreas, common bile duct,kidney,renal vessals.

13. Transverse section Through the Hilus of the Kidney intermediately (section thirteen)

Key structure: head of pancreas, uncinate process of pancreas, duodenojejunal flexure, hilus of the kidney.

14. Transverse section Through the Hilus of the Kidney inferiorly(section fourteen)

Key structure: head of pancreas, hilus of the kidney, lumbar lymph node.

15. Transverse section Through the Head of Pancreas inferiorly(section fifteen)

Key structure: head of pancreas, common bile duct, superior mesenteric vein and artery.

16. Transverse section Through the Pars Horizontalis Duodeni(section sixteen)

Key structure: pars horizontalis duodeni,ampulla hepatopancreatica,inferior mesenterie artery.

17. Transverse section Through the 3th lumbar intervertebral disc(section seventeen)

Key structure: major duodenal papilla, mesentery of transverse part of colon, mesenterium.

18. Transverse section Through the Inferior Pole of Left Kidney(section eighteen)

Key structure: left and right kidney, mesenterium, left and right paracolic sulci.

19. Transverse section Through the Inferior Pole of Right Kidney (section nineteen)

Key structure: anterior and lateral wall of abdomen, right kidney, inferior vena cava.

20. Transverse section Through the Bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta (section twenty)

Key structure: left and right common iliac artery, mesenterium,left and right sinus of mesenterium.

21. Transverse section Through the 4 th Lumbar Intervertebral Disc (section twenty one)

Key structure: inferior vena cava,lumbar sympathetic trunk, mesenterium.

22. Transverse section Through the Composition of Inferior Vena Cava (section twenty two)

Key structure: left and right common iliac vein, umbilicus, jejunum, ileum.

23. Transverse section Through the Body of the 5th Lumber Vertebre inferiorly(section twenty three)

Key structure: ileocecal junction, ureter, jejunum, ileum.

24. Transverse section Through the 5 th Lumbar Intervertebral Disc (section twenty four)

Key structure: appendix, cecum, jejunum, ileum, sigmoid colon.

2. Imaging experiment

1. Intensified CT,MR imaging of transverse section of epigastric zone.

2. Sagittal and coronal section of intensified CT,MR imaging of epigastric zone.

3. The division of liver segment in transverse section and its B ultrasound, CT,MR imaging.

4. Intensified imaging of transverse section of pancreas and extrahepatic biliary tract.

5. Transverse,sagittal and coronal sectional imagings of subphrenic space.

6. The zonation, main structures and communication of spatium retroperitoneale (the attachment of the kidney, suprarenal gland, renal fascia superior inferior medial and lateral,and the communication of perirenal space transverse and length wise.)

7. Intensified CT,MR imaging of transverse section of hypogastric zone.


Chapter 5 The male pelvic part and perineum

1. The notate structures

articulation of pubis, crista pubica, pubic tubercle of pubic bone, anterosuperior iliac spine, crista iliaca, posterosuperior iliac spine, tubercle of iliac crest, ischiadic tuberosity, median sacral crest, apex of coccyx



2. The observation of successive sectional specimen of male pelvic part

1.Transverse section through the inferior part of 5th lumbar vertebrae

key structures: intestinal canal, iliac blood vessel, ureter, lumbar plexus, sacral canal, ala of ilium

2. Transverse section through the 5th lumbar intervertebral disc

key structures: intestinal canal, iliac blood vessel, ureter, femoral nerve, iliosacral articulation, ala of ilium

3. Transverse section through the 1st sacral vertebra

key structures: intestinal canal, iliac blood vessel, ureter, iliosacral articulation, ala of ilium and appendicular muscles

4. Transverse section through the 1st sacral intervertebral disc

key structures: intestinal canal, iliosacral articulation, iliac blood vessel, ala of ilium and appendicular muscles

5. Transverse section through the 2nd sacral vertebra

key structures: intestinal canal, iliosacral articulation, internal iliac vessel and external iliac vessel, sacral plexus, ala of ilium, gluteus

6Transverse section through the 2nd sacral intervertebral disc

key structures: intestinal canal, iliosacral articulation, piriformis, ala of ilium and appendicular muscles, sacral plexus

7. Transverse section through the 3rd sacral intervertebral disc

key structures: intestinal canal, piriformis, suprapitiform foramen, ala of ilium, gluteus

8. Transverse section through the 4th sacral vertebra

key structures: piriformis, greater ischiadic foramen, ischiadic nerve, intestinal canal

9. Transverse section through the 5th sacral vertebra

key structures: greater ischiadic foramen, ischiadic nerve, piriformis, intestinal canal

10.Transverse section through the superior border of coxal cavity

key structures: femoral head,femoral head, bladder, rectum, rectovesical pouch

11. Transverse section through the superior part of femoral head

key structures: femoral head, femoral head, bladder, rectum, ureter , deferent duct

12. Transverse section through the middle part of femoral head and ligament of femoral head

key structures: femoral head, ligament of femoral head, internal obturator muscle, abdominal canal, spermatic cord, bladder, deferent duct, rectum

13. Transverse section through the superior part of greater trochanter

Key structures: abdominal canal, spermatic cord, bladder, seminal vesicle, ampulla of vas deferens, rectum, levator ani

14. Transverse section through the middle part of greater trochanter

Key structures: spermatic cord, obturator foramen, bladder, seminal vesicle, ampulla of vas deferens, rectum, pelvic diaphragm

15. Transverse section through the superior part of pubic symphysis

Key structures: pubic symphysis, internal obturator muscle, external obturator muscle, ischial tuberosity, bladder, prostate gland, rectum, pelvic diaphragm, ischioanal fossa

16. Transverse section through the inferior part of pubic symphysis

Key structures: internal obturator muscle, external obturator muscle, prostate gland, anal canal, levator ani, ischioanal fossa

17. Transverse section through the inferior to the ischial tuberosity

Key structures: spermatic cord, cavernous body of penis, diaphragma urogenitale, urethra, anal canal, sphincter ani externus

18. Transverse section through the anus

Key structures: cavernous body of penis, spermatic cord, urethra and bulb of urethra, ischiocavernous muscle, bulbocavernous muscle, superficial transverse muscle of perineum, sphincter ani externus

19.Transverse section through the head of epididymis

Key structures: cavernous body of penis, urethra, cavernous body of urethra, head of epididymis

20. Transverse section through the testis

Key structures: cavernous body of penis, urethra, cavernous body of urethra, testis

3. Imaging experiment

Observation of the imge of CT and MRI of male pelvic part on the negatoscope

1. The image of B-ultrasound and MRI of male pelvic part

2. The main structures and distributed regularity of Transverse sectional anatomy of the 2nd segment of male pelvic part

3. The image of B-ultrasound and MRI of seminal vesicle and prostate gland


Chapter 6 The female pelvic part and perineum

1. The notate structures

articulation of pubis, pubic crest, tuberosity of public bone, crest of ilium, the fold of inguinal groove, ischiadic tuberosity, median sacral crest, apex of coccyx



2. The observation of successive sectional specimen of female pelvic part

1.Transverse section through the 5th lumbar intervertebral disc

Key structures: illac vessel, ovarian vessel, ureter

2. Transverse section through the superior part of 1st sacral vertebra

Key structures: illac vessel, ovarian vessel , ureter

3. Transverse section through the inferior part of 1st sacral vertebra

Key structures: illac vessel , ureter

4. Transverse section through the 2nd sacral vertebra

Key structures: illac vessel, ovarian vessel , ureter

5. Transverse section through the superior part of the 3rd sacral vertebra

Key structures: illac vessel, ovarian vessel, ureter

6. Transverse section through the inferior part of the 3rd sacral vertebra

Key structures: uterus, ovary, illac vessel, ureter

7. Transverse section through the 4th sacral vertebra

Key structures: intestinal canal, uterus, ovary, uterine tube, ureter, illac vessel

8. Transverse section through the upper part of the 5th sacral vertebrae

Key structures: sigmoid colon, rectum, uterus, rectouterine pouch, ovary

9. Transverse section through the inferior part of the 5th sacral vertebrae

Key structures: sigmoid colon, urinary bladder, uterus, rectum

10. Transverse section through superior border of acetabulum

Key structures: urinary bladder, uterus, rectum, uterovaginal venous plexus, rectal venous plexus, ureter

11. Transverse section through the superior part of the femoral head

Key structures: urinary bladder, neck of uterus, posterior part of fornix of vagina, rectum, uterovaginal venous plexus

12. Transverse section through the middle part of the femoral head

Key structures: urinary bladder, neck of uterus, fornix of vagina, rectum

13. Transverse section through the inferior part of the femoral head

Key structures: urinary bladder, vagina, vaginal venous plexus, rectum, levator ani

14. Transverse section through the superior part of pubic symphysis

Key structure: urinary bladder, vagina, vaginal venous plexus, anal canal, levator ani

15. Transverse section through the middle part of pubic symphysis

Key structures:urethra, vagina, vaginal venous plexus, anal canal, levator ani

16. Transverse section through the inferior part of pubic symphysis

Key structures: urethra, anus, vaginal venous plexus, pudendal venous plexus

17. Transverse section through pubic arch

Key structures: urethra, bulb of vestibule, vagina, vaginal venous plexus

18. Transverse section through the superior part of clitoris

Key structures: greater lip of pudendum, clitoris, cavernous body of clitoris, vaginal vestibule

19. Transverse section through the inferior part of clitoris

Key structure: greater lip of pudendum, lesser lip of pudendum, clitoris

20. Transverse section through the inferior part of greater lip of pudendum

Key structure: greater lip of pudendum

3. Imaging experiment

Observation of the imge of B-ultrasound ,CT and MRI of female pelvic part on the negatoscope

1. The image of B—ultrasound and MRI and structures and distributed regularity of Transverse sectional anatomy of female pelvic part

2. The image of B—ultrasound and MRI of ovaries and uterus.
Chapter 7 Vertebral Region

1. Symbolic Structure

spinous process; spine of scapula; inferior angle of scapula; iliac crest; posterior superior iliac spine; median sacral crest; lateral sacral crest; sacral hiatus; sacral cornu; erector spinae; coccyx.



2. Imaging experiment

Observe the CT and MRI image with the negatoscope on the negatoscope.

  1. The CT and MRI images of the vertebrae and connective issues between them in each region.

  2. Character of each part of the intervertebral ,CT and MRI image.

  3. The CT and MRI image of the content in the vertebral canal.

  4. The bouncary﹑communication of the vertebral lateral recessus, and its normal value of the anteroposterior diameter, CT image.


Chapter 8 The Upper Limb

1. Symbolic Structure

acromion, spine of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus,medial and lateral epicondyle of

humerus, olecranon of ulna,styloid process of radius,head of humerus.

2. Obeservation of the successive Transverse﹣Section

1. Transverse﹣Section through the shoulder

1) Transverse﹣Section through the Acromion

Key structures:clavicle,acromion,scapula,subscapularis,supraspinatus, brachial plexus.

2 ) Transverse section through the Superior Part of the Shoulder joint

Key structure: head of humerus, glenoid cavity, spine of scapula, tendon of long head of biceps brachii, subclavian artery and vein, brachial plexus.

3) Transverse section Through the middle part of the shoulder jont

Key structure: head of humerus, glenoid cavity, muscles surrounding the shoulder joint,

axillary vessel, brachial plexus.



4) Transverse section Through the inferior part of the shoulder jont

Key structure: humerus, scapula, axillary vessels , median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve, axillary nerve.

2. Transverse﹣Section through the upper arm

1) Transverse section Through the superior-portion of the upper arm

Key structure: humerus , brachial artery, median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve.

2) Transverse section Through the Middle part of the Forearm

Key structures: humerus, biceps brachii ,brachial, triceps brachii, brachial arery and vein, median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve

3) Transverse section Through the inferior-portion of the Forearm

Key structures: humerus, scapula axillary vessels, median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve.

3. Transverse﹣Section through the Elbow.

1) Transverse section Through the Humeroulnar Joint

Key structures: medial and lateral epicondyle of humerus,olecranon of ulna, olecranon fossa, brachial artery and vein, median nerve, ulnar nerve,radial nerve .

2) Transverse section Through the Proximal Radioulnar Joint

Key structures: coronoid process, annular ligament of radius, proximal radioulnar joint, head of radius, brachial artery, median nerve, ulnar nerve, radial nerve.

4. Transverse section Through the Forearm

1) Key structures: ulna, radius, posterior group of forearm muscles, anterior group of forearm muscles, median nerve, ulnar nerve.

2) Key structures: ulna, radius,radial vessels and the superficial branch of the radial nerve, median nerve, ulnaris nerve, ulnaris vessels.

3) Key structures: distal radioulnaris joint, tendon of anterior group of forearm, median nerve,ulnar nerve,tendon of posterior group of forearm.



  1. Transverse section Through the Hand

1) Transverse section Through the proximal carpal

Key structure: scaphoid bone, lunate, triquetrum, median nerve , ulnar artery and vein, ulnar nerve

2) Transverse section Through the space between the proximal and the diatal carpal

Key structures: scaphoid bone, capitate bone, hamate bone, triquetral bone, pisiform bone, joint of pisiform bone, radial artery, ulnar artery, ulnar nerve,carpal canal and its contents.

3) Transverse section Through the Distal Carpal

Key structures: distal carpal, carpal canal, median nerve, radial artery and vein , ulnar artery and vein, ular nerve.

4) Transverse section Through the Carpometacarpal join

Key structures: base of 1st、2ed、5th metacarpal bone,capitate bone, hamate bone,carpal canal, radial artery , ulnar artery, ulnar nerve

5) Transverse section Through the 1/4 proximal-portion of metacarpal bone

Key structures: metacarpal bone, carpal canal, apeneurosis , muscle of hypothenar, muscle of thenar,median nerve

6) Transverse section Through the 1/4 Mid-proximal of metacarpal bone

Key structures: metacarpal bone,muscle of hypothenar,muscle of thenar,tendon of flexor digitorum,lumbricales

7) Transverse section Through the 1/4 Mid-Distal of metacarpal bone

Key structures: metacarpal bone, tendon of flexor digitorum, lumbricales

8) Transverse section Through the 1/4 distal-Portion metacarpal bone

Key structures: metacarpal bone, tendon of flexor digitorum, lumbricales.

9) Transverse section Through the Head of metacarpal bone

Key structures: metacarpal bone, tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis,

tendon of flexor digitorum profundus.



10) Transverse section Through the Base of proximal Phalanx

Key structures: the Base of proximal Phalanx, tendon of flexor digitorum

superficialis, tendon of flexor digitorum profundus.



3. Imaging experiment

Observe the CT and MRI image on the negatoscope compartively.

  1. The MRI image of the shoulder joint﹑elbow joint and carpal joints.

  2. The MRI image of the upper arm﹑forearm and hand.


Chapter 9 The lower limb

1. Landmark structures:

anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, tubercle of iliac crest, tuberosity of ischium, greater trochanter of femur, tuberosity of public bone, pubic crest, pubic symphysis, ligament of patella, whirbone, lateral and medial condyle of femur. lateral and medial epicondyle of femur, adductor tubercle, capitulum fibulae, tibial tuberosity, internal medial malleolus, lateral malleolar, calcaneal tendon, tuberositas ossis navicularis, tuberosity of calcaneus.



2. The observation of the consecutive sectional specimens:
Section 1 The Hip

1,The transverse sectional specimen of Hip

Section 1: through head of femur superiorly

Key structures: cotyloid cavity, head of femur, ligament of the head of the femur, coccygeal ligament, ischiadic nerve.

Section 2: through head of femur intermediately

Key structures: cotyloid cavity, acetabular notch, head of femur, neck of femur, greater trochanter, superior ligament of hip, ligament ischiofemorale, ligament pubocapsulare,artery and vein of femur.

Section 3: through head of femur inferiorly

Key structures: head of femur, neck of femur, intertrochanteric crest, superior ligament of hip, sciatic nerve, artery and vein of femur.

2. The sagittal sectional specimen of Hip

Section 1: through anterior superior iliac spine 2cm medially

Key structures: cotyloid cavity, head of femur, superior ligament of hip.

3. The coronal sectional specimen of Hip

Section 1: through head of femur posteriorly

Key structures: cotyloid cavity, head of femur, superior ligament of hip.
Section 2 The Thigh

1.The transverse sectional specimen of superior part of the thigh.

Section 1: through the ramus of ischium

Key structures: femoral bone, ischial bone, ischiadic nerve, femoral artery and vein.

2.The transverse sectional specimen of middle part of the thigh.

Section 1: through superior part of the thigh.

Key structures: femoral bone, quadriceps femoris ,femoral artery and vein, ischiadic nerve.

3. The transverse sectional specimen of inferior part of the thigh.

Section 1: through the level of 5cm superior to the upper part of the whirbone.

Key structures: femoral bone, quadriceps femoris ,femoral artery, ischiadic nerve.
Section 3 The Knee

Part 1.The Transverse section through the Knee

1.Transverse section through Upper-Portion of the Superior Margin of the Patella

Key structures: femur,suprapatellar bursa,tendon of quadriceps femoris, popliteal artery and vein,sciatic nerve.

2.Transverse section through the Superior Margin of the Patella

Key structures: femur,patella,tendon of quadriceps femoris,tibial nerve,common peroneal nerve,popliteal artery and vein.

3.Transverse section through the Mid-Portion of the Patella

Key structures: medial and lateral condyles of femur,patella,alar fold,popliteal artery and vein,tibial nerve,common peroneal nerve.

4.Transverse section through the Lower Portion of the Apex of Patella

Key structures: medial and lateral epicondyle of femur,patellar ligament,medial and lateral meniscus,anterior and posterior cruciate ligments,popliteal artery and vein,tibial nerve,common peroneal nerve.

Part 2.The Sagittal-Section through the Knee

1.Sagittal-Section through the Medial Margin of the Patella

Key structures: medial condyle of the femur,medial condyle of the tibia,medial meniscus.

2.Sagittal-Section through the Midline of the Patella

Key structures: femur,tibia,patella,patellar ligament ,anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments,alar fold,femoral nerve .

3.Sagittal-Section through the Lateral Portion of the Patella

Key structures: lateral condyle of the femur,lateral condyle of the tibia,patella,lateral meniscus,alar fold.

4. Sagittal-Section through the Lateral margin of the Patella

Key structures: femur,tibia,lateral meniscus,fibular head.

Part 3.The Frontal-Section through the Knee

1. Frontal-Section through the Post-Portion of the Patella

Key structures: patella,lateral condyle of the femur,articular cavity,lateral patellar retinaculum.

2. Frontal-Section through the Patellar Surface of the Femur

Key structures: lateral condyle of the femur,medial and lateral condyles of tibia, .infrapatellar fat pad,alar fold,articular cavity,tibial collateral ligament.

3. Frontal-Section through the Mid-Portion of the Intercondylar Fossa

Key structures: medial and lateral condyles of femur,medial and lateral condyles of tibia,medial and lateral menisci,anterior cruciate ligament,tibial collateral ligament.

4. Frontal-Section through the Post-Portion of the Intercondylar Fossa

Key structures: medial and lateral condyles of femur,medial and lateral condyles of tibia,fibular head,medial and lateral menisci, anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments,popliteal artery.
Section 4 The Leg

1.Transverse section Through the Upper-Portion of the Leg

Key structures through the inferior part of tibial tuberosity: tibia , fibula , posterior tibial artery , popliteal nerve , common peroneal nerve .

2.Transverse section Through the Mid-Portion of the Leg

Key structures through the mid-portion of the shaft of tibia: :tibia,fibula,posterior、lateral and posterior groups of muscles of the leg,anterior tibial vessels,posterior tibial vessels,popliteal nerve,deep peroneal nerve and superficial peroneal nerve .

3.Transverse section Through the Lower-Portion of the Leg

Key structures through the superior to tip of medial malleolus: tibia,fibula,posterior,lateral and posterior groups of muscles of leg.,anterior and posterior tibial vessels, popliteal nerve,deep peroneal nerve and superficial peroneal nerve.
Section 5 The Foot

Part 1. Transverse section Through the Portion of the Ankle Joint

Key structures through the superior to tip of medial malleolus: ankle joint and its adjacent ligaments,contents of the malleolar canal ,dorsal artery and vein of foot.

Part 2. Frontal- Section Through the Portion of the Ankle Joint

Key structures through the anterior to calcaneal tuberosity: ankle joint,talocalcaneal joint ,malleolar canal and its contents.

Part 3. Transverse section Through the foot

1. Transverse section Through the Pre-Portion of the Medial Malleolus(distal portion of talocalcaneal joint)

Key structures : talus, calcaneus, plantar calcaneonavicular ligament,lateral talocalcaneal ligament, interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, medial and lateral plantar vessels and nerves.

2. Transverse section Through the Mid-Portion of the Tuberosity of Navicular Bonetalonavicular articulation and calcaneocuboid articulation

Key structures: head of talus ,navicular bone,cuboid bone ,anterior end of the calcaneus,long plantar ligament.

3. Transverse section Through the Pre-Portion of the Tuberosity of Navicular Bone(cuneonavicular joint)

Key structures: navicular bone, cuneiform bones (medial,intermediate,lateral),cuboid bone, the fifth metatarsal bone .

4. Transverse section Through the Pre-Portion of the Medial Cuneiform Bone(metatarsocuboid joint)

Key structures: cuneiform bones (medial,intermediate,lateral),cuboid bone,the fifth metatarsal bone,tendon of flexor hallucis longus,tendon of flexor digitorum longus.

5. Transverse section Through the Post-Portion of the Tuberosity of First Metatarsal Bone(cuneometatarsal joint)

Key structures: medial cuneiform bone, the frist ~fifth metatarsal bones.

6. Transverse section Through the Mid-Portion of the Metatarsal Bone

Key structures: the frist ~fifth metatarsal bones.

7. Transverse section Through the Portion of the Head of Metatarsal Bone

Key structures: head of the first metatarsal bone, the second~fourth metatarsal bones,base of the fifth proximal phalanx .

3. Imaging experiment

Observation of MRI of the lower limbs on the negatoscope.

  1. MRI of Transverse section and coronal section of sacroiliac joint

  2. MRI of Transverse section, coronal section and sagittal section of hip joint, knee joint and talocrural joint

  3. MRI of thigh, leg and foot.





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