Fed Courts Outline: 26 Pages



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Fed Courts Outline: 26 Pages



Fed Courts Outline: 26 Pages 1

i. Article III: 1

I. The Judicial Function and the Role of the Courts 1

A. Marbury v. Madison 1

B. Advisory Opinions & Constitutional Avoidance (Ashwander) 1

II. State Courts 2

A. Exclusive Federal Jurisdiction and Removal 2

B. What Can State Courts Do To Fed Officials? 2

C. Obligation to Enforce Federal Law (Testa and Commandeering) 2

III. SCOTUS’s Appellate Jurisdiction 2

A. Review of State Court Judgments: The Laws of Transmutation 2

B. Review of State Court Judgments: Adequate & Independent 3

1. Basis for state high court’s decision is ambiguous 3

2. Substance: When SCOTUS has jurisdiction to review substantive state law 3

3. Procedure: When SCOTUS has jurisdiction to review state procedural rules 4



IV-1. FDC Jurisdiction: Fed Q Jur 4

A. The Constitutional Grant vs. The Statutory Grant 4

2. Removal 4

IV-2. FDC Jurisdiction: Habeas Corpus 5

A. Habeas: Scope of the Writ 5

B. Habeas: Teague: If you’re contesting your conviction on habeas, do you get the benefit of a “new rule”? 5

1. What is a “new rule”? 6

2. Retroactivity 6

C. Habeas: AEDPA 6

D. Habeas: Procedural Default 7

1. Procedural Default: Overview 7

2. Cause: Three Good Reasons and the “Actual Innocence” Alternative 7

3. Prejudice: Two Ways 8



E. Habeas: Exhaustion, Successive Petitions and Factfinding 8

1. Habeas: AEDPA Rule for Successive Petitions 8

2. Habeas: Exhaustion 8

3. Habeas: Factfinding 8



IV-3. FDC Jurisdiction: Civil Rights 8

A. The Fourteenth Amendment and § 1983 8

B. What is “State Action”? 9

C. Bivens 9

1. Bivens Exceptions 9



V. Allocation of Cases Between State and Federal Court 10

A. Diversity Jurisdiction 10

V-1. Pick Both Courts: Abstention and Certification 10

A. Pullman Abstention 10

B. Thibodaux abstention 10

C. Certification 10

D. Pennhurst & Double Tracking (Kline) 11

1. Options after Pennhurst 11



E. Burford Abstention 11

F. Colorado River Abstention 11

V-2. Pick One Court: The Problem of Preclusion and AIA/Younger 12

A. AIA: The Anti-Injunction Act 12

B. Younger: If State Proceedings Ongoing, Fed Ct Can’t Provide Injunctive or Declaratory Relief 12

C. If State Proceedings Ongoing, Fed Ct Can Provide Damages 13

D. See below, V-3(B) (“Interest Analysis”) 13

E. 1983, Preclusion and Track-Picking 13

1. Allen v. McCurry (1980) 13



V-3. Solutions to the Preclusion Problem 13

A. When Does Interest Analysis Fail? 13

B. How to fix when interest analysis fails? How can you get your fed claim into fed court? 14

1. You have federal claims and state claims; how do you get fed claims into fed court? 14

2. Three Governing Principles 14

C. Don’t break the law: Anticipatory Actions & Declaratory & Injunctive Relief in Steffel/Hicks/Doran 14

D. England 15

1. When should a party be allowed to England reserve? 15



E. Ripeness, Standing & Mootness 15

VI. Immunities 15

VI-1. Immunity: State Immunity & the 11th Amendment 15

1. Theories of the 11A 15



A. The Rule 15

B. Suing State Officials 16

C. Suing State Officials: Injunctions:Yes, Damages:No 16

D. Suing State Officials: Abrogation 16

1. Abrogation Invalid Under Boerne (i.e., state can’t be sued) 16

2. Abrogation Valid Under Boerne (i.e., state can be sued) 16

E. Suing State Officials: Waiver 17

VI-2. Immunity: Municipal Liability and Individual Liability 17

A. Rationales for Immunity 17

B. Absolute immunity 17

1. Who gets absolute immunity? 17



C. Qualified Immunity 18

1. “Clearly Established Law” 18

2. Personal Capacity, Official Capacity, and Municipal Liability Under Monell & Owen 18

3. What is a “policy or custom”? 18

4. Remedial gap 18

VII. Jurisdiction Stripping and The Dialogue 19

A. Hypos 19

B. The Big Four Cases: Sheldon, McCardle, Klein, Yakus 19

C. The Little Ones: Crowell, Betaglia, etc. 20

D. The Suspension Clause: When Can Congress Strip Habeas Jurisdiction? 20

E. The Dialogue 20

1. Initial inquiries 20

2.What are the rights of Ps and Ds to judicial process? 21

3. Don’t worry about Sovereign Immunity 22

4. Don’t worry about Jurisdiction Stripping 22

5. Updating the Dialogue 23



VIII. Military Commissions, Military Tribunals and Gitmo 23

A. Gitmo Cases: Statutory Habeas Grant in 28 USC § 2241 23

B. Gitmo Cases: Constitutional 23



i. Article III:


*“The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority;--to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;--to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;--to controversies to which the United States shall be a party;--to controversies between two or more states;--between a state and citizens of another state;--between citizens of different states;--between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.”

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