|Name:______________________ Date: _____________________
Final Exam Study Guide
Subject pronoun –
A pronoun used as the subject of the sentence and also known as a nominative.
4. Object pronoun –
The direct object or the indirect object of a sentence.
5. Possessive pronoun –
A pronoun used to show ownership or possession.
Directions: Write the correct pronoun form on the left blank.
_________1. Terri and (me / I) are taking a hike while you go to the Jones’ house.
_________2. Mother works hard raising a family, and (she / her) never gets thanked for it.
_________3. Give that ball to Donald and (me / I).
_________4. She helped David and (me / I) with the test.
_________5. Don’t you have any apples for (they / them)?
Directions: Identify the underlined pronoun in each sentence.
______________________6. For the next five Saturdays, he has doubleheader soccer games.
______________________7. Larry bought her a new necklace to replace the one she broke.
______________________8. Be careful not to mix up our movie tickets with theirs.
Sentences, fragments, and Run-ons
1. A sentence has a subject and a verb and makes a complete thought. Another name for a sentence is an independent clause. Here are a few examples of complete sentences.
Tom laughed. Because she exercises regularly, she is in good condition. It has been raining all day.
Be quiet. (The subject "You" is understood.) He's quiet, and he's very polite. (compound sentence)
2. A fragment is only a piece of a complete thought that has been punctuated like a sentence. Fragments can be phrases or dependent clauses or any incomplete word group. Study the following Examples:
Ann walked all alone. To the store. (prepositional phrase fragment)
Walking to the store. She saw a car accident. (present participial phrase)
Because she exercises regularly. She is in good condition. (dependent/adverb clause fragment)
There are several ways to correct fragments. These are the three most common ways:
A.) To correct a fragment, connect the fragment to a compete sentence.
"Ann walked all alone. To the store." can be corrected like this: "Ann walked all alone to the
store." "Walking to the store. She saw a car accident." can be corrected like this: "Walking to
the store, she saw a car accident."
B.) To correct a fragment, remove words to make the fragment a complete sentence.
"Because she exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition." can be corrected like this:
"She exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition."
C.) To correct a fragment, add words to make the fragment a complete sentence.
"Because she exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition." can be corrected like this:
"She feels great because she exercises regularly. She is in excellent condition."
3. A run-on occurs when two sentences are run together without the proper punctuation and/or connecting words. One type of run-on, the fused sentence, occurs when two sentences are written together without any punctuation at all. Another type, the comma splice, occurs when a comma is used between two sentences without any connecting word (such as "and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet"). Study these examples:
Joe was happy about the raise he felt like celebrating. (fused sentence)
Joe was happy about the raise, he felt like celebrating. (comma splice)
There are several ways to correct the run-ons above. These are the most common ways:
A.) A run-on may be corrected by putting a period between the sentences.
Joe was happy about the raise. He felt like celebrating.
B.) A run-on may be corrected by connecting two related sentences with a comma followed by a
coordinating conjunction: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.
Joe was happy about the raise, so he felt like celebrating.
C.) A run-on may be corrected by connecting two related sentences with a semicolon only.
Joe was happy about the raise; he felt like celebrating.
D.) A run-on may be corrected by connecting two related sentences with a semicolon and a transition
word or phrase, such as following: however, therefore, thus, then, as a result, consequently,
nevertheless, also, on the other hand, for instance, in contrast, etc.
Joe was happy about the raise; consequently, he felt like celebrating.
E.) A run-on may be corrected by adding a dependent clause signal word to create a complex sentence.
Common signal words include the following: because, if, although, when, who, which, etc.
Because Joe was happy about the raise, he felt like celebrating.
Joe, who was happy about the raise, felt like celebrating.
Directions: Label each word group as one of the following: Fragment (F), Run-On (R), or Correct (C).
Be prepared to explain how to correct each of the fragments and run-ons you have identified.
Directions: Label each word group as one of the following: Fragment (F), Run-On (R), or Correct (C). Be prepared to explain how to correct each of the fragments and run-ons you have identified.
1. Although Mary has been my best friend._____________________
2. No one I know watches that television show, I can't believe it.____________________
3. Her husband loves to cook, however, he does not like to clean the kitchen afterwards._______________
4. Tim started his new job last Wednesday, and he really likes the boss._______________________
5. I have a hard time understanding her lectures, when I talk to her one-on-one, I understand her fine._______________
6. Mary signed up because she thought the training would be interesting and help her on the job.____________________
7. Meet me after class, I want to talk with you about the upcoming test.________________________
Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex
Simple Sentence: a sentence that has only one clause.
Compound Sentence: a sentence with two or more clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.
Complex Sentence: two or more clauses joined with a subordinating conjunction.
Compound-Complex: three or more clauses joined by coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
Example: Mom did the dishes. It is cold in the classroom | but it is hot in the hall
S P (simple sentence) S P S P (Compound sentence)
Coordinating Conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Subordinating Conjunctions: as, because, although, since, before, when, once, if, even if, whatever,
whenever, during, until, unless, wherever, whether, while, as if, even if, that
Directions: Label the subjects and verbs by drawing the correct letter block. Identify the kind of sentence that has been built. (Simple, Compound, and Complex)
9. Sometimes grandfather tells Josh fishing stories, and Josh laughs. ______________________
10. Grandfather talks about his biggest catch and smiles.________________
11. Mr. Morton, the best reading teacher in the world, taught me sentence structure.__________________
12. Every time I go to mall, I spend all of my money on things that I don't need.__________________
13. She decided that she would tell the Sultan a story._________________________
14. Shehezerade’s story the first night was long, and she didn’t finish it._______________________
1) Use commas to separate items in a list of three or more.
Remember that an “item” may refer to a noun, verb, or adjective phrase.
Note: Usage of a comma to separate the second-to-last from the last item is optional.
Example: I need to buy eggs milk lettuce and bread.
I need to buy eggs, milk, lettuce, and bread.
2) Use a comma to separate independent clauses (complete thoughts) when they are joined by the following conjunctions: And Or For Nor So But Yet
Note: The comma should come before the conjunction.
Example: I want to buy the new jacket but it is too expensive.
I want to buy the new jacket, but it is too expensive.
In this example, there are two independent clauses: #1: “I want to buy the new jacket.” (complete thought)
#2 “It is too expensive.” (complete thought)
3) Use a comma to separate a dependent clause (incomplete thought) from an
independent clause (complete thought).
Here are some examples of sentences with dependent and independent clauses:
1) When I get older, I will be able to drive. (Dependent), (Independent).
2) If you are good, I will buy you a toy. (Dependent), (Independent).
Example: Without water the plant will die.
Without water, the plant will die
4) Use a comma(s) to separate any word or phrase from the rest of the sentence
that is not essential to the sentence's meaning. This phrase usually provides extra
information about the subject.
Here are some examples of sentences with words/phrases that are not essential to the
1) My brother, a 26 year old male, is watching TV.
2) Amy Rivers, my best friend, is going to the mall today.
3) I am ready for my dad, a hard working man, to come home.
Example: My mother on the other hand does not like chocolate.
My mother, on the other hand, does not like chocolate.
5) Use a comma to separate a quotation from the rest of a sentence.
Example: “We need to buy more sugar” she said “before it runs out!”
“We need to buy more sugar,” she said, “before it runs out!”
6) Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of a sentence.
Example: Hi how are you?
Hi, how are you?
7) Use a comma to separate the name of a city from a country or state.
Example: I live in Chapel Hill North Carolina.
I live in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
8) Use a comma to separate the day of the week, the day of the month, and the year.
Example: Today is Thursday April 18 1943.
Today is Thursday, April 18, 1943.
Directions: After each rule and example, add commas to the sentences where needed.
1. Carlos wants to visit Paris Italy Germany and China.
2. My favorite colors are blue red and pink.
3. I like to go hiking fishing swimming and camping during summer.
4. I do not like biology nor do I like chemistry.
5. James wants to leave now yet we must wait for his little brother.
6. Terry is working on a project and he should be finished with it next week
7. In five minutes the building will be closed.
8. When I get home I am going to brush my teeth.
9. Amy Rivers, my best friend, is going to the mall today.
10. I am ready for my dad, a hard working man, to come home.
Read the following passage and answer questions 1 through 9.
by Anna Lansky
Molly checked her watch as she stepped into the tiny elevator. An old-fashioned
iron gate closed as she impatiently pressed the button for the fourth floor. Only
two more hours and she would be off on her spring trip. She’d been antsy all
day as she went to classes and to her after-school job at her uncle’s office. Now
she just had to deliver some important papers for her uncle, and she would rush
home, grab her suitcase—stuffed with bathing suits and t-shirts—and join her
family for the short trip to the airport.
As she tried to remember whether she’d packed her flip-flops, the elevator jolted
and came to a shuddering stop. Molly felt a moment of fear. Calm down, she
said to herself. Elevators in old buildings can be quirky. In a moment it would
shake again and then continue rising to the fourth floor. She’d definitely take
the stairs back down though. Several moments passed, and the elevator didn’t
budge. Molly checked out the panel of buttons: a scarlet one read “Alarm.” She
punched it and heard a noise like a doorbell in the depths of the building.
Molly considered her situation. She didn’t have a cell phone; not only could she
not call for help, but she couldn’t let her parents know she’d be late. They’d be
worrying about missing their flight—or maybe they’d leave without her. Molly
felt panic run like a cold stream through her veins. Then she forced herself to
smile. What was the worst-case scenario, really? She’d be an hour or two late.
If she and her family missed their plane, they could catch another one that
evening or the next day. The elevator floor looked none too clean, but Molly
spread her jacket out and sat down on it. She pulled a puzzle from her purse
and began working on it.
Fifteen minutes later, a man’s voice called, “We’re working on the elevator.
Everyone OK?” Molly looked up from her puzzle. “Yes!” In another forty-five
minutes, the elevator shook once again and descended to the first floor. Two
workers greeted Molly and made sure she was OK. They pointed her to a pay
phone in the hallway. Molly hastily dialed her home phone number. “Mom,
I have good news and bad news. The bad news is I had a little mishap in an
elevator. The good news is I finished my puzzle. I’ll be home soon—but first
I have to deliver some important papers.”
1. The statement that Molly is about to go on
A. a flashback.
C. rising action.
2. What is the story’s point of view?
C. third-person limited
D. third-person omniscient
3. Which detail is an example of a flashback?
A. Molly grabbing her suitcase.
B. Molly thinking about the trip to the airport.
C. Molly realizing she doesn’t have a cell phone.
D. Molly being antsy all day.
4. Which of the following techniques is NOT used to develop Molly’s character?
A. Quoting what Molly says
B. Telling what others say about Molly
C. Describing what Molly does
D. Telling what Molly thinks
5. The best description of Molly’s character is
A. efficient but nervous.
B. delicate and sensitive.
C. sensible and diligent.
D. hardworking but irresponsible.
6. Which is a sensory detail that helps describe the setting?
A. “She tried to remember whether she’d packed her flip-flops.”
B. “Molly felt panic run like a cold stream through her veins.”
C. “Elevators in old buildings can be quirky.”
D. “The elevator jolted and came to a shuddering stop.”
7. What action represents the climax of this story?
A. Molly working on her puzzle as workers fix the elevator.
B. Molly calling her mother to say she will be late.
C. Molly feeling fear when the elevator comes to a stop.
D. Molly realizing she is stuck in the elevator without a cell phone
8. Which literary term best describes Molly’s character in this passage?
A. round character
B. minor character
D. dynamic character
9. Which statement best expresses a theme of the story?
A. You should always have a book or puzzle with you.
B. People must be flexible because unexpected events occur.
C. Elevators in old buildings often break down.
D. A girl leaving on vacation gets stuck in an elevator.
One Monday as we ate our lunch in the truck outside the Pine Street house, Ben told me that he had made a few phone calls for us. “The lumber yard across town can deliver what we need tomorrow. We could finish the job by noon Friday!” I turned and met his eyes. “I think I told you that I don’t do business with that lumber yard anymore. The last order I got from them had warps, splits, and four-inch knots on every piece.” “But if we wait until the other delivery on Thursday, we won’t finish the job until Monday or Tuesday of next week.” I continued to look at him. Ben was thinking of his plans for the weekend, but I was thinking of our obligation to the house’s owner to do the job right using only quality materials. “Ben,” I sighed, “how would you like to live in this house?” He looked up at me quizzically, as though I was making him an offer. “Would you like to live in this house if it were built your way, using inferior lumber? Would you want to walk around on a floor with warped supports under it and sleep under a roof built with split and knotted wood? We need to do this right, Ben. You can’t build a house twice.” A philosopher, I’m not sure who, once said something to the effect that when you finish building your house, you realize all that you have learned in the process—and you realize, too, that all you have learned you should have known before you started.
Which detail from the story suggests that Ben needs to take his apprenticeship more seriously?
A Ben is thinking about his plans for the weekend.
B Ben puts a hole in a wall when using his hammer.
C Ben contacts a lumber yard about delivering supplies.
D Ben eats his lunch in a truck away from other workers.
In the story, what does the carpenter believe is the MOST important lesson for Ben to learn?
A build a house only once
B use the best tools and materials
C do the work with care and consideration
D know everything before starting a project