France History Timeline



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France History Timeline
4500BC Neolithic burial mounds.

123BC Romans won a victory over the Gauls near Mt. Sainte-Victoire.

c100BC Lutetia - community situated on an island in the Seine River

58 BC Gallic Wars begins.

52 BC Sep Battle of Alesia



AD

197 Feb 19 Clodius Albinus at Lyon defeated.

202 St. Iranaeus Bishop of Lugdunum.

260 Foundation of Gallic Empire by Postumus,

274 Battle of Châlons defeat of Gallic Empire.

286-293 Carausius, seized power in Britain and northern Gaul

297 Salian Franks were allowed to settle on the territory of the Batavians.

390 July 16 Brennus and Gauls defeated the Romans at Allia.

394 Sep 8 Arbogast, French general, committed suicide.

418 Honorius gave land in Gallia Aquitania to Visigoth

426-448 Clodio, king of the Salian Franks.

448-457 Merovech.

451 April 7 Attila's Huns plundered Metz.

451 June 20 Battle of Catalaunian Plains or Battle of Châlons:

453 Thorismund was murdered by younger brother Theodoric II who succeeded him in throne of Visigoths.

455 July 9 Avitus, became Emperor of the West.

457-465 Childeric I king.

462 Septimania was ceded to the Visigothic Kingdom.

463 Aegidius and Childeric I defeated the invading Visigoths in Orléans.

464 Aegidius died. His son Syagrius succeeded him as magister militum of the Domain of Soissons.

465-511 Clovis I

466 Theodoric II was murdered and succeeded by his younger brother Euric as king of the Visigoths,

485 Alaric II as king of the Visigoths.

486 Battle of Soissons: Clovis I defeated Syagrius.

496 Clovis, adopt Catholicism.

507 Battle of Vouillé: Clovis defeated a Visigoth army under Alaric II,

508 The Franks, led by Clovis, took Paris and made it their capital.

511 Nov 27 Clovis, king of the Franks, died and his kingdom was divided

524 June 25 Battle of Vézeronce: armies of Clovis' sons inflicted a serious defeat on the Burgundian king Godomar.


  • Chlodomer, the king of Orléans, was killed in battle.

  • Chlothar I, the king of Neustria, had two of Chlodomer's sons killed and forced the third into hiding thus inheriting his kingdom.

534 Theuderic I died, his son Theudebert I succeeded him as king of Austrasia.

547 Theudebert I died, his son Theudebald succeeded him as king of Austrasia.

555 Theudebald died, his realm passed to his great-uncle Chlothar I.

558 Dec 13 Childebert I died. His brother Chlothar I inherited his territory, thus becoming sole King of the Franks

561 Nov 29 Chlothar I died. Again, the kingdom was divided among his four sons;


  • Paris went to Charibert I, Burgundy to Guntram, Austrasia to Sigebert I, Soissons to Chilperic I.

567 Nov or Dec Charibert I, king of Paris, died. With no heir, his realm was partitioned among his brothers.

573 Aug 20 Gregory of Tours was selected as the bishop of Tours.

575 Sigebert I of Austrasia died, his son, Childebert II, inherited his kingdom.

584 Sep Chilperic I of Soissons (Neustria) was assassinated before the birth of his son Chlothar II. His wife Fredegund became regent.

592 Jan 28 Guntram of Burgundy died, his realm was passed on to Childebert II who was his adoptive son.

592 Dec 8 Fredegund died so the 13 year old Chlothar II started his reign as King of Neustria.

595 Childebert II died, his kingdom was divided between his two sons.

612 Theudebert II, the king of Austrasia, was assassinated. His realm went to his brother Theuderic II, king of Burgundy.

613 Theuderic II died. His bastard son Sigebert II briefly inherited his kingdom.


  • Sigebert II, the king of Burgundy and Austrasia, was executed by Chlothar II, who becoming sole king of the Franks.

623 Chlothar II gave Austrasia its independence under the kingship of his son, Dagobert I.

629 Chlothar II died. Under an agreement forged after his death, Dagobert I succeeded him as king of Neustria

632 April 8 Charibert II died, possibly in an assassination ordered by his brother Dagobert I.


  • Chilperic was also killed. Dagobert I reacquired Aquitaine and became sole king of the Franks.

639 Jan 19 Dagobert I died. Austrasia went to his son Sigebert III, and the Kingdom of Neustria and Burgundy to Clovis II.

655 Clovis II died. He was succeeded by his son Chlothar III (roi fainéant).

656 Feb 1 Sigebert III died. He was succeeded by Childebert the Adopted.

661 Childebert the Adopted died. Chlothar III annexed his kingdom, and became sole king of the Franks.

661 Chlothar III died. kingdom divided between two younger brothers; Austrasia to Childeric II, and Neustria to Theuderic III.

673 Childeric II annexed Theuderic III's kingdom, and became sole king of the Franks.

675 Childeric II died. Theuderic III inherited Neustria, Clovis III (roi fainéant) inherited Austrasia.

676 Clovis III died. Theuderic III inherited his kingdom, becoming sole king of the Franks.

691 Theuderic III died. He was succeeded by his son Clovis IV (roi fainéant).

695 Clovis IV died. He was succeeded by his brother Childebert III.

711 April 23 Childebert died. He was succeeded by his son Dagobert III.

715 Dagobert died. He was succeeded by Chilperic II, the youngest son of Childeric II.

721 Feb 13 Chilperic died. He was succeeded by Theuderic IV, Dagobert III's son.

732 Oct 10 Battle of Tours

737 Theuderic died. Charles Martel was prevented succession.

741 Oct 22 Charles Martel died realm was divided between two sons, Pepin and Carloman, acting as Mayors of the Palace.

743-1194 Five cathedrals were built on the site of Chartres cathedral over this period.

743 Childeric III proclaimed king of the Franks thanks to Pepin the Short's influence,

747 Aug 15 Carloman renounced his position withdrew to monastic life, his realm was given to his brother, Pepin the Short.

751 Childeric III was dethroned as the last king of the Merovingian dynasty, Pepin the Short was later crowned king of the Franks,



  • Oct 9 Charlemagne and Carloman I were proclaimed Kings of the Franks after their father's death.

768 Sep 24 Pepin the Short (54) of Gaul died. His dominions were divided between his sons Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.

768-814 Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks and emperor of the former Western Roman Empire.

771 Dec 4 Carloman I died, Charlemagne annexed his kingdom.

774 Following successful conquests, Charlemagne became king of the Lombards.

778 Aug 15 Battle at Roncesvalles

795 Spanish March was created by Charlemagne as a buffer zone between the Frankish kingdom and Al-Andalus.

800 Dec 25 Charlemagne is coronated Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III.

811 The treaty of Heiligen is signed between Charlemagne and the Danish king

812 Frankish conquests in Spain were recognized by Emir Al-Hakam I.

814 Jan 28 Charlemagne died.

840 June 20 Louis the Pious dies,

841 June 25 Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay.

843 June 24 Vikings destroyed Nantes.

843 Aug 10 Treaty of Verdun:

855 Sep 28 Emperor Lothar died in Gaul, and his kingdom was divided between his three sons.

869 Aug 8 Lotharius II, King of Middle-France (Lotharingen) (855-869), died.

870 Treaty of Mersen Louis II, the Holy Roman Emperor, forced the partition of Lorraine under King Charles the Bald.

875 Aug 12 Louis II (~50), king of Italy, emperor of France, died.

875 Dec 29 Charles the Bald is coronated Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John VIII.

876 Oct 8 Battle of Andernach:

877 Oct 6 Charles II the Kale, King of France and Roman emperor (875-77), died at 54.

879 April 10 Louis the Stammerer dies of illness.

880 March Louis III and Carloman II sign a treaty in Amiens dividing the kingdom

882 Aug 5 Louis III dies, Carloman II becomes sole king of West Francia.

884 Dec 12 Carloman II dies, his cousin Charles the Fat already king of East Francia, succeeds in the rule of West Francia

888 Jan 13 Charles the Fat dies,



  • Feb Odo of France is crowned King of the Western Franks

891 Sep 1 Norse defeated near Louvaine, France.

896 Feb 22 Pope Formosa was crowned king Arnulf of Carinthia, French emperor.

898 Jan 1 Odo of France dies leaving no surviving heir.

899 Dec 8 Arnulf of Carinthia, last emperor of Austria-France, died.

900-1000 Alsace became part of Germany in the 10th century.

910 The abbey at Cluny was founded.

911 Charles signed the Treaty of Saint Clair-sur-Epte with Rollo, the king of the Vikings, become the Duchy of Normandy.

921 Nov 7 Treaty of Bonn: East France and West France recognized each other.

922 Charles was overthrown by a noble revolt and replaced by Robert I, Odo's brother.

923 June 15 Battle of Soissons (923): Robert was killed.

936 Jan 15 Rudolph died. He was succeeded by Louis IV, a son of Charles the Simple.

954 Sep 10 Louis IV died. He was succeeded by his son Lothair.

954 Nov 12 Lotharius became king of France.

985 Montpellier, France, was founded at the intersection of 3 trade and pilgrimage routes.

986 March 1 Lothair died. He was succeeded by his son Louis V.

987 May 21 Louis V died. With no heir,

987 May 22 Louis V le Faineant (20), the Lazy, king of France (986-87), was allegedly poisoned by his mother. [see May 21]

987 July 3 The count of Paris, Hugh Capet (49), became king of France.

996 Oct 24 Hugh Capet died. He was succeeded by his son Robert II.

1004 Robert annexed the Duchy of Burgundy.

1031 July 20 Robert died in a civil war against his sons.

1032 Feb 2 Conrad II claimed the thrown of France.

1032 Henry bought peace by reversing the annexation of the Duchy of Burgundy and giving it to his brother.

1059 May 23 Henri I crowned his son King Philip I of France.

1060 Aug 4 Henry died.

1065 April 16 Norman Robert Guiscard took Bari, ending five centuries of Byzantine rule in southern Italy.

1066 Philip entered his majority.

1072 Jan 10 Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.

1076 Feb 22 Godfried III, with the Hump, duke of Lower Lorraine, was murdered. [see Feb 26]

1086 St. Bruno founded the austere Carthusian order of monks in Grenoble.

1087 Sep 9 William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and King of England, died.

1095 Nov 27 Clermont, France, Pope Urbana II made an appeal for warriors to relieve Jerusalem.

c1097 The pilgrimage routes of France (chemins de pelerinage) were begun.

1100-1200 Chretien de Troyes in the 12th century introduced Camelot into Arthurian legend

c1100-1200 Albigenses were members of the Catharistic sect that arose in southern France in the 11th century. [see 1244]

1101 William IX, the Duke of Aquitaine, returned from the Crusades and composed songs about his adventures,

1108 July 29 Philip died. He was succeeded by his son Louis VI, the Fat.

1114 Trade fairs were held at Champagne, France, at the crossing of roads from Flanders, Germany, Italy and Provence.

1118 Dec 18 Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.

1127 March 2 Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered.

1130 The church at the abbey at Cluny was completed and measured over 400 feet long.

1131 Oct 25 Louis VII the Young, King of France, was crowned.

1137 July 22 Louis VII became duke of Aquitaine by marriage to the duchess Eleanor.


  • Aug 1 Louis the Fat died. Louis VII became king.

1147 Oct 25 At the Battle at Doryleum Arabs beat Konrad III's crusaders.

1152 March 21 The marriage of Louis VII and Eleanor was annulled.

1153 Aug 20 Bernard de Clairvaux, French saint, died.

1171 Oct 18 Henry II (1133-1189) arrived in Ireland from France with an army and declared himself "Lord of Ireland".

1180 Sep 18 Louis VII died. He was succeeded by his son Philip II.

1189 Jan 21 Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.

1190 Louvre Museum in Paris was built as a fortress.

1194 French cathedral at Chartres was mostly destroyed by fire.

1196 Chateau Gaillard in Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted,

1199 April 6 Richard I killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.

1202 April 28 King Philip II threw out John-without-Country, from France.

1204 France won back Normandy but the people of the isle of Jersey chose to remain loyal to England.

1204 April 1 Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died.

1212 Stephen, a shepherd boy from Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, gathered 30,000 children who went to Marseilles

1213 Sep 12 Simon de Montfort defeated Raymond of Toulouse and Peter II of Aragon at Muret, France.

1214 July 27 Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.

1215 Aug 24 Pope Innocent III, following a request from King John, declared the Magna Carta invalid.

1216 Oct 28 Henry III of England (9) was crowned.

1217 Aug 24 Eustace "the Monk", French buccaneer, was killed in battle.

1220 In France the main structure of Chartres cathedral was completed.

1223 July 14 Philip II Augustus died. Louis VIII succeeded his father.

1226 Nov 8 Louis VIII died. He was succeeded by Louis IX.

1238 Sep 28 James of Aragon retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.

1241 June Louis IX announced that the County of Poitiers would go to his brother Alphonse

1242 May 20 Saintonge War: Henry III of England arrived with an army in support of Isabella's claim to Poitiers.

1242 June 6 Talmudic books were burned in Paris.

1244 Cathars, a group of Catholic heretics, settled at Montsegur, France, in the Ariege region.

1244 Aug 23 Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem.

1244 Oct 17 Sixth Crusade ended annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.

c1244 Pope Innocent III launched the Albigensian Crusade,

1245 July 27 Frederick II of France was deposed by a council at Lyons, which found him guilty of sacrilege.

1246 May 22 Henry Raspe was elected anti-king by the Rhenish prelates in France.

1248 Nov 23 Seville, France surrendered to Ferdinand III of Castile after a two-year siege.

1250 April 30 King Louis IX of France was ransomed for one million dollars.

1253 July 23 Jews were expelled from Vienne, France, by order of Pope Innocent III.

1269 June 19 King Louis IX of France decreed all Jews must wear a badge of shame.

1270 Aug 25 Louis IX died. He was succeeded by his son Philip III.

1274 May 7 Second Council of Lyons opened.

1274 Thomas Aquinas was summoned before a council at Lyons to answer for his opinions.

1275 May 23 King Edward I of England ordered a cessation to the persecution of French Jews.

1282 March 30 Furious inhabitants of Palermo attacked French occupation force in the "Sicilian Vespers."

1282 March 31 The great massacre of the French in Sicily, "The Sicilian Vespers," came to an end.

1282 April 28 Villagers in Palermo led a revolt against French rule in Sicily.

1285 Oct 5 Philip III died. He was succeeded by his son Philip IV.

1288 April 24 Jews of Yroyes France were accused of ritual murder.

1289 Oct 4 Louis X, the Stubborn, king of France (1314-16), was born.

1290 Aug 16 Charles of Valois married Margaret of Anjou.

1297 Louis IX was canonized by Pope Boniface VIII,

1300 Paris, with its population between 200,000 and 300,000, was at this time the largest city in the world.

1302 May 18 Bruges Matins: The exiled citizens of Bruges, in Flanders, returned to their hometown and killed every Frenchman.

1302 July 11 Battle of the Golden Spurs: Flemish insurrectionists soundly defeated a French occupation force.

1303 May 20 France returned Gascony to England’s Edward I.

1303 Sep 8 Anagni: French king Philip IV captured Pope Boniface VIII.

1306 July 22 King Phillip the Fair ordered the expulsion of Jews from France.



1307 Oct 13 Philip IV accused Knights Templar of heresy.

1307 Oct 19 Hearings in Paris begin.

1307 Oct 24 Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Temple, confesses for the first time.

1307 Nov 9 Confession of Hugues de Pairaud.

1308 Aug 17–20 Chinon parchment shows pardons for leadership of the Templars, including Jacques de Molay and Huges de Pairaud.

1310 April 7 Defense of the order led by Pierre de Bologna and Renaud de Provins.

1310 May 12 Fifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France.

1312 March 22 Order of the Knights Templar is officially suppressed.

1313 March 21 Hospitallers agree to pay Philip IV 200,000 livres tournois compensation

1314 March 18 Jacques de Molay Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the stake along with his aides.

1314 Nov 29 Philippe IV, the Handsome, King of France (1285-1314), died.

1315 In France Parisian bakers were found guilty of mixing flour with animal droppings during the Great Famine.

1315 Louis X, Philip's brother and successor, allowed Jews back into France for financial considerations.

1315 Italian immigrants in France began the Western silk industry.

1316 June 4 Louis X (26), King of France (1314-16), died.

1316 Nov 15 Jean I became king of France, and died 4 days later.

1322 Jan 3 Philip V died. With no heir, his younger brother Charles IV succeeded him.

1322 June 24 Jews were expelled from France for a 3rd time.

1326 Richard de Bas, a paper manufacturer, was founded in Ambert d’Auvergne, France.

1328 Feb 1 Charles IV, the Handsome, King of France (1322-28), died.

1328 May 27 French king Philip VI Valois was crowned.

1340 June 24 English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.

1340 Nov 30 John, Duke de Berry, captain of Paris and art collector, was born.

1346 July 12 Edward III of England landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.



  • July 18 Edward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.

  • Aug 16 Philip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace.

  • Aug 25 Edward III of England defeated Philip VI's army at the Battle of Crecy in France.

  • Aug 26 Battle of Crecy.

  • Sep 3 Edward III of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.

  • Sep 28 Edward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce.

1347 Aug 3 Six burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.

1347 Aug 4 English troops conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to England's King Edward III.



1347-1350 Oct Black Death

1348 Plague arrived at Montpellier in the spring and killed an estimated two-thirds of the 50,000 inhabitants.

1349-1830 The eldest son of king of France was referred to as dauphine, as an honor to Dauphine province after its cession to France.

1350 Aug 22 John II, also known as John the Good, succeeded Philip VI as king of France.

1355 Nov 1 English invasion army under Black Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.

1356 Sep 19 English Prince Edward defeated the French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in battle.

1357 The States-General passed Étienne Marcel's Great Ordinance in an attempt to impose limits on the monarchy,

1357 Nov 25 Charles IV issued a letter of protection of Jews of Strasbourg and Alsace.

1358 June 10 French Boer leader Guillaume Cale was captured.

1358 French peasantry staged an uprising that came to be called the Jacquerie revolt.

1360 March 15 French invasion army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.

1364 April 8 John II died. He was succeeded by his son Charles V.

1370 April 22 The first stone of the Bastille was laid by order of King Charles V (1364-1380).

1378 Dec 18 Charles V denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his duchy.

1380 Sep 16 Charles V died. He was succeeded by his son Charles VI.

1380 Nov 14 King Charles VI of France was crowned at age 12.

1380 Nov 16 French King Charles VI declared no taxes forever.

1382 March 1 French Maillotin rose up against taxes.

1382 Nov 27 French nobility crushed the Flemish rebels at Flanders.

1390 July 1 A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.

c1392 Sir Jean Froissart authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."

1394 Sep 17 In France King Charles VI decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains.

1394 Nov 3 Jews were expelled from France by Charles VI.

1395-1456 Jacques Coeur, financial adviser to Charles VII of France.

1396 April 30 Crusaders and the Earl of Nevers departed from Dijon.

1412 Jan 6 According to tradition, French heroine Joan of Arc was born Jeanette d'Arc, in the French village of Domrémy.

1415 Aug 13 Hundred Years' War (1415-1429): Henry V landed in the north of France.

1415 Oct 25 Battle of Agincourt.

1418 May 30 The army of John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, captured Paris. The dauphin, the future Charles VII, fled.

1419 Sep 10 John the Fearless (48), was murdered at Montereau, France, by supporters of the dauphine.

1419 An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.

1420 May 21 Treaty of Troyes. under which the throne was to pass to Henry V

1420 Dec 1 Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.

1422 Aug 31 Henry V died. He was succeeded as King of England by his infant son Henry VI.


  • Oct 21 Charles VI died. He was succeeded by his son Charles VII as king of France, a title disputed for Henry VI of England.

1429 April 29 Joan of Arc led French troops to Orleans

  • May 7 English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.

  • May 8 French troops under Joan of Arc rescued Orleans.

  • July 16 Joan of Arc led French army in the Battle of Orleans.

  • July 17 The dauphin, son of Charles VI, was crowned as king of France.

  • Aug 26 Joan of Arc makes a triumphant entry into Paris.

1430 May 23 Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.

1430 July 14 Joan of Arc, was handed over to Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.

1431 Feb 21 The interrogation of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) began France.

1431 May 30 Joan of Arc burned at the stake in Rouen, France.

1431 Dec 16 Henry VI of England (10) was crowned King of France.

1432 Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of Burgundy.

1435 Sep 21 Treaty of Atrecht. Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles VII signed a treaty at Arras.

1440 Oct 26 Gilles de Rais, French marshal, depraved killer of 140 children, was hanged over slow fire.

1443 Cardinal Beaufort (1375-1447) lent English monarchy funds

1444 Aug 26 Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland,

1451 Jacques Coeur was charged with poisoning Agnes Sorel, mistress to King Charles VII.

1453 May 29 French banker Jacques Coeurs had his possessions confiscated.

1453 July 17 Battle at Castillon, France, ending the 100 Years' War.

1453 Oct 19 In the 2nd Battle at Castillon: France beat England, ending hundred year war.

1454 Feb 17 At a grand feast, Philip the Good of Burgundy took the "vow of the pheasant," by which he swore to fight the Turks.

1456 July 7 Joan of Arc was acquitted, even though she had already been burnt at the stake on May 30, 1431.

1456 Nov 25 Jacques Coeur, French merchant and banker, died in battle.

1461 July 22 Charles VII died. He was succeeded by his son Louis XI.

1464 June 19 French King Louis XI formed a postal service.

1474 May 9 Peter van Hagenbach, Elzasser (Alsatian) knight, land guardian, was beheaded.

1476 Aug 4 Jacob van Armagnac-Pardiac, French duke of Nemours, was beheaded.

1476 Dec 24 Some 400 Burgundy soldiers froze to death during the siege of Nancy.

1476 Swiss overcame Burgundy’s Charles the Bold at the Battle of Murten.

1477 Jan 5 Swiss troops defeated the forces under Charles the Bold of Burgundy at the Battle of Nancy.

1477 The Seventeen Provinces, a union of states in Low Countries, became the property of the Habsburgs.

1480-1520 The fortress at Bonaguil in the Quercy province was built by a baron as a bulwark against his vassals.

1483 Aug 30 Louis XI died. He was succeeded by his son Charles VIII.

1488 July 28 Some 440 men from the Isle of Wight declared war on France.

1490 Anne of Brittany married by proxy the recently widowed Maximilian of Hapsburg

1494-1547 Cesspools and the guild that emptied them, the Maitres Fy-Fy, developed at this time.

1494-1553 Francois Rabelais, French satirist: "If you wish to avoid seeing a fool you must first break your mirror."

1495 Jan 28 Pope Alexander VI gave his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France.

1498 April 7 Charles VIII died. With no heir, he was succeeded by his father's second cousin, the Duke of Orléans, LouisXII.

1498 Aug 17 French King Louis XII made Cesare Borgia (1475-1507) the Duke of Valentinois.

1499 Sep 10 French marched on Milan.

1500 April 8 Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).

1500 April 10 France captured duke Ludovico Sforza ("Il Sforza del Destino") of Milan.

1505 April 20 Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.

1507 Genoa was annexed by the French.

1508 Dec 10 War of the League of Cambrai:

1509 May 14 Battle of Agnadello, the French defeated the Venetians in Northern Italy.

1509-1564 John Calvin, French theologian. He started the Protestant Reformation in France in 1532.

1511 Sep 1 Council of Pisa opened. Louis XII of France called the council to oppose the Holy League of Pope Julius II.

1512 April 11 Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna.

1513 June 6 Battle at Novara: Habsburgers vs. Valois.

1513 Aug 16 Battle of the Spurs.

1513 Sep 9 Battle of Flodden Field.

1514 England and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.

1514 May 18 Claude, the duchess of Brittany, was married to Francis of Angoulême, the heir to the French throne.

1515 Jan 1 King Louis XII (b.1462) of France, died. He was succeeded by Francis I (1494-1547).

1515 Sep 13 King Francis of France defeated the Swiss at Marignano, northern Italy.

1515 The first nationalized French factories were set up in the manufacture of tapestries and arms.

1516 Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.

1518 Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.

1518-1589 Catherine de Medicis, queen of Henry II of France, mother of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1519 May 2 Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at Cloux, France.

1521 April 22 French king Francois I declared war on Spain.


  • Nov 19 Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan.

  • Chateau de Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley of France was built for the royal tax collector, Thomas Bohier.

  • The manufacture of silk cloth was introduced to France. It had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.

1522 England declared war on France and Scotland.

1523 Oct 27 English troops occupied Montalidier, France.

1524 March 19 Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.

1524 July 20 Claude died. Her eldest son Francis, Dauphin of France, became Duke of Brittany.

1524 Aug 19 Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.

1524 Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.

1525 Feb 24 Charles V captured Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy.

1525 March 20 Paris parliament began the pursuit of Protestants (Papists proudly participated).

1526 Jan 14 Francis of France, held captive by Charles V, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up claims in France and Italy.

1526 March 26 King François I returned Spanish captivity to France.

1527 April 30 Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.

1528 Jan 22 England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain.

1529 April 16 Louis de Berquin, French humanist, reformer, heretic, was burned at stake.

1530 Etienne Briard introduced round characters in musical engraving.

1532 John Calvin (1509-1564), French theologian, started the Protestant Reformation in France.

1532 Francis I issued an edict incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.

1533 Caterina de Medici (14) married the future Henry II (14) of France.

1534 April 20 Cartier departed St. Malo on the 1st of his 3 expeditions to the New World.



  • June 9 Jacques Cartier became the first man to sail into the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

  • July 24 Jacques Cartier landed in Canada and claimed it for France.

  • Aug 15 St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) in Paris

  • Oct 18 A new pursuit of French protestants began.

1535 Sep 1 French navigator Jacques Cartier landed in Quebec.

1535 Oct 2 Jacques Cartier first saw the site of what is now Montreal and proclaimed "What a royal mountain," hence the name.

1535 France became the first country to have a permanent embassy at the Sublime Porte in Istanbul.

1536 July 6 Jaques Cartier returned to France after discovering the St. Lawrence River in Canada.

1536 July 14 France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain.

1536 Oct 6 William Tyndale, English translator of New Testament, strangled and burned at the stake for heresy at Vilvorde, France.

1538 June 18 Treaty of Nice ended the war between Emperor Charles V and King Francois I. It only lasted 10 months.

1538 France’s King Francois I closed the French bath houses by this time.

1539 Aug 10 King Francis of France declared that all official documents were to be written in French, not Latin.

1539 In Lyon printers went on strike against long hours, poor conditions and excessive profits by masters.

1541 Aug 23 Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage and established a short-lived community there.

1542 War was renewed between the Holy Roman Empire and France.

1543 Aug 22 French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city.

1544 Sep 14 Henry VIII's forces took Boulogne, France.



  • Sep 19 Francis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy.

  • Henry VIII crossed the Channel to Calais to campaign with Charles V against Francis I.

  • Gustavus I of Sweden signed an alliance with France.

1545 Feb 13 William of Nassau became prince of Orange.

1545 April 12 French king Francis I ordered the Protestants of Vaudois killed.

1545 July 19 French troops landed on the Isle of Wight.

1546 June 7 Peace of Ardes ended the war between France and England.

1546 Aug 3 French printer Etienne Dolet, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake.

1546 Pierre Lescot, French architect, began the building of the Louvre in Paris.

1547 March 31 Francis I died. He was succeeded by his son Henry II.

1548 Aug 15 Mary Queen of the Scots (6), who was engaged to the Dauphin, landed in France.

1549 Aug 9 France declared war on England. England declared war on France.

1550 March 24 France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. It ended the war of England with Scotland and France.

1551 June 27 France promulgated the Edict of Chateaubriand, a crackdown on Protestantism in France.

1552 Jan 15 France signed a secret treaty with German Protestants.

1553 Aug 2 An invading French army was destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.

1554 Henry II of France invaded the Netherlands.

1556 Feb 5 Henry II of France and Philip of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.

1557 Aug 10 Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino).

1557 The influx of New World silver caused bankruptcies in France and Spain.

1558 Jan 6 French seized the British held port of Calais.

1558 Jan 7 French, under the Duke of Guise, finally took the port of Calais from the English.

1558 March 5 Smoking tobacco was introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes.

1558 April 24 Mary, Queen of Scotland, married the French dauphin, Francis.

1558 June 22 French took the French town of Thioville from the English.

1558 July 13 Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.

1558 July 23 Battle at Grevelingen: Gen. Lamoral van Egmont beat France.

1559 April 3 Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis,

1559 July 10 Henry II died following a wound to the head by a tournament lance. prophecy by Nostradamus.

1559 The first synod of Calvinist, or Reformed, churches, met in Paris.

1560 Sep 16 Arnaud du Tilh, who had confessed to impersonating Martin Guerre, was hanged in front of Guerre’s house.

1560 Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise attempted without success to overthrow the Guises

1560 Dec 5 Francis II died. With no heir, he was succeeded by his brother Charles IX.

1561 Jan 28 Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of French Huguenots.

1561 May, In Montpellier, a Calvinist stronghold, the Catholics marched in protest against the Calvinists

1561 Sep 20 Elizabeth of England signed a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon

1561 Sep 23 Philip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.

1561 Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Lisbon, sent tobacco seeds and powdered leaves back to France.

1562 Jan 17 French Protestant Huguenots were recognized under the Edict of St. Germain.



  • March 1 Massacre of Vassy (Wassy)
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