G codes & m-codes g-code



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G codes & M-codes

G-code:

G-code which has many variants, is the common name for the most widely used numerical control (NC) programming language.

It is used mainly in computer-aided manufacturing for controlling automated machine tools. G-code is sometimes called G programming language.

In fundamental terms, G-code is a language in which people tell computerized machine tools how to make something. The how is defined by instructions on where to move, how fast to move, and through what path to move. The most common situation is that, within a machine tool, a cutting tool is moved according to these instructions through a toolpath, cutting away excess material to leave only the finished workpiece. The same concept also extends to noncutting tools such as forming or burnishing tools, photoplotting.



G-codes are also called preparatory codes, and are any word in a CNC program that begins with the letter G. Generally it is a code telling the machine tool what type of action to perform, such as:

  • Rapid move (transport the tool through space to the place where it is needed for cutting; do this as quickly as possible)

  • Controlled feed move in a straight line or arc

  • Series of controlled feed moves that would result in a hole being bored, a workpiece cut (routed) to a specific dimension, or a profile (contour) shape added to the edge of a workpiece

  • Set tool information such as offset

  • Switch coordinate systems

M-Codes:


M or miscellaneous codes are used to either turn ON or OFF different functions which control certain machine tool operations. They control machine auxiliary options like coolant and spindle direction. Only one M-code can appear in each block of code.

Uses of G codes and M codes:

G-codes Uses:

Sr.No.

Codes

Category

Function

1

G00

Motion

Move in a straight line at rapids speed.

2

G01

Motion

Move in a straight line at last speed commanded by a Feed rate

3

G02

Motion

Clockwise circular arc at Feed rate

4

G03

Motion

Counter-clockwise circular arc at Feed rate

5


G04

Motion

Dwell: Stop for a specified time.

6


G15

Co-ordinate

Turn Polar Coordinates OFF

7

G16

Co-ordinate

Turn Polar Coordinates ON

8

G17

Co-ordinate

Select X-Y plane

9

G18

Co-ordinate

Select X-Z plane

10

G19

Co-ordinate

Select Y-Z plane

11

G20

G-Code

Input in Inches

12

G21

G-Code

Input in Metrics

13

G27

G-Code

Reference Point Return Check

14

G28

G-Code

Automatic Zero Return

15

G29

G-Code

Return from Zero position

16

G31

G-Code

Skip Function

17

G36

G-Code

Automatic Tool Compensation

18

G40

G-Code

Tool Compensation Cancel

19

G50

G-Code

Co-ordinate System Setting

20

G52

G-Code

Local Coordinate System Setting

21

G53

G-Code

Machine Co-ordinate System Setting

22

G90

Co-ordinate

Absolute positioning

23

G91

Co-ordinate

Incremental positioning

M -codes Uses:

Sr. No.

Codes

Category

Function

1

M00

M-Code

Program Stop (non-optional)

2

M01

M-Code

Optional Stop: Operator Selected to Enable

3

M02

M-Code

End of Program

4

M03

M-Code

Spindle ON (CW Rotation)

5

M04

M-Code

Spindle ON (CCW Rotation)

6

M05

M-Code

Spindle Stop

7

M06

M-Code

Tool Change

8

M07

M-Code

Mist Coolant ON

9

M08

M-Code

Flood Coolant ON

10

M09

M-Code

Coolant OFF


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