Graduation test review



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UNITED STATES HISTORY TO 1865

GRADUATION TEST REVIEW


  1. The year 1607 occurred in the _____________ century. Add“1 to year to figure out the century.




  1. The New England colonies in 1700s were dependent on __________________.




  1. __________________ is a book or source written in the first person. A source based on primary sources is a ______________ source. Jefferson’s autobiography is a _________ source.




  1. Locate the 13 colonies and the territorial expansion of the United States.

13 Colonies: Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire.

Territorial Expansion:

The United States in 1783—Atlantic Coast to Mississippi River, but not Florida

The Louisiana Purchase—doubled size, from Mississippi River to Rockies.

Florida—added in 1819

Oregon Country—1845—settled with British; today Oregon and Washington

Texas Annexation—1845

Mexican Cession—1848—from Mexican War, the south from Louisiana Purchase to Pacific Ocean (Southwest today—Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California)

Gasden Purchase, 1853—small piece of land purchased for railroad.

Alaska—purchased in 1867.

Hawaii—annexed in 1871.




  1. Key Documents

__________________________: Pilgrims establish self-government in colonies

__________________________: Declares independence from Britain; relies on Locke’s ideas of natural rights, social contract. Purpose is to justify rebellion, increase colonial support, and enlist _________________allies.

___________________________, 1789: Popular sovereignty, social contract, separation of powers, federalism

The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom: ________________ wrote, separating religion and government; began movement toward freedom of religion

The Bill of Rights: First ______ amendments

Washington’s Farewell Address, 1797: encourages Americans to avoid foreign alliances, sectionalism and ____________________.

______________________________: Lincoln made the Civil War a war to restore union and for freedom of slaves.




  1. Paleo-Indians crossed the _______________ from Asia to inhabit North America.




  1. Advanced societies in Mesoamerica were the (1) __________________, who had writing and built cities; (2) __________________ who built an empire in Mexico; and (3) _____________ of Peru, who built an empire of 12 million people.




  1. The deadliest thing Europeans brought to the Americas was ______________. The exchange of goods, people, plants, and ideas between Africa, Asia and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries is known as the _____________________________.




  1. Two key conquistadores, or conquerors were ____________ who conquered the Aztecs, and _________________ who conquered the Incas. Conquerors were motivated by _________, ____________ and God.




  1. French colonies were located in _____________, along the ___________ River, and in Louisiana. The French were interested in the ________ trade.




  1. The English colonies were located along the ______________ coast. Some colonists came for political and _______________ freedom.




  1. The Southern colonies were Virginia, Maryland, ______________, South Carolina and _______________. These states had a ______________ economy and grew __________, rice and indigo.




  1. Southern society was controlled by wealthy planters known as ______________.




  1. Bacon’s Rebellion forced the colonies to (1) fight Indians in the backcountry to provide cheap land; and (2) encouraged the switch from indentured servants to _____________. More than _____ million people were taken from Africa over 3 centuries. The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean was known as the ________________________.




  1. The New England colonies were Massachusetts, _______________, Connecticut and New Hampshire. The economy was based on small farming, ____________, whaling, and shipping. The Puritans held ___________ town meetings.




  1. The ________________ were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The main crop was ____________. These colonies were more _________ than New England or the South.




  1. The Great Awakening was a revival of religious ___________ and emotions. ___________________ was a minister during the Great Awakening.




  1. The French and Indian War began as a colonial war between Britain and France over the _________________________. The Treaty of Paris ending the war led to Britain gaining all of North America from the Atlantic to the ______________ River.


  1. The causes of the American Revolution were colonists’ reactions to

    1. Changes in British land policy—the ________________ of 1763 banned settlement west of the Appalachians.

    2. Change in British ___________ policy—Britain will use revenue from taxes to pay war debt.

    3. Violations of the colonists’ ____________, such as no taxation without ________________




  1. The Stamp Act was the first ___________ tax on colonists. The most successful form of protest was the _________________.




  1. Timeline:

1767-_______________________—import taxes on tea, glass, paint; boycotts successful

1770-_______________________-- 5 colonists killed by British soldiers

1773-Tea Act; Boston Tea Party --colonists destroy tea rather than pay tax

1774-__________________________-close Boston port; quarter soldiers; military governor

1774-First Continental Congress—colonies come together to address Intolerable Acts.
22. The Battle of ______________ was a victory for American morale, although technically the

Americans lost due to lack of ammunition.


23__________________--Thomas Paine’s pamphlet that encouraged colonists to seek independence. One purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to enlist ___________ allies against Britain.


  1. _____________ were loyal to the British king. ______________ wanted independence.



  1. Name two advantages that the British had over the colonists as the war started.

Name two disadvantages that the colonists had:





  1. The turning point of the war was the Battle of __________________, because the _____________ decided to join the war on the colonists’ side.



  1. The Treaty of Paris of _________ ended the war. The United States stretched from the Atlantic to the __________________ River, excluding __________ and Canada.




  1. The first government of the United States was a loose confederation, known as the ____________________________________. Name one weakness or problem with the government:

________________ Rebellion led to the call for a __________ national government.



  1. Describe the 4 compromises of the Constitutional Convention:

    1. Great/Connecticut Compromise:




    1. Compromise on slave trade:

(c ) Three-Fifths Compromise


(d) Commerce Compromise


  1. The preamble of the Constitution expresses the idea that:




  1. Why was the Whiskey Rebellion important?




  1. The case of Marbury v. Madison established the principle of ____________________.



  1. In 1803, Pres. Jefferson doubled the size of the U.S. by making the ____________________.

What were the 3 parts to Henry Clay’s American system?


  1. What means of transportation spurred economic growth in the 1800s?




  1. What were the four key reform movements of the early 1800s?

36. The Republican Party was formed in _________ from antislavery groups, the Free Soil Party, and the Whig Party.


37. _______________________--the idea that it was the fate or destiny of the U.S. to spread across the entire continent. This belief led the U.S. into the _________________War.
38. The ____________ Compromise of 1820 brought Maine in as a ________ state and Missouri in as a ____________state.


  1. The theory of ______________ _______ says that states have the power to decide whether they wanted slavery and whether they wanted to be part of the U.S. The doctrine of ___________sovereignty was used in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Why was it a failure?




  1. The Dred Scott case held that slavery could not be ______________ by states. In the end, the most immediate cause of the Civil War was the election of _________________.



  1. The ______________ Proclamation freed slaves only in the __________ states. The surrender of Robert E. Lee to Union General Grant at _____________________ on April 9, 1865, was followed 5 days later by the __________________ of Abraham Lincoln.




  1. How many people died in the Civil War? ______________________





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