|History of home computer
Today’s world is surrounded by computers. They pervade every aspect of our culture: from the workplace to the home. But thereit was the only 560 years ago that they were considered rather futuristic devices, bea longing to usethe, skilled world of the scientists.
 M: - That I did have a computer at home likes having a chemical engineering launch (or plant ?) employeeplant in the home.
Most people’s understanding thatof computers can concludecame through science fictions, but for those working with the machine, the reality was very different.
W: - Computers in those they knowday didn’t mean but it mean that it’s mentallyit mention a person who was first, usually a woman who did calculation with some sources of calculating machines.
But for a long time it was a male dominated world with the biggest fans being teenage boys playing games in their bedrooms.
M: - There were something that has an optic above the stuffed plane can a white thing move under the black but they all can have sucked you in.
But it was the computer enthusiastics, the original computer nurse nerds that help this industry balloonballoon into multi-media millions ofpounds businesses with video games and millionaires software designers. This is the story of how the computer power came into our homes and into our lives.
Hard Drive Heaven/ the History of home Computer.
M: - Manchester University where anyone who urgently wishes to know whether 2127 – 1 is a prime number or not. Can it be given the answer by an electronic brain in 25 minutes in stead of by a human brain in 6 months?
In 1949, the Manchester Baby was declared the world its 1st modern computer and its birth causedexperts called this huge scientific approacexcitementh in the scientific roadworld. But it was impossible to imagine that this room full of valves and wires would one day evolve into the home computer.But it was impossible to imagine that this ruled for the vouch and wire with 1 day at all into the home computer.
W: - It was the 1st computer to have all the characteristics of what you would we expect now and what theyour computer called PC has. So, it had memory, it could store prog rams and data and codecs of inputscode to executed , .it’s very had very premistiimitivec of the input /output. But it was the outputs that changinged the computer power.
M: - the computer itself contains 1500 vouch valves, the brain aof person can desires to retain into the mental stage. The answer is being raisedd for the kettles rateid, too. Later, an automatic people will type the answer.
With technological advances, these electronic brains became more powerful and more sophisticated although it still has to be the computer scientists’ work to operate oneworkld.
W: - It was impossible to imagine a Baby for where we are now now or baby forfrom where we were then, just was huge, hugetoo different. And it gives you a different disapdisapproach proach to how it works computers as well because now you can be fair if it’s easy. You can try out something, if it doesn’t work, you can have another 5 minutes file later, 2 minutes later. It’s very often for people now towe only get one test to our program over night so in our 24 hours period and under those circumstance it was quite hard to check whether your program wais correct, because you wanted the answers. It’ll be very frustrating that 24 hours to base your answer …??? on ....???alternativea
What changed this slow clumsy machine was the arrival of the microchip in the 60s. It was a revolution. It meant computers could now be smaller and have much shorter processing time. The advances in the technology were taking place at a breathtaking pace, generating huge excitement for those attemptingthe potential of computers.
M: - I’ve just been giving a computer information about an aero plane by means of an invention which is going to change computer technology. Fo r instance, to find whatif I want to tell a computer computer can tell about this aero plane, I wouldn’t depart three patches with all the thousands and thousands of secret pieces of information contained in this vast massive computer punch... mental stage tape. But now the computer is no longer blindblank. It can see the aero plane as I can see it. We have given the computer an eye, the screen.
Every new step of technology was marvelled at.marvel that iIt seemed there were endless responsibilities possibilities for the computers.
M: - Those who must seek for advances in miniaturizations of computer technology, many people seemed to involve in. It was self d off- paradise cases of technological advance for a very long time. No thingwinkle like it that all the people thought has been seen. Nothing as in the street, nothings in manufactures, not the things seen often in a car, it appears, oh, it with simply feet ofappears that technology which was running away from with this. To many people, kind of computer to bebecausethe computers, they come a can think it’s were getting so much smallerfaster orand because they can think , it’sthey were getting so much fastersmaller. “People ask themselves when this happen to the worldgoing to end?”
And with this question, there came a note of coarsenquotion; even on program like “Tomorrow’s World”.
This invention clearly adds a whole new dimension to the capability of the computers with a feel of being able to take over even more about everyday routine activities. But no matter how sophisticated the computers become, we must remember that it’s still we who are the masters and they are just the serversants.
YOU RANG, SIR?
The paranoid fears of those worried about the spread of computer technology were often realized through in the science fiction dramas of the days.
M1: - Are you telling seriously to me, sir? You have invented a machinecomputer that can think?
M2: - Yes!
M1: - And never makes mistakes?
M2: - Never.
M1: - Huh. Huh.
Some people share their tastes about computer.
M: - Some people share their tastes about computer Very many people seriously thought that the computers ‘ll mightget be smaller and that they ‘ll get faster and. theyIt will become intelligent. They will eventually become more intelligent than humans.
M: - I’m humans and nothing’s more important than human’s life. Machines can not govern men. I will not (6.30)...
But But the imagined dangers of dabbling with computersthey imagined danger of the double in computers didn’t dumb dampen the enthusiasts enthusiasm for this new phenomenon. In the late 60s and early 70s; Groups of HobbyistsHobbies was busily experimenting with early computers.
M: - Welcome everybody to our Computer Hobby Club. I’ve noticed Tthere’s a number of faces here that we’ve not seen before.
For these enthusiasts, it was the arrival of computer aidskit called 'the outers Altair' which bro ught their dream of the home computer that much closer.
M: - You have to build it yourself?
M: - I need many built it so that it can be worked, new programs by flicking the switches then to share it with the turning of flash. It was almost unusable computer, but it was a computer but it was a computer and yet it doesn’t matter if it’s non-fit.
M: - You can in fact buy an outerAltair read it on board, so for that reason, it is usually described as our first home computer.
Although it was called home computer, not many homes had an outerAltair. A farfarmer’s more popular experience of the computer technology was to be found in a gaminge ...arcades inof the early 70s.
M: - I like to describe myself as a wiser leisure time technologyist and what I didreally mean is I like to pride technology to the process clusters of having fun.
Nolan Bushnell, an American hobbyistNow it is international that American’s Hobbies haved exploited the technology of the microchip in a new way.
He puts itself a programhis self-programmed of computer games into the bars proving they haved universal appeals. His company Atari was then one of the first to introduce the games Consolerts into the home.
M: - The 1st domestic computer game was Prong. This early computer game machine worked like the Consolert which was to come to dedicated to play one game and to put it on the Television.
M: - And it looks like a great action. The one wheel game of Consolert playing with the Binatune one where we promise, you know, 10 great games that all are fantastic. You’ll know how to get that Prong to play even 10 games butecause they’re all exactly the same, you can have tennis with these Prongs and you can have football which is like Prong but it has 2 barstcheses, that mean move up and down at the same time and then they have hockey was the same , twoo bars; but they put it in acame into a goal ...hole; All exactly the same. But we love that it’s art, absolutely in a memorized one something above. There were something that has an optic above the stuffed plane can a white thing move under the black but they all can have sucked you in.
WhileWhile Games Consolertss haved entered the home market, many none of the Bbig Ccompanies recognized that there was a demand for the home computer. It was leftate for to small electronic firms and the Hobbiesyists themselves to create a commercialmarshal market. In Britain, thatere could would be alterentrepreneur,...alternative likeClive Sinclairdevices to declare..
M: - The very 1st one that was ZX80 which actually came out inexactly games of 1979 and then ... I know that like the small for the small next in 19ZX81, We knew that there would be a market which only withwith that ZX80, Hobbiesbyists because of that already existed, but I hate hope that the market with would be much great of thoseer than that in terms of people who never thought of any computer as a member of the public and that turns out to be cagedthe case.
There are 2 sections, one was for the very young people just packed for the hurries but the other with
with toughretired people, and they took it very much because they’ve got time available to spend to learn how to use it. So with retiredtough people, there’ll be a market.
M: - Think like them, watch the reason forwas to produce computers that people could false afford rather than the computers that have practical purposes and yet people still vote bought it anyway because it was interesting, because it was noveltyinnovative.
M: - to load a program, you have to have a tape recorder and you have to open it out. You have to be careful to connect it up begin. You press “Play”. It’ll make one full noise. And 5 minutes later it would go “program’s not relatedloaded”. And it’ll start again. It crashes on to be funny because when you put it in, you didn’t care you didn’t know that things could be better. It was still one full effect you could load the program.
The ZX80, and its immediate successor the ZX81Perhaps 80s, it was an immediate success. For ZX, 81 was astonishingly successful, but for Sinclair, the best year was yet to come.
M: - Assuming Following that ZX Spectrum was the 1st one that had colors and that really we’ve got off to showsold. We sold many millions of those and indeed, I learned the other day that the Russians used to use spectrum very widely for running, running almost everything they had made. They may copy the millions. They’re not. So we are.
In 1982, the BBC began its a campaign to educate the nation about computers. In fact, theThe Thatcher government was keen on to trying to and make the British population the most computer- leechesiterate in the world.
M: - The BBC computer-literacy leeches project was obsessed with almost the aim of educating the public about computers. At the end of 70s, there had been a lot of fear about which way computer technology was going whether we going to be and go as fast as new...technology or we simply...., whether we were going as far as the pretend to understand, so this whole practical program of computer programs, micro life was like tha kind ofa game.
M1: - What happened to this?
M2: - You help me to load this program into the machine, so you start totype: 'load'.
M1: - And now it is?.
M2: - Now you would give the program a name so in this particular machine, we have a quotation mark of the game. The name of the game is: “Wall Game”.
M1: (type) “Wall game Game” – Right.
M2: - Now we must strict on the possesscassette...
M1: - Yes.
M2: - And then have tohit return. Push the control back to the computer. Now it’s searching.
M1: - Right.
M: - What interests if you look into the programs is how technical they are.... It assumes that you get into the computer; you need to understand the basis of how it works, the nuts and bold if you likes…..
M1: - So that’s in there.
M2: That's it.
M1: We can check, can't we.? What’s ion there is in there now.
M2: - Happily?, yes
M2: - Yes.. All we have to do is tos? Ttype in ' list', tell me what's in the listell me,
M2: List, I’m listening to youL-I-S-T?.
M1: Yes. M1: - Yes. See it. Type a list. Return. Right. Just Press.
M2: - Wow!Yes.
But it wasn't just a campaign involving TV program. In what was quite a remarkable piece of social interventionin most require of remarkable social individual inventions,. Tthe BBC commissionedconnection thea computer,s made by Applecorn, Company with the idea of allocatingindicating one to every school in the country. It was known as the BBC Micro.
M: - I remember my 1st impression of the BBC Micro was a school takes had one. I looked that almost all schools... had one. I’m sure I found the class with an screen to see what's on it. of the school on it and I was told that the wonderful things to do.
W: - When the school got the BBC Micros and assumption of the manymaths teachers to would be a person who was able to make the computer work. There wereIf the maths many teachers who didn’t happen to be that way in time, then, perhaps the computers might spend its time in cupboard.
It wasn’t only teachers who showed their reluctance toward this new computer technology. Alongside the most technical educational TV shows. Broadcast todid use dramas to try this special field around these rather strange new machines.
M1: - But what can they do?
M2: - It can play games.
M1: So can I with a package of cards?
M2: It can give you how to show the cards.
M1: So can I with the calculator?
W: It’s micro enough, of course.
W: Your calculator is micro enough.
W: Mine is just to point out that you
M: Listen! Both of You. I’ve got nothing against computers that providing us with genuine usefulness.
M1: - What they wanted to make an explain was the idea of a machine that you can have at home that was new. And the idea of having a computer at home like having a chemical engineering plant in the home.
It was Italian lifean entire lie target likea decade before, but by the 80s they could convincingly sell outyou the idea that home computers could do everything in the home, anything that you wanted it to do. It could do things like to take calculation; it could do things like play game, it could even run biorythm programs.
The important thing is that you did know what you wanted the computer to do for you. It is fantastic to know, to join in a future ...with the contribution of the computers. If you work without computers, you’d be left behind. Particularly the feeling of taking the work on pens, computers can take that.
M2: - I remember when I was about 8 years old and my Mom brought home this ZX spectrum hilariously and she said that it was for the computetingr in the home. Yeah. Right. And then After 10 minutes explicating I found out it can play game.
Never can … anybody take type 1 letter on it . It was definitely highlighted because they were far well keeping hit on it. And they got BBC warns that it was cleverer than ever, we got rough more barely when trying to get spectrum but then you know people were just saying “Yes” for the games to the BBC that more intellectual.
Even know that those who had seen Sinclair’s spectrum is not largelyas means of as a likelywas largely seen as the games of machine, to operate it, you did haeve need to hadve some technical knowledge.
M: - When we first started it, we realized there was a game respect that was first appealed to people who want to get their hands in the program themselves, which says that they were doing for children to get in that. And it’s a bit sad today that is really very available to them that are so changed; but in those days, you know, children could hold on the reason to put on the program.
And some of those early young early programmers made the headlights.
Interviewer: - You don’tid need the know the living of the computer to tell that now you living in thosethe ages of microchips. now that homes were rapidly. being invaded by many computers. And already some young students in the South East are making a fortune by matching the microchips. 17 year old Jeremy Ruston and Alex Goner who’s 15 are 2 London schoolboys who are sharing £16,000 between them this year, cashing on the computer crags. Jeremy first. How did you become hooked too much to that fascination?
Jeremy Ruston: I’ve just been searching on the electronic…Internet on the work of building small computers and from then I studied by reading books on that aspect.
Jeremy Ruston: - It’s a TV program on January 1983 which is 21 years ago when I was 17 and I was just writing a computer program..... At the end of 1983, to be hooked on the computers is to get in troubles. Especially, I was only 17 and at that time, it was likely that Computers seemed alien to such age. At that time, computers were a notable thing.??
Interviewer: - But Jeremy, perhaps now we could now take a look at yours, play computer games we just call Dock-who I believe. How does it work? Is there a pack man in it?
J.R: - Yes. Space on which I did put some packed men. This is a very packer and it takes a long time to access.
Interviewer: and it’s skilled to define who you are?
J.R: - Yes, Eventually, you’ll call a dot of the corner here. A new beam is concentrating on this diagram.
In: - Oh, I see.
J.R: For me, a big problem is that to over stand on a challenge exploring of trying to get whether I could master the computers. It was mentally difficultpsychology for a teenage boy to be like that because there was something you can’t control. ….And a theory of an important belief that you can control the world, control your world, with your friends and the other….
It was a the boomed time for the home computers with small companies inventing new models all the times. This revolution came to the attention of the Computer Giant, IBM, who had inventionsup until then, had specializinged in the main frame kind of the computers. They decided to launch their own smaller machines called the personal computer or PC.
Today a new IBM computer has reached a personal scale, a person can afford it.
M: - With the IBM PC, the certain way to notice it to the audience. This is very successful indeed. It overtook our expectations. It took IBM by surprised.
The IBM personal computers soon became the standard for the computers in the offices to such an extent that the name PC became a general term. Despite the success of the new PC, there were problems. The personal computers, although affordable, could be infuriatingin theory irritating to use; they still relyied on the operator having the to typinge in specific written commands.
If you can't get a computer to do anything but frustrate you, if you are having a hard time understanding computers.
M: - the IBM PC with this I think really can serve withconservative computers ....with the quosy computer we want to come… before which is impossible with their return ofcompatible with their early technology . for that reason, it was very limited and it’s approached, specifically its hunting rode nary to face.
But there was a new raven revolution about to happen. In 1984, a company called Apple launched its Macintosh computer. In stead of typing and in texts, it introduced the usage of pictures, computer icons. In an advertisement which has gone out in history, Apple promoted the idea of interactive computers as a free spirit in a symbolic world against the big FBroather, the big Cooperation; in other words, against IBM.
[On January 24th, Apple computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like “1984”]
As well as introducing the world the computer icons, the Macintosh popularized the mouse. This newly user-friendly approach turned computing into child's play and quickly became an industry standard.the computing in the charming place and quickly became an interpret-standard. The origin of Apple has been a small computerthat of small entrepreneur nerve: Computer Hobbiesyist. This was the defining characteristic of computing world, particularly in the games market where young bedroom programmers could still design outside the big companies. A lucky field making a fortune, not least in Britain.
“Let’s play Whizzkid”.
This is a real life computer game that any youngsters can play. Like spacing invader, it requires skills and luck. But the worst for the success can be in nays.
For David and Richard Darling, a schoolboy Hobby has already bought them well on their dreams. Nothing can seem to stuck the man.
J.R: - We have business talent so we can do what all the businessmen can do. But I think the main thing is we know we are with others in a market, we know what the kids want; in other words, we know what people want for their computers.
17 years after launching that best of men’sBatterman surprise, Post Monsters is , a multi-million pounds games company employing over 400 hundred people.
M: - When we first experienced in the ordinary spectrum, home computers had an expect to the Sinclair as it was a wise man coming in the computers like that. So we could cooperatively connect the very thinking of video games with the computer games and then Nintendo and Stamen launched the confident America and really we can over trigger home computers which are recently nearly changed into the Consolert market.
The Console,rt, a dedicated games machine has now become a more popular form of computers in the homes. Although the PC was used at home by some, it was essentiallycentrally an office machine. By the late 80s, there were 2 competing Consolesrts, which would dominated the market: Sega and Nintendo.
M: - These machines were in many ways like computers. They were like the Prong machine which is used to play Wall Game. They had Microsoft microprocessor to so that they access so they could play the games on cards with it. They were mainly all seen target marked with children rather than that it attempted to, appeared to adult uses in digesting dedicated games machines. But they seemed to be very popular.
That how popular games have become was evidence when Games mastered the 1st Video games program came on to our TVs in 1992, presented by Dominick Diamond interest the audience of millions.
M: - Calm down everyone! Now, thank you and hallo. Welcome to Games Master. It’s an achievement for the 1st time where you have been to our forehead to get in. Take turns to keep for the arrival. So stay upstairs, have a mark, get out to come up, get out a loving stand for all the news that we will deal with for the next time.
Dominick Diamond (Columnist and Broadcaster): The Group of the Consolert for Games and over the home Computers against all they have to do for is speed when cars can play games came along with Nintendo must say that just force and come on. But they’re you’re. You work in hesitation a source of on the brand …. You know the reason why it’s all about. Consolert has cut down a timeline between you and a general face.
Meanwhile, in the world of the PC, things hadve become ever more sophisticated. One of the original and the most famous computer nerdsurse: Bill Gates and he’sis now mounted aulti- billions of dollars Computer Company: Microsoft., It waswere instrumental instrumental in terning turning the PC into a machine which could perform amounts multitude of tasks. It was even beginning to challenge the Console griprt on the gameing market. That was until Sony on a so new image introduceding its pPlay sStation.
For years of living …
I’ve lived a life for a generation.
I miss Hobby and his freelance.
M: - There are other could be rather more, a pake or surreal.
You might not think it to look at me.
But I have commanded on this.
And concord wars.
I have no regrets.
At least I can say.
“Do not underestimate the power of play station”
M: - Deliberating with all the play station into the clubs, into a cheer labs room, they were responding tense for the play station and this just brand that they consider the play station as a rude thing All the things like ………..OK to buy it, not embarrassing to buy a Nintendo but also the younger can call probably to their friends or let’s go to a predicate thing in a bias danger of surf, etc.
As well as being fashionably cool,As once being the professional record, the Play station and other next generation Consolerts seemed as though they were setseem to those who had set to become the main form of computers in the homes. But then with the advance advent of Internet, suddenly and surprisingly the dream of a multi-functional home computer was given a new leaf lease of liveslife.
M: - The attack of Internet use in the homes for domestic has theor game purposes in UK. But it has affected to put aside the use of PC that given the PC a new leafse of life. A whole new settle of new practices of about a PC in the home. It’s the first time it becomes a communication technology.
The computer has become an ornamentalunimaginable way to thosesince its early days. From being a vast-room-sized calculating machine which only scientists could use to a machine you have to build a program yourself. The computer is now easily accessible to us all. Now, twice as many households own a computer than own a dishc watcsher. The PC, onced used as a purely administrative device,machine with devices can now be used to play music, films and DVDs; as thea dictators certainly found themdigital photo album, toas an instant communication, tool and for playing games. But it’s a pagepace of technological advance now that such that athe home computer will soon become the victim of its ownthis success?.
M: - What we have to remember is the origin of the home computer, the home computer into our lives because the processorss gets very very small. It became possible to put processor them and practical to anything. I’m not still the case as technology gets more sophisticated, so it’s possible that rather the computers take their functions of how to apply it. It is those who decide how to apply it make themselves become computer rights and wrongs.
It’s nice how video games make an effect on us, make us happy for a moment.