History of India



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History of India


1. There are only two known examples of cave paintings of the Gupta period in ancient India. One of these is paintings of Ajanta caves. Where is the other surviving example of Gupta paintings? 
(a) Bagh caves 
(b) Ellora caves 
(c) Lomas Rishi cave 
(d) Nasik caves

Answer: (a)
Explanation: Ajanta Caves are located just outside the village of Ajinṭhā in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. There are 28-30 rock-cut cave monuments created during the first century BCE and 5th century AD, containing paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art and universal pictorial art. Since 1983, the Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Bagh Caves are a group of nine rock-cut monuments, situated among the southern slopes of the Vindhyas in Kukshi tehsil of Dhar district in Madhya Pradesh. These are renowned for mural paintings by master painters of ancient India. The Bagh Caves, like those at Ajanta, were excavated by master craftmen on perpendicular sandstone rock face of a hill on the far bank of a seasonal stream, the Baghani. Buddhist in inspiration, of the nine caves, only five have survived. All of them are 'viharas' or monasteries having quadrangular plan.  A copperplate inscription of Maharaja Subandhu, recording his donation for the repair of the vihara was found at the site of Cave 2. Though, the date of the Bagh inscription is missing, his Badwani copperplate inscription is dated in the year (Gupta era) 167 (487). So the repair of Cave 2 took place in the late 5th century.

The Lomash Rishi cave in the Barabar Caves belongs to Mauryan period. The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mostly dating from the Mauryan period (322–185 BCE), and some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in the Jehanabad District of Bihar.

The Nasik Caves belong to Satvahana period. The Nasik cave inscription of Gautami Balashri claims that her son Gautamiputra Satakarni's dominion included Anupa.


Source: Multiple sources.

   


2. Why did Buddhism start declining in India in the early medieval times ? 
1. Buddha was by that time considered as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and thus became a part of Vaishnavism. 
2. The invading tribes from Central Asia till the time of last Gupta king adopted Hinduism and persecuted Buddhists. 
3. The Kings of Gupta dynasty were strongly opposed to Buddhism. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 3 only 
(c) 2 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3 

Answer: (a)
Explanation: Buddha became the ninth incarnation of the Dashavatar Vishnu and thus became part of the Vaishnavism. This led to decline in the spread of Buddhism.
The invading tribes from Central Asia had adopted Buddhism.
Though Samudraagupta was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king Sirimeghvanna to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. That monastery was called by Xuanzang as the Mahabodhi Sangharama. He provided a gold railing around the Bodhi Tree.
Source: Multiple sources.

   


3. Among the following, who was not a proponent of bhakti cult ? 
(a) Nagarjuna 
(b) Tukaram 
(c) Tyagaraja 
(d) Vallabhacharya

Answer: (a)
Explanation: Acharya Nāgārjuna (c. 150 - 250 CE) was a philosopher who founded the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. His writings are the basis for the formation of the Madhyamaka school, which was transmitted to China under the name of the Three Treatise (Sanlun) School. He is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajnaparamita sutras, and was closely associated with the Buddhist university of Nalanda. In the Jodo Shinshu branch of Buddhism, he is considered the First Patriarch. He was born in Southern India, near the town of Nagarjunakonda in present day Nagarjuna Sagar in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. According to traditional biographers and historians such as Kumarajiva, he was born into a Brahmin family, but later converted to Buddhism. Nagarjuna's wrote Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way).

Tukaram (1608 – c. 1650) was a prominent Marathi Bhakti saint. He was born and lived most of his life in Dehu, a town close to Pune city in Mahārāshtra, India. He was born to a couple with the family name "Moray". Tukaram was a devotee of Lord Vittala or Vithobā -- an incarnation of Lord Krishna. Tukaram is considered as the climactic point of the Bhāgawat Hindu tradition, which is thought to have begun in Maharashtra with Nāmdev. Dnyāneshwar, Nāmdev, Janābai, Eknāth, and Tukaram are revered especially in the wārakari sect in Maharashtra. Tukaram wrote in archaic Marathi a large number of devotional poems identified in Marathi as abhang. A collection of 4,500 abhang known as the Gāthā is attributed to Tukaram. Saint Tukaram's composition ( poetries ) are found in Guru Granth Sahib.



Tyagaraja was born in 1767 in Tiruvarur, a small town in the Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu. He was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music or classical South Indian music. In addition to nearly 600 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam.

Source: Multiple sources.    

4. What was the immediate reason for Ahmad Shah Abdali to invade India and fight the Third Battle of Panipat ? 
(a) He wanted to avenge the expulsion by Marathas of his viceroy Timur Shah from Lahore 
(b) The frustrated governor of Jullundhar Adina Beg Khan invited him to invade Punjab 
(c) He wanted to punish Mughal administration for non-payment of the revenues of the Chahar Mahal (Gujarat, Aurangabad, Sialkot and Pasrur) 
(d) He wanted to annex all the fertile plains of Punjab up to the borders of Delhi to his kingdom

Answer: (a)
Explanation: The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat, Haryana. The battle was fought between the Marathas and the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century. In 1758, they occupied Delhi, captured Lahore and drove out Timur Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Abdali. his provoked Ahmad Shah Abdali and he marched towards Delhi.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Battle_of_Panipat    
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