How to Read a Paper



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How to Read a Paper”


Compiled by Carol Powell

Instruction Librarian, Prior Health Sciences Library
You may like to do some background reading on assessing evidence for patient care that appears in journal articles. Below are some links to online articles that you may find of interest.
Basics/General

Greenhalgh T. Assessing the methodological quality of published papers. BMJ 1997;315(7103):305-8.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Getting your bearings (deciding what the paper is about). BMJ 1997;315(7102):243-6.

Guyatt G, Haynes R, Jaeschke R, Cook D, Green L, Naylor C, et al. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: XXV. Evidence-based medicine: principles for applying the Users' Guides to patient care. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;284(10):1290-6.

Hunt D, Jaeschke R, McKibbon K. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXI. Using electronic health information resources in evidence-based practice. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;283(14):1875-9.

Mills E, Checchi F, Orbinski J, Schull M, Burkle FM Jr , Beyrer C, et al. Users' guides to the medical literature: how to use an article about mortality in a humanitarian emergency. Confl Health. 2008;2:9.

Randolph A, Haynes R, Wyatt J, Cook D, Guyatt G. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: XVIII. How to use an article evaluating the clinical impact of a computer-based clinical decision support system. JAMA 1999;282(1):67-74.

Stephenson J, Babiker A. Overview of study design in clinical epidemiology. Sex Transm Infect 2000;76(4):244-7.



Clinical Trials

Dans A, Dans L, Guyatt G, Richardson S. Users' guides to the medical literature: XIV. How to decide on the applicability of clinical trial results to your patient. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1998;279(7):545-9.

Glasser S, Howard G. Clinical trial design issues: at least 10 things you should look for in clinical trials. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46(10):1106-15.

Miser W. Finding truth from the medical literature: how to critically evaluate an article. Prim Care 2006;33(4):839-62, vi.



Cohort and Case Control Studies

Mann C. Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies. Emerg Med J 2003;20(1):54-60.

Morabia A. Case-control studies in clinical research: mechanism and prevention of selection bias. Prev Med 1997;26(5 Pt 1):674-7.

Diagnosis Studies

Barratt A, Irwig L, Glasziou P, Cumming R, Raffle A, Hicks N, et al. Users' guides to the medical literature: XVII. How to use guidelines and recommendations about screening. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1999;281(21):2029-34.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Papers that report diagnostic or screening tests. BMJ 1997;315(7107):540-3.

McGinn T, Guyatt G, Wyer P, Naylor C, Stiell I, Richardson W. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXII: how to use articles about clinical decision rules. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;284(1):79-84.

Richardson W, Wilson M, Guyatt G, Cook D, Nishikawa J. Users' guides to the medical literature: XV. How to use an article about disease probability for differential diagnosis. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1999;281(13):1214-9.

Richardson W, Wilson M, Williams JW Jr , Moyer V, Naylor C. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXIV. How to use an article on the clinical manifestations of disease. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;284(7):869-75.



Economic Analyses
Brown G, Brown M, Sharma S. Health care economic analyses. Retina 2004;24(1):139-46.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Papers that tell you what things cost (economic analyses). BMJ 1997;315(7108):596-9.



Qualitative Research

Giacomini M, Cook D. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXIII. Qualitative research in health care A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;284(3):357-62.

Giacomini M, Cook D. Users' guides to the medical literature: XXIII. Qualitative research in health care B. What are the results and how do they help me care for my patients? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;284(4):478-82.

Greenhalgh T, Taylor R. Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research). BMJ 1997;315(7110):740-3.

Pickler R. Evaluating qualitative research studies. J Pediatr Health Care 2007;21(3):195-7.

Statistics

Carlin J, Doyle L. Statistics for clinicians: 4: Basic concepts of statistical reasoning: hypothesis tests and the t-test. J Paediatr Child Health 2001;37(1):72-7.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician. I: Different types of data need different statistical tests. BMJ 1997;315(7104):364-6.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Statistics for the non-statistician. II:"Significant"relations and their pitfalls. BMJ 1997;315(7105):422-5.

Stoner M, Rutledge D. 10 statistical terms you should know. Home Healthc Nurse 2005;23(3):183-7.

Young K, Lewis R. What is confidence? Part 1: The use and interpretation of confidence intervals. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30(3):307-10.

Young K, Lewis R. What is confidence? Part 2: Detailed definition and determination of confidence intervals. Ann Emerg Med 1997;30(3):311-8.

Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses

Delaney A, Bagshaw S, Ferland A, Laupland K, Manns B, Doig C. The quality of reports of critical care meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: an independent appraisal. Crit Care Med 2007;35(2):589-94.

Greenhalgh T. Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses). BMJ 1997;315(7109):672-5.

Therapy Studies

Bucher H, Guyatt G, Cook D, Holbrook A, McAlister F. Users' guides to the medical literature: XIX. Applying clinical trial results. A. How to use an article measuring the effect of an intervention on surrogate end points. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 1999;282(8):771-8.

Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper. Papers that report drug trials. BMJ 1997;315(7106):480-3.

Guyatt G, Sinclair J, Cook D, Glasziou P. Users' guides to the medical literature: XVI. How to use a treatment recommendation. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group and the Cochrane Applicability Methods Working Group. JAMA 1999;281(19):1836-43.

McAlister F, Laupacis A, Wells G, Sackett D. Users' Guides to the Medical Literature: XIX. Applying clinical trial results B. Guidelines for determining whether a drug is exerting (more than) a class effect. JAMA 1999;282(14):1371-7.

McAlister F, Straus S, Guyatt G, Haynes R. Users' guides to the medical literature: XX. Integrating research evidence with the care of the individual patient. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 2000;283(21):2829-36.








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