Human anatamy



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CONCISE GUIDE

TO

HUMAN ANATAMY


EDITER Liu Zhiyu

SHANDONG UNIVERSITY

FORWORD

This book is for the students, faculty and staff in studying and teaching of the Medical English Course to produce a study aid for human anatomy. The succinct text, some summaries of the organs, and the tabeles in the book are the results of long teaching experience. The contents of the book are closely connected the Text-Book of Human Anatomy in China. The chapters and sections are, as well as, the came in order as the Text-Book of Human Anatomy in Chinese. The book was written according to the Key Contents of Anatomical Outline of the country and the primary source for your education, but rather to serve as an aid in the integration of lecture, text review and examination, and for futher quick reference.




EDITOR Liu Zhi-yu(刘执玉)
1996.6.26

CONTENTS

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………1

PART Ⅰ THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

Chapter 1 Osteology...……………………………………………………………………………3

Section 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………...3

Section 2 The Bones of the Trunk ………………………………………………………..4

Section 3 The Skull ………………………………………………………………………...6

Ⅰ. General View………………………………………………………………………6

Ⅱ. The Granial Cavity………………………………………………………………...7

Ⅲ. The External Aspect of the Base of the Skull..……………………………………8

Ⅳ. The Anterior Aspect of the Skull…………………………………………………..9

Ⅴ. The Skull at the Birth……………………………………………………………...9

Section 4 The Bones of The Limbs………………………………………………………..10

Ⅰ. The Bones of the Upper Limb……………………………………………………10

Ⅱ. The Bones of the Lower Limb ...…...……………………………………………12

Chapter 2 Arthrology ......………………………………………………………………………14

Section 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..14

Section 2 The Articulations of Axis Skeleton……………………………………………..15

Section 3 The Articulations of the Cranial Bones…………………………………………16

Section 4 The Articulations of the Appendicular Bones…………………………………..17

Ⅰ. The Joints of The Upper Limb…………………………………………………...17

Ⅱ.The Articulations of the Lower Limb…………………………………………….18

Chapter 3 Myology……………………………………………………………………………..21

Section 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..21

Section 2 The Muscles of the Trunk………………………………………………………22

Ⅰ. The Muscles of the Back…………………………………………………………22

Ⅱ. The Muscles of the Neck…………………………………………………………23

Ⅲ. The Muscles of the Thorax……………………………………………………….23

Ⅳ. The Diaphragm…………………………………………………………………...24

Ⅴ. The Muscles of the Abdomen.…...………………………………………………24

Section 3 The Muscles of the Head………………………………………………………..25

Section 4 The Muscles of the Upper Limb………………………………………………..26

Section 5 The Muscles of the Lower Limb………………………………………………..29

PART Ⅱ THE SPLANCHNOLOGY

Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….33

Chapter 2 The Digestive System………………………………………………………………..35

Section 1 The Oral Cavity…………………………………………………………………35

Section 2 The Pharynx…………………………………………………………………….36

Section 3 The Esophagus………………………………………………………………….37

Section 4 The Stomach…………………………………………………………………….37

Section 5 The Small Intestine……………………………………………………………..38

Section 6 The Large Intestine……………………………………………………………...39

Section 7 The Liver………………………………………………………………………..40

Section 8 The Gallbladder and The Biliary Duct………………………………………….41

Section 9 The Pancreas……………………………………………………………………42

Chapter 3 The Respiratory System……………………………………………………………..43

Section 1 The Nose………………………………………………………………………..43

Section 2 The Pharyns and Larynx………………………………………………………..44

Section 3 The Trachea and Bronchi……………………………………………………….44

Section 4 The Lungs……………………………………………………………………….45

Section 5 The Pleura………………………………………………………………………45

Chapter 4 The Urinary System………………………………………………………………….47

Section 1 The Kidneys…………………………………………………………………….47

Section 2 The Ureters……………………………………………………………………...48

Section 3 The Urinary Bladder……………………………………………………………48

Section 4 The Urethra……………………………………………………………………..49

Chapter 5 The Male Reproductive System……………………………………………………..50

Chapter 6 The Female Reproductive System…………………………………………………...53

Chapter 7 The Peritoneum……………………………………………………………………...57

PART Ⅲ ANGIOLOGY

Chapter 1 The Cardiovascular System………………………………………………………….60

Section 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..60

Ⅰ. The Composition…………………………………………………………………60

Ⅱ. The Cardiovascular Circuits……………………………………………………...60

Section 2 The Heart………………………………………………………………………..60

Ⅰ. The Position of the Heart………………………………………………………...60

Ⅱ. The External Morphology of the Heart…………………………………………..61

Ⅲ. The Internal Morphology of the Heart…………………………………………...61

Ⅳ. The Structure of the Heart………………………………………………………..63

Ⅴ. The Conducting System of the Heart…………………………………………….63

Ⅵ. The Vessels of the Heart………………………………………………………….64

Ⅶ. The Pericardium………………………………………………………………….65

Section 3 The Arteries……………………………………………………………………..66

Ⅰ. The Arteries of Pulmonary Circulation…………………………………………..66

Ⅱ. The Arteries of Systemic Circulation…………………………………………….66

Section 4 The Veins………………………………………………………………………..72

Ⅰ. The Veins of Pulmonary Circulation……………………………………………..72

Ⅱ. The Veins of Systemic Circulation……………………………………………….72

Chapter 2 The Lymphatic System………………………………………………………………78

Section 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..78

Ⅰ. The Composition…………………………………………………………………78

Ⅱ. The Character…………………………………………………………………….78

Section 2 The Lymphatic Ducts of the Body……………………………………………...79

Ⅰ. The Thoracic Duct………………………………………………………………..79

Ⅱ. The Right Lymphatic Duct……………………………………………………….80

Section 3 The Lymph Vessels an Nodes of the Body……………………………………...80

Ⅰ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Head and Neck…………………………80

Ⅱ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Upper Limb…………………………….81

Ⅲ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Thorax………………………………….81

Ⅳ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Abdomen……………………………….82

Ⅴ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Pelvis…………………………………...83

Ⅵ. The Lymph Vessels and Nodes of the Lower Limb……………………………83

Section 4 The Spleen………………………………………………………………………84

Ⅰ. The Position……………………………………………………………………...84

Ⅱ. The Shape………………………………………………………………………...84

Section 5 The Thymus……………………………………………………………………..84

PART Ⅳ THE SENSE ORGANS

Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….85

Chapter 2 The Visual Apparatus………………………………………………………………...86

Section 1 The Eyeball……………………………………………………………………..86

Ⅰ. The Wall of the Eyeball…………………………………………………………..86

Ⅱ. The Contents of the Eyeball……………………………………………………...87

Section 2 The Accessory Apparatus of the Eyeball……………………………………….88

Ⅰ. The Eyelids or Palpebrae………………………………………………………...88

Ⅱ. The Conjunctiva………………………………………………………………….88

Ⅲ. The Lacrimal Apparatus …………………………………………………………89

Ⅳ. The Extraocular Muscles…………………………………………………………89

Section 3 The Blood Vessels of the Eye…………………………………………………...90

Ⅰ. The Arteries of the Eye ………………………………………………………….90

Ⅱ. The Veins of the Eye……………………………………………………………..90

Chapter 3 The Auditory and Vestibular Apparatus……………………………………………...91

Section 1 The External Ear………………………………………………………………..91

Ⅰ. The Auricle……………………………………………………………………….91

Ⅱ. The External Acoustic Meatus…………………………………………………...91

Section 2 The Middle Ear…………………………………………………………………92

Ⅰ. The Tympanic Cavity…………………………………………………………….92

Ⅱ. The Auditory Tube……………………………………………………………….93

Ⅲ. The Mastoid Antrum and Mastoid Air cells……………………………………...93

Section 3 The Internal Ear…………………………………………………………………93

Ⅰ. The Osseous Labyrinth…………………………………………………………..94

Ⅱ. The Membranous Labyrinth……………………………………………………...95

Ⅲ. The Internal Acoustic Meatus……………………………………………………95

PART Ⅴ THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………….96

Chapter 2 The Perpheral Nervous System……………………………………………………...98

Section 1 The Spinal Nerves………………………………………………………………98

Ⅰ. The Cervical Plexus……………………………………………………………...99

Ⅱ. The Brachial Plexus…………………………………………………………….100

Ⅲ. The Ventral Rami of the Thoracic Nerves………………………………………102

Ⅳ. The Lumbar Plexus……………………………………………………………..102

Ⅴ. The Sacral Plexus……………………………………………………………….103

Section 2 The Cranial Nerves……………………………………………………………104

Ⅰ. The Olfactory Nerve……………………………………………………………106

Ⅱ. The Optic Nerve………………………………………………………………...106

Ⅲ. The Oculomotor Nerve…………………………………………………………106

Ⅳ. The Trochlear Nerve……………………………………………………………107

Ⅴ. The Trigeminal Nerve…………………………………………………………..107

Ⅵ. The Abducent Nerve……………………………………………………………109

Ⅶ. The Facial Nerve………………………………………………………………..109

Ⅷ. The Vestibulocochlear ( Auditory ) Nerve……………………………………...110

Ⅸ. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve…………………………………………………...111

Ⅹ. The Vagus Nerve………………………………………………………………..111

Ⅺ. The Accessory Nerve……………………………………………………………113

Ⅻ. The Hypoglossal Nerve…………………………………………………………114

Section 3 The Visceral Nervous System…………………………………………………114

Ⅰ. The Visceral Motor Nerves……………………………………………………..114

Ⅱ. The Visceral Sensory Nerves…………………………………………………...121

Chapter 3 The Central Nervous System……………………………………………………….122

Section 1 The Spinal Cord……………………………………………………………….122

Ⅰ. The External Features…………………………………………………………..122

Ⅱ. The Internal Structures………………………………………………………….123

Ⅲ. The Function……………………………………………………………………127

Section 2 The Brain………………………………………………………………………127

Ⅰ. The External Features of Brain Stem…………………………………………...127

Ⅱ. The Arrangement of the Cranial Nerve Nuclei in Brain Stem………………….130

Ⅲ. The Internal Structure of Medulla Oblongata…………………………………..132

Ⅳ. The Internal Structure of Pons………………………………………………….133

Ⅴ. The Internal Structure of Midbrain……………………………………………..135

Ⅵ. The Reticular Formation in Brain Stem………………………………………...137

Ⅶ. The Cerebellum…………………………………………………………………137

Ⅷ. The Diencephalon………………………………………………………………139

Ⅸ. The Telecephlon………………………………………………………………...142

Section 3 The Conduction Pathway of the Brain and Spinal Cord………………………148

Ⅰ. The Conscious Deep Sensory Pathway…………………………………………149

Ⅱ. The Unconscious Deep Sensory Pathway………………………………………150

Ⅲ. The Superficial Sensory Pathway of the Trunk and Limbs……………………..151

Ⅳ. The Superficial Sensory Pathway of the Head and Face……………………….151

Ⅴ. The Optic (Visual) Pathway………………………………………………….…152

Ⅵ. The Auditory Pathway…………………………………………………………..153

Ⅶ. The Pyranidal System…………………………………………………………..154Ⅷ. The Extrapyramidal System…………………………………………………….155

Section 4 The Meninges, Blood Vessels of Brain and Spinal Cord, as well as Cerebrospinal Circulation……………………………………………………………………..156

Ⅰ. The Meninges of the Brain and Spinal Cord……………………………………156

Ⅱ. The Blood Vessels of the Brain and Spinal Cord……………………………….159Ⅲ. The Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid………………………………………...161

PART Ⅵ THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Ⅰ. The Shape and Location of Thyroid Gland……………………………………..162

Ⅱ. The Shape and Location of Parathyroid Gland…………………………………162

Ⅲ. The Shape and Location of Suprarenal Gland………………………………….162

Ⅳ. The Shape and Location of Hypophysis………………………………………..163

Ⅴ. The Shape and Location of Pineal Body………………………………………..163
Liu Zhi-yu(刘执玉)


Introduction

. Definition of Anatomy

Anatomy is a important fasic medical course which deals with the morphology, structure andfunction of human body. Though the primary concern of anatomy is the morphology and structure of the body, and structure and function should always be considered together.

. Classification of Anatomy

1. Gross Anatomy: Systemic Anatomy, Surface Anatomy, and Regional Anatomy.

2. Comparative Anatomy: deals with structure and function related man and animals.

3. Development Anatomy: Study the development of the body from the fertilized age to the maturity.

4. Microscopic and Electro-microscopic Anatomy: Some structure of the body is observed by the microscopy and TEM.

. Anatomical Terms

1. Anatomical position

Body is standing erect .

Face and eyes are directed forward .

Hands are by both sides with palms directed forwards .

Feet are pointed forwards so that the hells and greater toes together .

2. The terms

Anterior-------- front or belly side

Posterior-------- back side

Superior-------- upper part

Inferior-------- lower part

Lateral-------- farther midline

Medial-------- nearer midline

External-------- outer side of body wall or body cavity

Internal-------- inner side of body wall

Superficial-------- nearer body surface

Deep-------- farther body surface

Proximal-------- nearer source or attachement of a structure

Distal-------- farther source

3. Axes and Planes

Sagittal axis: from the anterior to the posterior.

Sagittal plane: divides the body into left and right parts.

Median plane: a sagittal plane which passes through the body and divides it equal.

Coronal axis: from the left to the right, vertical to the sagittal axis.

Coronal plane: divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

Vertical axis: from superior to inferior, vertical to the sagittal and coronal axis.

Transverse plane: divides body into the superior and inferior parts, at the right angle to both the sagittal and coronal plane.

PARTⅠ THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

The locomotor system includes the bones, articulations and skeleton muscles.



Chapter 1 Osteology
Section 1 Introduction

Bones in adult are 206 in number, which are divided into 3 parts: the bones of the skull, trunk and extremities.

Ⅰ. The General Morphology and Classification of Bones

1. Long bones: a shaft and two ends; tuber-like; medullary cavity; mutrient foramen.

2. Short bones: for example, carpal and tarsal bones.

3. Flat bones: broad and flat, for example, ribs, sternum, scapulae, and many bones of the skull .

4. Irregular bones: varied in shape, include many of the cranial bones, vertebrae, hip bones and so on .

Ⅱ. The Structure of bones: Living bones consist of bony substance, periesteum and bony marrow, and with abundant blood vessels and nerves.

1) Bony substance: compact bone and cancellous bone.

2) Bony periesteum: outer layer or fibrous membrane and inner layer or vascular membrane.

3) Bony marrow: red and yellow marrow in different age .

Ⅲ.Chemical Composition and Physical Properties

1. Chemical Composition

Inorganic Organic

Calcium phosphate Cells, matrix

Calcium carbonate Collageous fibers



2. Physical properties

Inorganic Organic

Children 1 : 1 soft & toughness

Adult 2 : 1 middle toughness

Old man 4 : 1 hard & gristle


Section 2 The Bones of the Trunk

The bones of the trunk include the vertebrae, sternum and the ribs.

Ⅰ. The Vertebrae

Ⅰ) The Composition of the Vertebral Column

Cervical vertebrae 7

Thoracic vertebrae 12

Composition Lumbar vertebrae 5

Sacaral vertebra 1(5)

Coccygeal vertebra 1(4)

Ⅱ)General Features of A Vertebra

Body

Pedicles …………………………………………………...2

Laminae……………………………………………………2

Transverse processes ……………………………………...2

Sup. articular process……………………………………...2

Vertebra Arch Inf. articular process……………………………………….2

Spinous process……………………………………………1

Sup. vertebral notch……………………………………….2

Inf. vertebral notch………………………………………...2

Foramen


Ⅲ)Regional Differences

Vertebra C T L

Body …………….more ………..and………… more…………….. massive

Foramen larger, triangular smaller, rounder larger, triagular

Spinous process short, bifid long slopiny massive square

Transverse process short, bifid facet for rib longer

Articular facet horizontal coronal sagittal


Ⅳ)Specialized Vertebrae

1. The Atlas, First Cervical Vertebra

①No body and two lateral masses,

②Anterior and posterior arch

③A fovea for dens of axis,

④Sulcus for vertebral artery.

2. The Axis, The Second Cervical Vertebra

It has a dens, and its ant.articular surface for articulartion with the fovea dentis of atlas.

3. 6th C. vertebra: Coroid tubercle on the transverse processes.

4. 7th C. vertebra: the prominence, spinous process is long, nearly horizontal, and without bifid.

Sup. and inf. costal focet on the body

5. Thoracic . Costal facet on the transverse process

Spinous process------long and sloping downwards.

Base------sacral promontory

Anterior surface------ ant .sacral foramen

6. Sacrum . Posterior surface----median sacral crest, sacral hiatus, sacral cornae

Lateral----posterior sacral foramen

Sacral canal

Ⅱ. The Sternum

The sternum is a flat bone which lies in the midline of the anterior wall of the thorax.

Manubrium------iugular notch

Sternum Body------facets for costal cartilages

Xiphoid process

The sternal angle: The junction of manubrium with the body, which is useful landmark indicates the level of the articulation of the 2nd costal cartilarge with the sternum. According to this landmark the order of the ribs and the intercostal space can be determined.

Ⅲ. The Ribs

True: 1st ------7th articulate to the sternum

1. Classification False:8-12th, and 8-10th ribs form the arch of rib.

Floating: 11-12th ribs.

2. Composition and Features



Head Costal gloove

Neck Articular focet on the head

Body Costal tubercle

Anterior end Costal angle


3. First rib is short, sharply curved and flattened.

Superior and inferior surface

Inner and outer border

The rib Scalene tubercle on the superior surface

Sulcus of subclavicular a .

Sulcus of subclavicular v .
Section 3 The skull

The skull consists of 23 bones, rests upon the superior end of the vertebral column. The bones are closely fitted together by sutures or cartilages except the mandible and the hyoid. They carry out the function of protection and support of the brain and the organs of sight, hearing and balance. And the upper part of the digestive and respiratory system. It is devided into two parts, the cranial and facial bones.

Ⅰ. General View

1. Division of skull 23 bones

Cranial portion 8 bones

Facial portion 15 bones

2. Bones Cranial Facial

Single frontal mandible

ethmoid vomer

sphenoid hyoid

occipital



Paired perietal maxilla

temporal zygomatic

palatine

nasal


lacrimal

inf.nasal conchae



3. The mandible It is the only movable bone in the skull, which consists of a horse shoe-shaped body and two flat rami.

The body The rami

Alveolar arch on sup. border Coranoid process

Mental protuberance Condylar process

Mental foramen Mandibular notch

Mental spine Mandibular foramen

Base of mandible Mandibular canal

Angle of mandible

4. The hyoid bone is located between the mandible and the larynx. It consists of a body and two paired projections, the lesser and greater cornua.

Ⅱ. The Cranial Cavity The Floor of the cranial cavity has 3 fossa arranged like steps at the different levels. They are the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossa.

1. The anterior cranial fossa

Composition Structure

Orbital part of frontal bone Cribriform plate

Lesser wing of sphenoid Crista galli

Cribriform plate & crista galli of ethmoid Cribriform foramen


2. The middle cranial fossa is formed by the body and great wing of the sphenoid; the anterior surface of the petrous portion, and the squamous portion of the temporal bone.

The Structure of the Middle Cranial Fossa

The Middle The lateral

Optic foramen Sup.orbital fissure (Ⅲ ⅣⅤ1Ⅵ)

Ant.clinoid process Carotid sulcus

Sella tubercle Foramen lacerum

Hypophyseal fossa Foramen rotundam(Ⅴ2 )

Dorsum sellae Foramen ovlae (Ⅴ3 )

Post.clinoid process Foramen spinousum (mid.min.a)

Trigeminal impression Arcuate eminence

Roof of tympanic cavity



3. The posterior cranial fossa

Formed by the posterior surface of the petrous portion and occipital bone.

Foramen magnum

Hypoglossal canal (Ⅶ )

Internal occipital protuberance

Groove for transverse sinus

Jugular foramen (ⅨⅩⅪⅤ)

Internal auditory meatus(ⅦⅧ)

Ⅲ.The External Aspect of the Base of the Skull It is divided into two portions, the anterior and posterior.

The Anterior Structures The Posterior Structures

Alveolar arch Foramen magnum

Hard palate Occipital condyles

Incision foramen Hypoglossal canal

Greater palatine foramen Jugular foramen

Vomer Outer opening of carotid canal

Posterior nasal aperture Styloid process

Pterygoid plates Mastoid process

Lateral pterygoid plates Stylomastoid foramen

Medial pterygoid plates Zygomatic arch

Pterygoid fossa Mandibular fossa

Foramen lacerum

Spinous foramen

Oval foramen

External occipital protuberance



Ⅵ. The Anterior Aspect of the Skull

The main structures from superior to the inferior: Forehead, Two orbits, Bony nasal cavities, Bony oris cabities.

The Bony Nasal Cavity

Anterior nasal aperture ( piriform aperture )

1. The apertures

Posterior nasal aperture ( communicates with nasopharynx )

2. The walls

Superior Inferior Medial Lateral

Cribriform plate Hard palate Nasal septum 3 conchae and meatus

( the roof ) ( the floor )


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