Hurricane Sandy

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Hurricane Case Studies

Hurricane Sandy






  • Hurricane sandy was the largest hurricane in the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season

  • Second most costly storm in US history

  • Category 3 storm at its peak

  • Winds up to 185km per hour

Short term

  • 286 people killed (across all the countries affected)

  • Left 70% of people in Jamaica without power

  • Caused food shortages in Haiti

  • New York – flooded streets, subway lines and cut power (affected over 8 million people)

  • Shortages of food and water in New York so had to be given out in public places and delivered to elderly residents

  • Patients had to be evacuated from the New York University Langone Medical Centre

  • Some looting of evacuated buildings after the storm in New York

  • Businesses and shops had to shut down during the storm this meant that many lost revenue and including repair costs the cost to businesses was over 19 billion in New York

  • Water plants disabled

  • Sewage discharged as 80 out of 369 sewage treatment plants were damaged in New Jersey

  • Diesel leaked into creeks (Arthur Kill) but was cleaned up by skimmer boats


  • Affected 24 US states, worst affected were New York and New Jersey

  • Jamaica (Kingston)

  • Haiti

  • Dominican Republic

  • Puerto Rico

  • The Bahamas

  • Canada


  • Formed October 22nd 2012

  • Hit USA October 29th 2012

  • Dissipated October 31 2012

Long Term

  • 102,000 people’s homes flooded in Long Island New York

  • 200,000 people homeless in Haiti

  • 15,000 homeless in the Dominican republic

  • 65 billion US dollars’ worth of damage in the USA (68 billion overall countries)

  • 6.2 million cubic yards of debris in New Jersey which had to/still has to be cleared.

  • Damaged parks


Low pressure system

Hurricane Katrina






  • Hurricane sandy was the largest hurricane in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

  • Most costly storm in US history

  • Category 3 storm

  • Winds up to 175 km per hour

Short term

  • 1,833 people killed (across all the countries affected)

  • Power and telephone lines affected in Cuba and 8,000 people evacuated

  • Several bridges destroyed causing transport problems in Louisiana

  • 900,000 people lost power in Louisiana

  • Many people missing and fire services had to carry out searches

  • Many of the dead were left in the street for days before being recovered

  • Crime in New Orleans increased due to the limited Police Force

  • Evacuation process in New Orleans has been criticised for taking too long and the getting aid in was also too slow.

  • Tornado formed from the outer rain band of Katrina and hit part of Florida causing damage (causing Marathon airport $5 million of damage). (62 formed in total)

  • Caused widespread flooding

  • 8-10 inches of rain


  • Cuba

  • South Florida, Mississippi, Alabama etc.

  • Canada

  • New Orleans Louisiana


  • Formed August 23rd 2005

  • Hit New Orleans August 29th 2005

  • Dissipated August 30th 2005

Long Term

  • 80% of New Orleans was flooded therefore there was a lot of damage and many people were left homeless

  • 90% of towns in Mississippi coastal towns were flooded, this is where the worst property damage happened.

  • Migration of people from affected places population of Louisiana calculated to have dropped by 4.87%

  • 105 billion US dollars’ worth of damage

  • Oil supply interruption affecting economy as 30 oil stations were affected in the gulf of Mexico resulting in 24% production loss and their closure for 6 months

  • Forestry industry affected, loss of 5 billion dollars

  • Farming jobs affected therefore social impacts as 600,000 people employed in that sector (exceed $150 billion loss)

  • Insurance companies won’t insure some families or businesses anymore

  • 1.3 million acres of forest affected

  • Beach erosion

  • Lost breeding grounds for many species of wildlife including ducks, fish, turtles…

  • Oil spills caused by hurricane (7 million gallons)


  • Low pressure system

  • Levee system in New Orleans failed

Hurricane Mitch






  • Hurricane Mitch was the largest hurricane in the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season (4th most intense ever at the time, now dropped to 7th)

  • Category 5 storm at its peak

  • Winds up to 285 km per hour

Short term

  • Total death toll: 18,974 (14,600 in Honduras) – mostly from flooding and mudslides

  • Trees and plants uprooted

  • Large amounts of rainfall caused rivers to overflow


  • Honduras

  • Nicaragua

  • Caribbean islands such as Jamaica and Cayman Islands

  • Central America (Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico…)

  • Florida


  • October 22nd 1998

  • Hit Honduras October 29th 1998

  • Dissipated November 9th 1998

Long Term

  • Damage to water facilities

  • 1/3 of the buildings in Tegucigalpa, Honduras damaged

  • 35,000 homes destroyed and 50,000 damaged – 1.5 million people homeless (20% of population)

  • Transport damaged

  • Total of 6.8 billion dollars of damage (3.8 in Honduras)

  • 50,000 bovine killed and 60% of fowl population

  • 70% of crops destroyed

  • Agriculture damage cost around 1 billion dollars

  • Fishing industry affected in Nicaragua

  • Lagoons and coastlines damaged

  • Mangroves destroyed

  • Sewage systems damaged in Nicaragua


Low pressure system and a very hot summer meant that the sea was at the right temperature for the hurricane to form

Hurricane Andrew






  • Hurricane Andrew was the largest hurricane in the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season

  • At the time it was the most costliest hurricane in the USA’s history (now 4th after Sandy, Katrina and Ike)

  • Category 5 storm at its peak (only 3 category 5 storms hit the US in the whole of the 20th century)

  • Winds up to 280 km per hour

Short term

  • 65 people died (some indirectly)

  • 1.4 million people without power

  • 150,000 people without telephone connection

  • Congestion and traffic as 9,500 traffic signals destroyed

  • Looting occurred afterwards to damaged homes and shops

  • Streets blocked by fallen trees

  • Strong gusts of wind (222km/hour) and storm surge in the Bahamas

  • Tornados produced as a result of the hurricane

  • Heavy rainfall throughout the state of Florida

  • River flooding in Louisiana


  • Bahamas

  • Florida

  • Louisiana


  • Formed August 16th 1992

  • Hit USA August 24th 1992

  • Dissipated August 28th 1992

Long Term

  • 177,000 people homeless (36,000 homes destroyed)

  • 31 schools affected

  • 3,300 miles of power lines affected

  • 3,000 water mains affected

  • Mobile homes also destroyed (almost all of them)

  • $26.5 billion dollars damage

  • 82,000 businesses damaged

  • Farming industry affected (soybean and sugar crops)

  • Damage to fishing industry ($266 million) due to upwelling killing 187 million fish

  • 32,900 acres of farmland affected

  • National Parks in the area affected – 25% of trees damaged

  • 20 million cubic yards of debris to clean up


  • Low pressure system

Cyclone Nargis






  • Rare eastward moving cyclone

  • Worst natural disaster in history recorded in Myanmar (second deadliest cyclone ever recorded possibly)

  • Category 4 storm

  • Winds up to 165 km per hour

Short term

  • At least 138,000 causalities (official death toll unreported by government – stopped reporting after this to minimize political fallout)

  • Many people missing, some people were washed out to sea, buried or decayed and never found.

  • Aid was only received after a few days when India’s request was accepted

  • 1.5 million people severely affected (estimate)

  • 5 areas officially disaster zones

  • State television made it look like the military had provided the aid instead of international sources


  • Myanmar (hit densely populated area of Irrawaddy delta)

  • Western Bay of Bengal


  • Formed April 23rd 2008

  • Hit Myanmar May 2nd 2008

  • Dissipated May 3rd 2008

Long Term

  • Thought to have been more deaths from disease and lack of relief efforts

  • Millions homeless (estimates 2-3 million)

  • Thousands of buildings destroyed (reported 95% in Irrawaddy Delta)

  • Lots of temples destroyed, this has a big effect as religion is a big part of the culture

  • Ruined rice crop led to shortages in food and famine

  • Carried on with scheduled referendum even after disaster

  • Damages estimated to cost K62,988,000,000 (US$10 billion)

  • Ruined rice crop meant economy affected and food prices rose by two or threefold

  • Waste pipes burst ruining landscape and crops


  • Low pressure system

  • Political corruption meant aid was unable to get through, the military junta particular refused aid from the USA.

  • India warned of the cyclone 48 hours before, this was ignored

  • China suffered a massive earthquake (Sichuan) 10 days afterwards – worst in China’s history meaning aid efforts were spilt.

  • After a week only 1 in 10 people affected had received aid and only 25% after 2 weeks

  • Visas weren’t granted to relief volunteers

Typhoon Haiyan (researched 28/11/2013 – try again when there is more information)






  • Deadliest Pilipino Typhoon on record

  • Strongest storm recorded at landfall

  • 4th strongest ever recorded in terms of wind speed (230km/hour)

  • Category 5 super typhoon

Short term

  • Death toll at least 5,560 (sources vary between 2,500 and 10,000)

  • 22,000 people missing

  • No mobile phone coverage afterwards

  • No power for some areas (may have no power for up to a month)

  • Lack of access to clean water (some pipes were dug up by residents)

  • Escaped prisoners from prison

  • Ormoc city also badly affected, but there was a fear that they would be without aid as Tacloban was worse affected, 2,000 injured in Ormoc and hospitals shut or working at partial capacity.

  • Looting occurred due to lack of aid being received in some areas, aid trucks and fuel stations were also attacked

  • New people’s army (communist) ambushed relief convoy killing two people.

  • Ferries affected

  • Airports closed

  • 281.9mm of rainfall recorded, which feel in under 12 hours

  • Storm surges measured 5 to 6 metres

  • Trees blown over

  • Flooding extended for 1km inland

  • Landslides

  • Flash floods


  • Philippines

  • Micronesia

  • Southern China

  • Vietnam


  • Formed November 3rd 2013

  • Hit Philippines November 8th 2013

  • Dissipated November 11th 2013

Long Term

  • 11 million people affected and many have been left homeless

  • Cities and towns largely destroyed in the Leyte and Samar islands

  • Some areas completely washed away (90% of Tacloban estimated to have been destroyed)

  • Damage $1.41 billion USD (30.6 million has been allocated by the government to relief)

  • Tacloban airport destroyed

  • Mud and debris needed to be cleared up


  • Originated from an area of low pressure

  • Worsened by the fact that part of the Philippines affected was hit by a 7.2 earthquake two weeks before.

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