Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question



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Ecology
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 A student is planning a field investigation to compare the numbers of insects and spiders in two different one-square meter areas that she has marked. One area includes a rotting tree in the woods behind her school. The other is in the parking lot of her school. Which would be the MOST accurate prediction to make before the investigation begins?

A

The area in the parking lot will contain more spiders than insects.

B

The area in the woods will contain equal numbers of spiders and insects.

C

Both areas will contain more centipedes and millipedes than insects and spiders.

D

The area in the woods will contain more insects and spiders than the area in the parking lot.

2 Which of the following relationships exists between the frog and the mayfly?





F

commensalism

H

mutualism

G

competition

J

predation

3 Which output from a bear can be used by salmonberry plants in a forest habitat?



A

Carbon dioxide from bears is used for photosynthesis in plants.

B

Oxygen from bears is used for photosynthesis in plants.

C

Glucose from bears is used for respiration in plants.

D

Water from bears is used for respiration in plants.

4 Adding habitat is a solution to the problem of decreased butterfly populations in prairie ecosystems. What could be an unintended consequence of adding habitat for butterflies?



F

Beneficial nutrients could be removed from the ecosystem.

G

The air temperature could increase in the ecosystem.

H

Materials new to the ecosystem could be introduced.

J

The amount of light in the ecosystem could increase.

5 Muskrats are omnivores that live in burrows on the pond banks. Which of the following would most likely lead to an increase in the size of the muskrat population over time?



A

increased seed production by cattails

B

increased outbreaks of disease in muskrats

C

increased numbers of predators on muskrats

D

increased amounts of competition from pickerel

6 Which of the following organisms is correctly matched to its role in the pond ecosystem?



F

soil fungi—decomposer

H

water lily—decomposer

G

zooplankton—producer

J

water snake—primary consumer

7 A correlation exists between the number of cases of moose brainworm disease and the density of the deer population.

Which of the following statements gives the best explanation for this relationship?

A

High deer population density causes individual deer to reproduce more.

B

High deer population density speeds up the life cycle of the roundworm.

C

High deer population density attracts more moose to an area where they will become infected.

D

High deer population density results in more larvae-infected waste for snails to encounter in an area.

8 Which of the following lemurs would be classified as a secondary consumer?



F

a mouse lemur eating insects

H

a ring-tailed lemur eating fruits

G

a Verreaux’s sifaka eating leaves

J

a red-bellied lemur eating flowers

9 The moose belongs to which trophic level in an ecosystem?



A

producer

C

scavenger

B

consumer

D

decomposer

10 Some species of penguins, such as chinstrap penguins, depend on open water for their survival. Other species of penguins, such as Adélie penguins, depend on ice. Over the last 20 years, the population size of chinstrap penguins has increased, and the population size of Adélie penguins has decreased. Which of the following most likely caused these changes in population size?



F

an increase in landmass and shorelines

G

an increase in global air and water temperatures

H

a decrease in the number of leopard seal predators

J

a decrease in the length of time before chicks take to sea

11 A simple food web is shown below.



Which of the following is most likely to lead to the greatest decrease in the deer mouse population?



A

an increase in the owl population

B

an increase in the grass population

C

an increase in the pine tree population

D

an increase in the cottontail population

12 A company that produces pesticides conducts an experiment to test the effectiveness of their newest product. The scientist involved in the development of the pesticide is the one who will interpret the results. Why is this a problem?



F

The pesticide could be made better during the process.

G

The results could be shared with a competing company.

H

The scientist will not know how to make accurate observations.

J

The scientist may misinterpret the results because he knows what should happen.

13 Geothermal energy can be converted from hot water or steam from deep within Earth’s surface and transformed into electricity. One disadvantage of geothermal energy is that



A

it is a nonrenewable resource.

B

habitats can be destroyed when drilling.

C

it releases hazardous waste into the atmosphere.

D

emitted toxins can gather in animals’ bodies over time.

14 One kind of bacteria lives, secretes enzymes into, and consumes dead organic matter in areas without oxygen. These bacteria can be classified as



F

parasites.

H

eukaryotes.

G

autotrophs.

J

decomposers.

15 Which organism in the aquatic food web below gets energy directly from the Sun?




A

krill

C

phytoplankton

B

baleen whale

D

both krill and the baleen whale

16 If a single plant species is removed from a food web, then most likely —



F

an animal species will fill the unoccupied niche

G

other plants will produce enough food for herbivores

H

dependent herbivores will have to find new food sources

J

carnivores will be unaffected by the loss

17 Which order of diagrams would show primary succession in an area that had never before been occupied by living organisms?






A

C, A, B, D

C

D, B, C, A

B

B, A, C, D

D

A, C, B, D




18 How would the development of hybrid cars minimize the effects of human population growth on the environment?



F

by increasing noise pollution

G

by increasing smog production

H

by decreasing dependence on fossil fuels

J

by decreasing the number of people traveling on highways

19 A horse eats an apple from a tree. Which statement best explains this relationship?



A

Both the horse and the tree are heterotrophs.

B

The horse, a heterotroph, is consuming food from an autotroph.

C

Both the horse and the tree are neither autotrophs nor heterotrophs.

D

The horse, an autotroph, is consuming food from another autotroph.

20 Which best describes the interaction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?



F

One competes with the other for access to sunlight and soil.

G

One decomposes the other to release nutrients back into the soil.

H

One helps produce the other in a mutually beneficial relationship.

J

One consumes the other to use energy that originally came from the Sun.

21 One problem with imposing heavy fines on businesses that do not meet legal or environmental standards with their waste emissions, is that such actions may result in



A

political opposition from the business’ supporters.

B

the businesses increasing their need for fossil fuels.

C

the businesses increasing their number of employees.

D

prices of the services offered by the businesses going down.

22 What is a main difference between primary succession and secondary succession?



F

Primary succession happens slowly, and secondary succession happens rapidly.

G

Small plants grow first during primary succession, while large trees grow first during secondary succession.

H

Primary succession occurs after a natural disaster, and secondary succession occurs before a natural disaster.

J

Primary succession is the colonization of new sites, and secondary succession is colonization of previously inhabited sites.

23 A certain light-producing microbe finds shelter and food in the skin of a fish. This relationship would be considered mutualism if the light from the microbe



A

helps the fish find suitable mates.

B

causes harmful mutations in the fish.

C

makes the fish more easily preyed upon.

D

makes no difference in the life of the fish.

24 A land developer wants to control a population of hawks. He decides to solve the problem by clearing out the land’s fields. How will this action most likely control the population?



F

The population of hawks will increase due to decreased competition.

G

The hawks will experience more crowding and the population will decline.

H

There will be fewer predators of the hawks, so their population will increase.

J

The food supply of the hawks will decrease, causing the population of hawks to decrease.

25 A plan to convert and burn unsold food as biological fuel can be environmentally beneficial because it



A

restores wetlands.

C

reduces air pollution.

B

limits landfill use.

D

decreases biodiversity.

26 In Calhoun County, Arkansas, a local timber company is now required to grow pine trees for 45 years before harvesting instead of the normal 20 years. This would increase biodiversity in Calhoun County through the



F

reduction of pollution.

H

elimination of extinction.

G

preservation of habitats.

J

simplification of food webs.

27 Which best describes the interaction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?



A

One competes with the other for access to sunlight and soil.

B

One decomposes the other to release nutrients back into the soil.

C

One helps produce the other in a mutually beneficial relationship.

D

One consumes the other to use energy that originally came from the Sun.

28 Which presents the correct order of biomes from least biodiversity to most biodiversity?



F

tundra, taiga, temperate grassland, rainforest

G

taiga, tundra, temperate grassland, rainforest

H

tundra, taiga, rainforest, temperate grassland

J

taiga, tundra, rainforest, temperate grassland

29 The figure below shows the number of plants and animals necessary to support the life of one high-level consumer in a temperate grassland biome.



The figure represents the flow of energy through



A

different trophic levels in most ecosystems

B

soil, plants, and animals during the nitrogen cycle

C

different organisms within a single level of most food webs

D

the atmosphere, land, and bodies of water during the water cycle
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