Inter-regional Profile of English Speakers in rts des Laurentides jpocock Research Consulting



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Inter-regional Profile

of English Speakers

in

RTS des Laurentides

JPocock Research Consulting

for


Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN)

September 2016



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Table of Contents




Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3

About this Document 3

CHSSN and the Baseline Data Report Series 3

Data Source and Methodology 3

Size of English-speaking Population 4

Size of English-speaking Population 5

Proportion of English Speakers 6

Age structure 7

Age Structure of the English-speaking Population 7

Age Structure of the French-speaking Population 8

Proportion of Children 9

Proportion of Seniors 10

Visible Minority Status 11

Household Living Arrangements 11

Household Living Arrangements Among the English-speaking Population 11

Household Living Arrangements Among the French-speaking Population 12

Lone-Parent Families 13

Living Alone 14

Recent mobility 15

Recent Mobility in the English-speaking Population 15

Recent Mobility in the French-speaking Population 16

Recent Interprovincial Migrants 17

Recent Immigrants 18

Education Attainment 19

Education Attainment of the English-speaking Population 19

Education Attainment of the French-speaking Population 20

Low Educational Attainment 21

High Educational Attainment 22

Labour Force Activity 23

Labour Force Activity in the English-speaking Population 23

Labour Force Activity in the French-speaking Population 24

Unemployment Rates 25

Tendency to be Out of the Labour Force 26

Income 27

Income Levels in the English-speaking Population 27

Income Levels in the French-speaking Population 28

Low Income 29

High Income 30

Low Income Cut-off Status (LICO) 31

Low Income Cut-off (LICO) Status, by Language Group 31

Proportion Living Below LICO 32

Appendix – Definitions and Concepts 33

Definitions and Measures 33

National Household Survey Variables 33




Introduction

About this Document


This document provides an overview of the English-speaking population in the RTS des Laurentides health territory. This report presents a series of inter-regional tables and graphs with data presented for English speakers and French speakers to provide a regional context.

CHSSN and the Baseline Data Report Series


This analysis has been developed through the Networking and Partnership Initiative Program (NPI) of the Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN) funded by Health Canada.

The NPI Program contributes to the vitality of Quebec’s English-speaking communities by developing partnerships with the public health and social service system to improve, develop, and maintain access to a full range of services for Quebec’s English-speaking language minority. A community network (often referred to as an NPI network) is a formal grouping of community, institutional and other partners within the health and social service sector. The network improves access to health and social services through collaboration with the public system, provision of information on community needs and priorities, support for the volunteer and community resources sector and the promotion of innovative services adapted to the needs of English-speaking people. See http://chssn.org/chssn-programs-and-projects/networking-and-partnership-initiative/

The Baseline Data Report Series 2003-2016 is intended to serve as a resource that will allow local communities to better understand the demographic factors and health determinants affecting them and to assist institutional partners and community leaders in developing strategies to improve the well-being of their constituencies. See http://chssn.org/document-center/baseline-data-reports-2003-2013/

Data Source and Methodology


The language concept used in this report is First Official Language Spoken. The data source is the 2011 National Household Survey (Statistics Canada).

Following the re-organization of the health and social services system, the names of many CLSCs have changed. In this report, the former names are used as a comprehensive list of the name changes was not available at the time the analysis was conducted.

Data is not shown for smaller population counts. The symbol “-” is used when data has been suppressed. It does not signify 0, but rather a low population count for a given characteristic.

Explanations of the various NHS concepts used in this report are found in the Appendix at the end of the report. More detailed information on NHS and census concepts can be found in the Statistics dictionary at https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/dict/index-eng.cfm.


Size of English-speaking Population


Studies have confirmed that language barriers affect access and quality of care for linguistic minority communities. Obstacles to communication can reduce recourse to preventative services; increase consultation time including the number of tests and the possibility of diagnostic and treatment errors; affect the quality of services requiring effective communication such as social services; reduce the probability of treatment compliance and reduce users’ satisfaction with the services received.1 In the complex context of a medical situation, where the communication between care provider and patient is a key factor in the achievement of a positive health outcome, it is not surprising that the language spoken most often is considered the most effective. The treatment by health professionals of sensitive issues such as cancer, addiction, or depression, requires ease of communication as a feature of building trust and offering comfort to patients.



  • When we consider the size of the English-speaking population by territory, we find the smallest population to be in CLSC Antoine-Labelle (590) while CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville has the largest population at (10,775).

  • When we consider the population share of English speakers by territory, we find the lowest proportion to be in CLSC Antoine-Labelle (1.7%) while CLSC Argenteuil (17.5%) represents the highest proportion. These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 13.5%.

Size of English-speaking Population



Proportion of English Speakers



Age structure

Age Structure of the English-speaking Population


The distribution of the English-speaking population across age categories, and the extent to which language majority and minority communities differ in accordance to age, is important in understanding their distinct health needs and resources. Each stage of life tends to be associated with specific health and social service needs. The strategy for meeting these needs by public agencies must also take the age and age-related competencies of the client group into consideration. Typically, the age structure of the majority is important in shaping the scope and design of available health services and programs. Improving the health and the vitality of all citizens residing in a given territory requires awareness of the problems that are pressing for the minority and may be overlooked in the focus on the majority, and, awareness of problems that are shared by both language groups but are being met with solutions that are not equally accessible for both.


Age Structure of the French-speaking Population



Proportion of Children




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 5,320 English-speaking children aged 0 to 14 in 2011, comprising 14.7% of the English-speaking population. This is lower than the level reported for the French-speaking population (17.1%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English-speaking children, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Antoine-Labelle (4.2%) while CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (19.5%) represents the highest level. These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 15.2%.


Proportion of Seniors




  • In 2011, RTS des Laurentides reported 6,145 English speaking seniors aged 65 and over, comprising 17.0% of the English-speaking population. This is much higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (13.9%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English-speaking seniors by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (9.4%) while CLSC Antoine-Labelle (32.2%) represents the highest level. These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 13.5%.

Visible Minority Status


For these territories, data on visible minority status is currently unavailable.

Household Living Arrangements


Household living arrangements may be used as an indicator of groups within a population who are vulnerable to a poor health status. For example, the Quebec Social and Health Survey (1998) revealed that parents of minors living in lone parent households were more likely to report food insecurity, high levels of psychological distress and having more than one health problem compared to parents with other household arrangements.2 Individuals living alone may lack the important health benefits of a strong support network in the event of activity limitations due to illness or aging.

Household Living Arrangements Among the English-speaking Population



Household Living Arrangements Among the French-speaking Population



Lone-Parent Families




  • or the RTS des Laurentides there were 1,408 English speakers aged 15 and over who were living in lone-parent families in 2011, comprising 4.7% of the English-speaking population. This is lower than the level reported for the French-speaking population (5.8%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers aged 15 and over who were living in lone-parent families, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Les Pays-d'en-Haut (3.4%) while CLSC Argenteuil has the highest proportion (5.4%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 5.6%.

Living Alone




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 4,036 English speakers aged 15 and over who were living alone in 2011, comprising 13.6% of the English-speaking population. This is similar to the level reported for the French-speaking population (14.1%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers aged 15 and over who were living alone, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (7.3%) while CLSC Antoine-Labelle has the highest proportion (23.4%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 14.8%.


Recent mobility3


English speakers may be new to the province and as a result face challenges in accessing services and connecting with the English-speaking community. Relocation may imply lower levels of bilingualism, a lack of knowledge regarding the navigation of health and social services and a potential array of challenges to in adapting to a new cultural and economic environment.

Recent Mobility in the English-speaking Population



Recent Mobility in the French-speaking Population4



Recent Interprovincial Migrants




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 875 English speakers who were inter-provincial migrants in 2011, comprising 2.6% of the English-speaking population. This is much higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (0.3%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers who arrived from another province between 2006 and 2011, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (1.9%) while CLSC Les Laurentides has the highest proportion (4.3%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 3.3%.

Recent Immigrants




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 726 English speakers who were recent immigrants in 2011, comprising 2.2% of the English-speaking population. This is much higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (0.5%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers who arrived from another country between 2006 and 2011, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Argenteuil (0.8%) while CLSC La Rivière-du-Nord - Mirabel has the highest proportion (4.1%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 6.8%.


Education Attainment


In many ways, education is an important determinant of the health status of a community. In Canada, the level of education achieved by an individual tends to be an indicator of social status, and ideally, a predictor of economic opportunity. The overall level of health literacy and preventative health practice enjoyed by a community also tends to be associated with the years of schooling by those included among its members5.

Education Attainment of the English-speaking Population



Education Attainment of the French-speaking Population



Low Educational Attainment




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 13,894 English speakers with a high school diploma or less as their highest level of attainment in 2011, comprising 28.4% of the English-speaking population. This is much lower than the level reported for the French-speaking population (46.7%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers with a high school diploma or less, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Les Pays-d'en-Haut (21.2%) while CLSC Argenteuil has the highest proportion (31.9%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 26.9%.

High Educational Attainment




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 6,460 English speakers with a university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above in 2011, comprising 13.2% of the English-speaking population. This is similar to the level reported for the French-speaking population (12.9%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers with a University BA or higher, by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Argenteuil (8.9%) while CLSC Les Pays-d'en-Haut has the highest proportion (20.6%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 21%.

Labour Force Activity


The rate and type of labour force participation experienced by a community and its members is strongly associated with health status. In industrial nations like Canada, labour force activity is linked with level of income as well as the level of social integration enjoyed by a group. Employment is an important source of social identity and a key context for the establishment of a social support network that extends beyond the workplace. For an individual, work is an important source of the self-esteem and sense of control typically associated with good mental health.6

Labour Force Activity in the English-speaking Population



Labour Force Activity in the French-speaking Population



Unemployment Rates




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 1,468 English speakers who were unemployed in 2011, comprising 8.2% of the English-speaking population. This is much higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (6.6%).

  • When we consider the unemployment rate of English speakers, by territory, we find the lowest rate in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (7.4%) while CLSC Les Laurentides (11%) represents the highest. These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 9.4%.

Tendency to be Out of the Labour Force




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 11,762 English speakers who were not in the labour force in 2011, comprising 39.5% of the English-speaking population. This is higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (33.2%).

  • When we consider the tendency of English speakers to be out of the labour force, by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (34%) while CLSC Antoine-Labelle has the highest proportion (66.2%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 35.6%.

Income


Long-standing and substantial research provides evidence that income and social status are key determinants of the level of health and well-being experienced by communities and their members. Low-income Canadians are more likely to die earlier and to suffer more illnesses than Canadians with higher incomes, regardless of age, sex, race and place of residence.7 For vulnerable low-income households, language barriers in access to public health services loom large as they cannot afford private care services nor are they likely to have access to work-related benefits or private insurance coverage. Studies also suggest that the distribution of income in a given society may be a more important determinant of health than the total amount of income earned by society members. Large gaps in income distribution lead to increases in social problems and poorer health among the population as a whole8.

Income Levels in the English-speaking Population



Income Levels in the French-speaking Population



Low Income




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 12,026 English speakers earning under $20,000 or with no income in 2011, comprising 40.5% of the English-speaking population. This is similar to the level reported for the French-speaking population (38.6%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers with low income by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville (38.5%) while CLSC Antoine-Labelle has the highest proportion (54.8%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 44.9%.

High Income




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 6,549 English speakers earning $50,000 and over in 2011, comprising 22% of the English-speaking population. This is similar to the level reported for the French-speaking population (22.8%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers with high incomes by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Antoine-Labelle (9.6%) while CLSC Thérèse-De Blainville has the highest proportion (27.5%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 21.3%.


Low Income Cut-off Status (LICO)


Although there is no official measure of poverty in Canada, the Statistics Canada measure of Low Income Cut-Offs (LICO) is probably the best known. Commonly known as the “poverty line”, LICO uses the income levels of a given family and considers how large a share of its income is spent on necessities such as food, shelter and clothing. If the amount a family spends is 20% higher than an average family in a year, it falls into the low income cut-off category. People who live below income cut-offs may be said to live in “straitened circumstances.” 9 The following table considers the population living below LICO by language, administrative territory and age group.

Low Income Cut-off (LICO) Status, by Language Group



Proportion Living Below LICO




  • For the RTS des Laurentides there were 3,149 English speakers living below the low income cut-off in 2011, comprising 9.1% of the English-speaking population. This is higher than the level reported for the French-speaking population (8.4%).

  • When we consider the proportion of English speakers living below LICO by territory, we find the lowest proportion in CLSC Les Pays-d'en-Haut (5.1%) while CLSC Deux-Montagnes - Mirabel has the highest proportion (11.3%). These levels can be compared to the level for the provincial English-speaking population, or the provincial norm, which is 18.4%.


Appendix – Definitions and Concepts

Definitions and Measures


First Official Language Spoken (FOLS) The definitions of first official language spoken and official language minority are outlined in the Official Languages (Communications with and Services to the Public) Regulations issued pursuant to the Official Languages Act (1988). The official language minority is English in Quebec and French in all other provinces and territories. First Official Language Spoken is derived from the census questions on knowledge of official languages, mother tongue and home language. Multiple responses are distributed equally among declared languages.

National Household Survey Variables


Census Family Households are those with a married couple (with or without children), or a couple living common-law (with or without children), or a lone parent living with one or more children (lone-parent family).

Educational Attainment – Persons with low educational attainment are those with only a high school graduation certificate or less while those with high educational attainment are those with a university bachelor’s degree or higher.

Income – Persons with low income are those with individual income less than $20k while those with high income reported $50k or more. This includes income from all sources.

Low Income Cut-off (LICO) uses the income levels of a given family and considers how large a share of its income is spent on necessities such as food, shelter and clothing. If the amount a family spends is 20% higher than an average family in a year, it falls into the low income cut-off category. People who live below income cut-offs may be said to live in “straitened circumstances.” (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, August 2009.) Low-income after-tax cut-offs (LICO-AT) is used in this report.

Mobility Status – (Place of residence 5 years ago) Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2011, in relation to the place of residence on the same date five years earlier.

  • Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers.

  • Movers include non-migrants and migrants.

  • Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve.

  • Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada.

  • External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date. External migrants are referred to as immigrants in this document.

Non-census Family Households are those with either one person living alone in a private dwelling or to a group of two or more people who share a private dwelling, but who do not constitute a census family.

Out of Labour Force According to Statistics Canada, "Persons not in the labour force are those who, during the reference week, were unwilling or unable to offer or supply labour services under conditions existing in their labour markets (this includes persons who were full-time students currently attending school)."

Visible Minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".

1 See Bowen, S. (2001). Language Barriers in Access to Health Care, Ottawa: Health Canada. And, Bowen, S. et al. (2010). From ‘multicultural health’ to ‘knowledge translation’ – rethinking strategies to promote language access within a risk management framework. The Journal of Specialized Translation (Jostrans), Issue 14, http://www.jostrans.org/issue14/art_bowen.php. See also, Jacobs, E, and A. Chen, L. Karliner, N. Agger-Gupta & S. Mutha. (2006). “The Need for More Research on Language Barriers in Health Care: A Proposed Research Agenda”. The Millbank Quarterly, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 111-133.

2 For discussion of the survey, see Pocock, J. (2008) “Baseline Data Report 2007-2008. Quebec’s Social and Health Survey Information.” Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN). www.chssn.org

3 Recent mobility refers to movement or non-movement in the five-year period between 2006 and 2011.

4 Recent mobility refers to movement or non-movement in the five-year period between 2006 and 2011.

5 For further discussion of education as a health determinant see D. Raphael. (ed.) (2009) Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives, 2nd edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.

6 For further discussion of employment and working conditions as health determinants and the Population Health Model see D. Raphael (ed.) (2009) Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.

7 Public Health Agency of Canada, http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/determinants-eng.php#evidence Accessed March 2014

8 Ibid

9 See “Low Income in Canada: 2000-2007 Using the Market Basket Measure” August 2009 by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada for a breakdown on various Low Income Measurements. Available online at http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications



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