Madagascar Relative Location: In the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa Countries located in: Madagascar Details: Separated from Africa by the Mozambique



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Physical Features of Africa

Feature: Madagascar

Relative Location: In the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa

Countries located in: Madagascar

Details:

1. Separated from Africa by the Mozambique Channel

2. Fourth largest island in the world

3. Made of a plateau

4. Largely deforested

5. Agricultural economy


Feature: Congo River

Relative Location: Central and Western Africa

Countries located in: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire)

Details:

1. Formed by three other rivers

2. Is 2,720 miles long

3. Has a width of 4 to 10 miles

4. It contains islands

5. One of Africa’s largest potential sources of hydroelectricity


Feature: Niger River

Relative Location: Western Africa

Countries located in: Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria

Details:

1. 2,600 miles long

2. Largest delta in Africa

3. Major source of fish

4. Flows south

5. Empties into the Gulf of Guinea


Feature: Mt. Kilimanjaro

Relative Location: Central Eastern Africa along the equator

Countries located in: Tanzania

Details:

1. Highest mountain in Africa

2. Extinct volcano

3. Made of two peaks, Kibo and Mawenzi

4. Highest point is 19,340 feet

5. Coffee and plantains are raised on the slopes


Feature: Mediterranean Sea

Relative Location: Between Europe and Africa

Countries located in: Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt

Details:

1. World’s largest inland sea

2. Connects to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar

3. Connects to the Red Sea by the Suez Canal

4. It has mountainous shores

5. Covers an area of 965,000 sq. miles


Feature: Congo Basin

Relative Location: Central Western Africa

Countries located in: Zaire, Zambia, Angola, Congo, Gabon

Details:

1. Large Rainforest

2. Surrounded by mountains

3. World’s second largest river basin

4. Lies along the Equator

5. Area of 1,335,000 sq. miles


Feature: Zambezi River

Relative Location: Southeastern Africa

Countries located in: Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique

Details:

1. Flows from the Congo Basin

2. Fourth largest river in Africa

3. Only river that flows into the Indian Ocean

4. Most famous for Victoria Falls

5. Only crossed by 5 bridges


Feature: Orange River

Relative Location: Southern Africa

Countries located in: South Africa

Details:

1. Runs across the Namib Desert

2. Major river in South Africa

3. Orange in color

4. Runs through South Africa

5. Much is in desert areas


Feature: Cape of Good Hope

Relative Location: Southwestern African tip

Countries located in: South Africa

Details:


1. Shaped like a hook that shoots out into the Atlantic Ocean

2. Most famous part of South Africa

3. Very rocky landscape

4. Famous for explorers using it as a trade route from Europe to India

5. Not the southern most tip


Feature: Atlas Mountains

Relative Location: Northwest Africa

Countries located in: Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia

Details:

1. System of ranges and plateaus

2. Spans 1,500 miles

3. Climate barrier between Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert

4. Fertile lowlands separate the ranges

5. Rich in minerals


Feature: Red Sea

Relative Location: Between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

Countries located in: Egypt, Sudan, and Eritrea

Details:

1. Arm of the Indian Ocean

2. Gulf of Aqaba and Suez are in the North

3. Linked to the Indian Ocean by the Gulf of Aden

4. Surrounded by hot and dry deserts and steppes

5. Summer water temperatures can exceed 85 degrees


Feature: Great Rift Valley

Relative Location: Central Eastern Africa

Countries located in: Extends from Mozambique to Syria

Details:

1. Geographical fault system

2. Ranges from 1,300 feet below sea level to 6,000 feet above sea level

3. Highest cliffs are in Kenya

4. Erosion leveled out the valleys

5. Dead Sea is located in the valley

Feature: Lake Victoria

Relative Location: Eastern Africa

Countries located in: Tanzania and Uganda

Details:

1. Largest lake in Africa

2. Located in the Great Rift Valley

3. This region is one of the most densely populated

4. Within 50 miles of the shores live several million people

5. Freshwater lake




Feature: Indian Ocean

Relative Location: East Coast of Africa

Countries located in: Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar, Mozambique

Details:

1. Third largest ocean in the world

2. Extends from Asia to Antarctica

3. Extends from east Africa to Australia

4. The depth is around 11,000 feet

5. Extension of the Great Rift Valley


Feature: Atlantic Ocean

Relative Location: West Coast of Africa

Countries located in: Gabon, Angola, Namibia, Morocco, Niger

Details:

1. Second largest ocean in the world

2. Connected to the Arctic Ocean by the Greenland Sea

3. Connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Panama Canal

4. Connected to the Indian Ocean by the Suez Canal

5. The Mediterranean and the Gulf of Guinea are the two arms


Feature: Sahara Desert

Relative Location: Northern Africa

Countries located in: Egypt, Libya, Mali, Chad, Sudan

Details:

1. World’s largest desert

2. 3,500,000 sq. miles in area

3. Bordered by the Atlas Mountains to the north and the Sahel to the south

4. Sand dunes cover 15 percent

5. Stone deserts cover 70 percent


Feature: Kalahari Desert

Relative Location: Southern Africa

Countries located in: Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe

Details:

1. Covered by reddish sand

2. Arid plateau region

3. Lies between the Orange and Zambezi Rivers

4. Grass grows during the rainy season

5. Agriculture is possible in some areas


Feature: Nile River

Relative Location: Eastern Africa

Countries located in: Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Zaire

Details:

1. 4,160 miles long

2. Longest river in the world

3. Supports almost all agriculture in Egypt

4. Gives water to 20 percent of Sudan’s crop area



5. Important source of hydroelectric power






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