Market Analysis: Kraft Macaroni and Cheese



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Market Analysis: Kraft Macaroni and Cheese

February 29, 2016

Caitlin Wallace

Cassandra Golda

Joseph Morone

Lindsey

Mikaela David

Table of Contents
Step 1: Company Analysis…………………………………………………………………...…...3

A. Background Information…………………………………………………………………...3

B. International Involvement………………………………………………………………….3

C. SWOT Analysis………………………………………………………………………...….4

Step 2: Situation Analysis- Countries………………………………………………………….…4

A. The National Business Environment…………………………………………………….....4

a. Canada………………………………………………………………………...…….….4

b. Mexico………………………………………………………………………………….5

c. France……………………………………………………………………………...…...6

d. Haiti……………………………………………………………………………...……..6

      B. Market and Size Potential …………………………………………………………………7

a. Canada……………………………………………………………………………….…7

b. Mexico…………………………………………………………………………..…...…8

c. France……………………………………………………………………………....…10

d. Haiti…………………………………………………………………………….......…12

     C. Country Evaluation……………………………………………………………………..…15


  1. Spreadsheet……………………………………………………………………….…15

Step 3: Target Country……………………………………………………………………….…16

A. Identify the Country…………………………………………………………………...…16

B. Competitive Intelligence…………………………………………………………………16

a. All competitors and Targeted Main Competitor…………………………………..…16

b. Key Messages and Customers…………………………………………………….…17

c. Company/ Product Offer……………………………………………………………..18

d. Key Advantages …………………………………………………………………..…19

e. Website Analysis……………………………………………………………………..22

f. Marketing Tactics………………………………………………………………….….22

g. Competitive Summary……………………………………………………………..…23



Step 4: Target Customers in the Target Country…………………………………………..……23

A. Top Two Segments and Segment Profiles……………………………………………..…23

C. Target Market…………………………………………………………………….……….27

D. Positioning………………………………………………………………………..……....27

References…………………………………………………………………………………...….29


Step 1: Company Analysis

A. Background information

The company name we are analyzing is Kraft-Heinz Company: Macaroni and Cheese

(Merged in July of 2015) and is headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Northfield, Illinois. The company website is www.kraftfoodsgroup.com, but the company also has a website specific to their macaroni and cheese product, which is www.kraftmacandcheese.com. The major industry that Kraft macaroni and cheese is the Boxed Food Industry. The Kraft Heinz Company is the third-largest food and beverage company in North America and the fifth-largest food and beverage company in the world, with eight $1 billion+ brands. Since its introduction over 75 years ago, Kraft macaroni & cheese dinner has been a family favorite and is one of the fastest-selling food items in the grocery store. Kraft makes a variety of delicious macaroni and cheese dinners including Kraft Macaroni and Cheese Dinner, Kraft Microwavable Macaroni and Cheese Dinner and Kraft Deluxe Macaroni and Cheese Dinner. The companies mission statement is “Helping People Around the World to Eat & Live Better”. Kraft's mission is to provide fun, healthy food for people to enjoy. Their mission statement informs us that they care about their consumers. Their values are innovation, quality, safety, respect, integrity, and openness. They strive as a company to communicate with the world reassuring them they're a trusted company with their products. Objectives highlighted for the 2010-2015 timeframe include: Source 100% of European coffee brands sustainably, increase sustainable sourcing of agricultural commodities by 25%, reduce energy use in manufacturing plants, energy-related CO2 emissions in manufacturing plants, water consumption in manufacturing plants and waste at manufacturing plants all by 15%. They also are striving to eliminate 50,000 metric tons (100 million lbs.) of packaging material and to reduce 80 million km (50 million miles) from transportation network.

B. International Involvement

Countries where Kraft Macaroni and Cheese is currently involved internationally was quite difficult to find. We emailed Kraft HQ to get more information but never got a response.  It seems as though they are restricted to North America and a few others. The countries that we were able to find that Kraft Mac and Cheese was in the United States, Australia, Canada, and United Kingdom. As of 2015, after the merger with Heinz, they decided they will be spending less time in the United States and try to expand their brand internationally (Source 1). Currently, 98% of Kraft’s sales are from North America (Source 2). Meanwhile, more than 60% of Heinz sales come from outside of North America (Source 2). This offers an opportunity for Kraft to take advantage of Heinz’ relationships and strategies of entering these international markets.




C. SWOT Analysis

Strengths

-Brand Recognition: well known and major brand for product

-Diversity of Products: brand has a many different products

-Large Company = spread out risk

-Popular amongst Adolescent Market: quick and easy for the to make

-Cheap Prices (for consumers)

-Easy for the consumer to make

-US and Canada Distribution Channels

-Economies of Scale (production)

-Merged with Heinz: two well known brands

-Highest Mac and Cheese market share

-Owns Velveeta: would have been competitor



Weaknesses

- Nutritional Value: not considered healthy

-International Demand

-Distributor Buying Power

-High Marketing Costs

-Adult Consumer Market

-Not much more room for growth in the United State market

-Limited ability to raise price of products



Opportunities

-Expansion to poorer countries: could be successful because cheap price

-Further flavor/size diversification: many more possible flavors

-Improve nutritional Value: could make product more healthy

-Further projects with Heinz

-More efficient/healthier production process

-Purchase healthier and competing brands


Threats

-Competitors - White Waves Foods Co.

-Public food coloring scandal: consumers do not want coloring in their food

-Low popularity in International Markets

-Change in Consumer Preferences: consumers may begin wanting something different, possibly or healthy

-Organic Lifestyle changes: this is a growing trend in food

-Small Food companies




Step 2: Situation Analysis- Countries

A. The National Business Environment

a. Canada

 Demographics-

Both English and French are the official languages of Canada (CIA, 2016a). A majority of their population is between the years of 25-54 which adds up to be about 40.69% of the population resulting in a median age of 41.8 years (CIA, 2016a). As of July 2015, their population was roughly 35,099,836 (CIA, 2016a). The population growth rate is 0.75% as of 2015 (CIA, 2016a).

    Government-

The Canadian government is “a parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy” (CIA, 2016a). The legal system is based under “common law except for in Quebec where civil law is based on the French civil code prevails” (CIA, 2016a). The “Prime Minister is Justin Pierre James Trudeau since November of 2015 with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state since February of 1952 but represented by Governor General David Johnston since October 2010” (CIA, 2016a).

    Geography-

“Located by the Atlantic Ocean (on east), North Pacific Ocean (on west), and the Arctic Ocean (on north)” (CIA, 2016a). The climate “varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north” (CIA, 2016a). Natural resources available are: “iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydropower” (CIA, 2016a). “Canada has more fresh-water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water” (CIA, 2016a). “Canada has at least 2 million lakes which is more than all other countries combined” (CIA, 2016a). There are 10 provinces and 3 territories with Ottawa being the capital (CIA, 2016a). Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Ottawa, and Edmonton are the major populated urban areas (CIA, 2016a).  As of December of 2015, the stock of direct foreign investment in Canada was $1.012 trillion (CIA, 2016a). Canada has a similar dollar system to the United States. As of 2015, the exchange rate of Canadian dollar (CAD) per US dollar was 1.28 (CIA, 2016a).

    b. Mexico

    Demographics-

Spanish is the main language of Mexico (CIA, 2016b). The majority of the Mexicans are Roman Catholic (CIA, 2016b). A majority of their population is between the years of 25-54 which adds up to be about 40.55% of the population resulting in a median age of 27.6 years (CIA, 2016b). As of July 2015, their population was roughly 121,736,809 (CIA, 2016b). The population growth rate is 1.18% as of 2015 (CIA, 2016b).

    Government-

The Mexican government is a federal republic (CIA, 2016b). The legal system is based under “civil law system with US constitutional law influence” (CIA, 2016b). The chief of state and head of government is President Enrique Pena Nieto since December of 2012  (CIA, 2016b).      

    Geography-

Mexico has a “strategic location on the southern border of the United States” (CIA, 2016b). The climate “varies from tropical to desert” (CIA, 2016b). Some natural hazards are “tsunamis, volcanos, earthquakes, and hurricanes” (CIA, 2016b). “Hazardous waste, polluted natural freshwater resources, deforestation, widespread erosion, desertification, deteriorating agricultural lands, as well as air and water pollution are some current environmental issues Mexico is facing” (CIA, 2016b). Natural resources available are: “petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, and timber” (CIA, 2016b).  As of December of 2015, the stock of direct foreign investment in France was $361 billion (CIA, 2016b). As of 2015, the exchange rate is 15.88 Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar (CIA, 2016b).

    c. France

    Demographics-

As per assumed, French is the official language of France (CIA, 2016d). The majority of the French citizens are Christian (CIA, 2016d). A majority of their population is between the years of 25-54 which adds up to be about 38.31% of the population resulting in a median age of 41.1 years (CIA, 2016d). As of July 2015, their population was roughly 66,553,766 (CIA, 2016d). The population growth rate is 0.43% as of 2015 (CIA, 2016d).

    Government-

The Canadian government is a republic (CIA, 2016d). The legal system is based under civil law (CIA, 2016d). The chief of state is President Francois Hollande since May of 2012  (CIA, 2016d). The head of government is Prime Minister Manuel Valls since April of 2014 (CIA, 2016d).

    Geography-

France is the “largest West European nation” (CIA, 2016d). The climate varies depending on the region but typically “cool winters and mild summers except for near the Mediterranean where it sees mild winters and hot summers” (CIA, 2016d). Some natural hazards are “flooding, avalanches, midwinter windstorms, drought, and forest fires” (CIA, 2016d). “Air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions and water pollution from urban waste are some of the current environmental issues France is being faced with” (CIA, 2016d). Natural resources available are: “coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, and fish” (CIA, 2016d).  As of December of 2015, the stock of direct foreign investment in France was $1.299 billion (CIA, 2016d). The exchange rate is 47.63 gourdes (HTG) per US dollar (CIA, 2016d).

d. Haiti

    Demographics-

French and Creole are the two official languages of Haiti (CIA, 2016c). The majority of the French citizens are Roman Catholic (CIA, 2016c). A majority of their population is split between the years of 25-54 which adds up to be about 35.78% of the population and 0-14 which adds up to be about 33.28% of the population resulting in a relatively low median age of 22.5 years (CIA, 2016c). As of July 2015, their population was roughly 10,110,019 (CIA, 2016c). The population growth rate is 1.17% as of 2015 (CIA, 2016c).

    Government-

The Haitian government is a republic (CIA, 2016c). The legal system is based under “civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code” (CIA, 2016c). The chief of state is vacant as of February 2016 because “President Michel Martelly stepped down from office and parliament is looking for an interim president” (CIA, 2016c). The head of government is Prime Minister Evans Paul as of January 2015 (CIA, 2016c).

    Geography-

Haiti “shares island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic” (CIA, 2016c). The climate is “tropical and semiarid where mountains in the east cut off trade winds” (CIA, 2016c). Some natural hazards are “hurricanes, severe storms, flooding, earthquakes, and periodic droughts” (CIA, 2016c). “Extensive deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water are some current environmental issues facing the people of Haiti” (CIA, 2016c). Natural resources available are: “bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, and arable land” (CIA, 2016c). There capital of France is Paris (CIA, 2016c).  As of December of 2015, the stock of direct foreign investment in France was $1.124 trillion (CIA, 2016c).

B. Market and Size Potential

a. Canada

Industry-

In the boxed food industry, Canada is currently seeing positive but moderate retail value sales growth.    Demographic changes, such as an ageing population and a growing number of ethnic consumers, as well as trends like premiumisation, time scarcity, health and wellness and budget-conscious consumers, are driving innovation and supporting growth across a wide variety of packaged food types (Packaged Food in Canada. (n.d)).

    Economic-  

(Figures as of 2015 & in US billions) The exports of Canada in 2015 was $639.9 billion while imports were $725.7 billion. The inflation rate was 2.5%. The nominal GDP was $1981.2 billion. The nominal GDP per capita (LCU 1000s) was 55.66. The population growth was 0.8%. The total population was 35.59 million. The unemployment rate was roughly 7.09%. Services accounts for 70.5% of GDP as of 2015 (The World Factbook, 2015). Their main industries include “transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, and natural gas” (The World Factbook, 2015).

    Infrastructure-



Infrastructure in Canada is plentiful. Canada has a total of 1404 airports, of which 514 are paved and 890 unpaved (Total Number of Airports by Country. (n.d.)). Canada also has a large and well-developed railway system that today transports primarily freight and has 49,422 kilometers (30,709 mi) of total tracks(Rail Transport In Canada. (n.d.)). Roads and highways can be located all throughout Canada, and are frequently used by distributing automobiles such as transport trucks to distribute product.

    Media and Technology-



All forms of media are very popular in Canada, much like the United States. There are 546 FM radio stations, and 129 AM radio stations (CRTC Financial Results for Canadian Radio Stations. (n.d.)). 13.9 million households have at least one television, and 93% of households have either cable or satellite (Canadian Media Statistics. (n.d.)). Canada continues to be one of the most ‘wired’ countries in the world, with nearly 87% of Canadian households connected to the Internet (The Canadian Internet. (n.d.)) and 28,217,707 people in Canada have a mobile phone.

    b. Mexico

    Industry-

In 2013, Mexico was declared the worst country for obesity rates. Due to the increase in obesity rates, the Mexican government put an 8 percent tax on all packaged foods. This tax has decreased the GDP growth of the industry for the following years. Packaged pasta, noodles and rice consumption rates have continued to increase over the years despite the tax from 177,500 tons in 2013 to 185,220 tons in 2015.

    Economic-



Economic - (Figures as of 2015 & in US billions) The exports of Mexico in 2015 was $413.07 billion while imports totaled $422.41 billion. The inflation rate was 4.7%. The nominal GDP was $1334.6 billion with a per capita of 10.65. The population growth was 1.2% with a population of 125.25 million. The unemployment rate was roughly 5.0%.

    Infrastructure-

In most recent years, Mexico has been working on the delivery methods throughout the country in order to keep up with the fast growing global society. In recent years Mexico has built and modernized 133,000 kilometer network of highways, 76 airports (64 with international flights), and 27,000 kilometers of railroad and 117 maritime ports. In recent years, a majority of the roads have been complete and are able to connect the country together.

    Media and Technology-

Technology and different forms of media are used in Mexico but not as frequently as other countries such as the United States. Internet usage in the country is only at 24 percent. Of that 24 percent who use the internet, 25 percent are below the age of 18 and 32 percent are between the ages of 18 and 24. The literacy rate in mexico is 93.96 percent which means a majority of consumers are able to read different forms of writing such as the news and advertisements 92.7 percent of households in Mexico have a television in their homes. 627.91 per 1,000 people in Mexico have a mobile phone. 135.81 per 1,000 people have personal computers. Radio and radio stations are present in the county but not predominant unless the locations is a large city.

Demand Criteria-

The average number of children per household in Mexico is 3. The literacy rate in Mexico is 99 percent which would allow consumers to read and understand the directions of Kraft macaroni and cheese. The unemployment rate in Mexico was 4.75 percent as of 2015. Consumers in Mexico prefer rice to pasta. There is not an even distribution of wealth. Just like the United States, a majority of the wealth is concentrated with the top 1 percent.



Competitor Criteria-

There are many suppliers of various ready meals in Mexico for rice and pasta products. The high number of competitors are also doing well in the industry in terms of revenue. The competitors are selling in many of the larger cities and small villages. Sigma Alimentos is the number one competitor. Sigma Alimentos has been around since 1939. Sigma Alimentos made 5.359 U.S. dollars. in 2014 in revenue. In Mexico, the obesity rate has caused citizens to reevaluate their perception of food dyes and preservatives.



Supply Criteria-

Water is supplied to 96% of Mexico which is good compared to many countries. Many of the distribution sites in Mexico are little corner stores which may be hard to coordinate sales and distribution. Electricity is accessible to nearly everyone in the country. In several parts of the country access to stoves and microwaves is limited but a majority of the country has both. Tariffs for importing goods to Mexico are high currently making shipping goods in not too cost effective.



Other Criteria-

In recent years, Mexico has made strides towards building better roads in order to allow goods to flow in and out of the country. The obesity rate in is 32.8 percent. The higher obesity rate shows that consumers are less health conscious in Mexico. The internet access in Mexico is 24.6 percent. In much of Mexico the weather is predictable which allows the shipping process to go smoothly.


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     c. France

Industry-

Over the world, France is the second largest food export sector. Also the French food industries run gamut from the form of large retail supermarkets to a produce stand at your favorite farmer’s market. The food industries revenue takes 20% of all manufacturing revenues.  The vast majority of French companies (98%) within this sector are small-to-medium sized enterprises. In addition, France is becoming the food export leader among EU.



Economic-

(Figures as of 2015 & in US billions) The exports of France in 2015 was $790.75 billion while imports totaled $828.4 billion. The inflation rate was 2.3%. The nominal GDP was $2834.7 billion with a per capita of 42.55. The population growth was 0.4% with a population of 66.62 million. The unemployment rate was roughly 9.5%. As of December of 2015, the stock of direct foreign investment in France was $1.124 trillion (CIA, 2016a).


Infrastructure-

France has the one of the best infrastructures in the world, the government invest a lot in the field and build the system through advanced technology. The transportation network is among the whole country with the diversity modes which include air, land and rail transportation. Transportation is also possible via rivers. The technologically advanced rail system— utilizing some of the fastest trains in the world—is operated by the French National Railways (SNCF), a state-owned company. There are a total of 31,939 kilometers (19,846 miles) of rail lines in the country.

Media and Technology-

France is a highly developed and technologically advanced country, with a population of 64.3 million as of 2009. These figures include 4.9 million immigrants, a third coming from Europe (Portugal, Poland, Italy), another third from Maghreb, 12% from sub-Saharan Africa and 17% from the rest of the world, mainly Asia (Turkey included). This immigration explains the high number of satellite TV viewers. A French household has an average budget of 2,270 euro a year for media and multimedia spending. From this, 50% goes to mobile phone subscription, 32% to the equipment (TV, computers) and 18 percent to printed press, the cinema and digital content.

Demand Criteria-

The pasta and cheese is almost popular among the whole French families. In addition, each family has over two children on average. And the the education level is very high, over 90% French people get the high education. Also the unemployment rate in France is low, it is less than 10%. The high income and the stable family structure lead the huge demand for pasta and cheese.

Supply Criteria-

With the great transportation system, the company has a convince way to ship the product to anywhere they want. Also the utilities supply system is great which means the food industries can get the enough water and electricity. In addition, over 90% food stores located near the water supply. And the electricity company has the special price for the people who has the difficult income or situation.

Competitor Criteria-

Kraft company is hard to enter the French market at the beginning. Because there are already several large cheese companies and they have run the company in France for several years. The largest cheese company is Groupe Lactalis which is take 21% value of market. Also cheese companies’ store located many different places, it is hard to find a location where do not have other cheese brands.

Other Criteria-

With the great transportation system, the company has great benefits, and it is easily to transport the resources and products. In addition, the obesity rate (over 40%) is a little bit high in France, which means that the people will has a large demand on convenient food. Also the telecommunication system is developed in France. It is easily to promote the products and companies through the internet and television.

    d. Haiti

    Industry-

Overall, the general food industry is something that Haiti has struggled with due to internal economic conditions as well as external natural disasters. Haiti has a statistic of 30% of children suffering from malnutrition. Though over 50% of Haiti’s workforce is in the food industry, the Country imports almost half of its food. There are conventional grocery stores and supermarkets spread out across the country primarily located in the capitals and ports. The rural population must travel in order to visit these stores and buy boxed goods. The largest MNE competing in Haiti’s grocery store industry is Caribbean Super Market. Haiti also is home to 40+ other grocery stores. An interesting aspect of Haiti’s food industry is the amount of donations this country receives. Since the natural disaster, Haiti has received food from countless organizations throughout many different countries. Tracking where the food is traveling is a difficult task to accomplish through the internet, but all of the food primarily enters the country through its ports.

    Economic-

(Figures as of 2015 & in US billions)

The exports of Haiti in 2015 was $3.09 billion while imports totaled $11.55 billion. The inflation rate was 6.2%. The nominal GDP was $9.13 billion with a per capita of 0.86. The population growth was 1.2% with a population of 10.51 million. The unemployment rate was roughly 6.9%.

    Infrastructure-

Infrastructure in Haiti is something that Haiti is severely lacking in when compared at a global level. The roads and automotive aspects of Haiti’s infrastructure have been described as insecure and dangerous. However, Port-Au-Prince is a highly profitable area and the closest thing there is to a developed aspect in Haiti. Electricity and running water is something that Haiti also struggles with. Only 12.5% of the population has access to electricity on a consistent basis. This makes it difficult for technologically oriented products to find success in this market. The water situation is either unavailable to a large portion of the population or is contaminated with diseases. To top off the struggle, Haiti has recorded that they currently have no functioning railways.

    Media and Technology-

Compared to the infrastructure, the technology and media of Haiti seem to be slightly better. Twenty percent of the Country (including the rural environment) has access to the internet while almost eleven percent utilize it. Sixty-two percent of the population has access to a cellphone that is provided by four major companies: Comcel, Digicel, Haitel, and NatCOM. The radio industry is composed of over 250 channels that are primarily hosted out of Port-au-Prince. Though it may be difficult to transport physical goods to certain place in Haiti, communicating in this country is becoming easier and more effective every year.

Demand Criteria-

The average number of children per household is 2.79 which has consistently decreased. However, over 36% of the population is under the age of 14. The literacy rate is low as it sits at 48.7%. Haiti’s unemployment rate is one of the highest in the entire world at 40.6%. Even with the labor force constituting 59.4% of the population, roughly half of this population has been described as “not being consistently employed”. Haiti’s tastes and preferences do match Kraft Mac and Cheese; Haiti is known to be a big importer of rice and cheese from the United States and has coined a recipe for their own local Mac and Cheese. The middle class in non-existent as 58.5% of the population is below the poverty line ($2 a day) and the top one percent earners control over 50% of the Haiti’s economy.



Supply Criteria-

Haiti’s water and electricity is something that would pose our product a great number of issues. Only 40% of the population has access to clean water that is not infected by diseases. Electricity is scarce in Haiti as only 12.5% of the population has access to it a consistent basis. The lack of water and electricity are normally two things that are required prepare our product, but Haiti could use the cultural “pots and pans” they have crafted to boil our product over a fire. Distribution sites would also pose a problem outside of the country’s major ports. Tariffs and Shipping costs are not the big of an issue for us as Haiti only charges a 3% tariff on products such as rice.



Competition Criteria-

Overall, the competition Kraft would face in Haiti is fairly weak. The largest competitor would be Caribbean Super Market which an MNE that dominates most of the Caribbean area. However, we could also look to go into a partnership with this company who would serve as a distributor of our Mac and Cheese products. There are over 40 other grocery stores located throughout Haiti, mainly in the port cities. The revenue gained by these companies is low compared to Kraft’s global revenue. However, the grocery stores and the competing brands that they carry have been in Haiti for a long time and it wouldn’t be easy for us to gain brand loyalty against them.



Distance/Other Criteria-

As listed above, the transportation infrastructure of Haiti is in a dire state. While trade boats seem to be what keeps this country operable, all other forms of transportation are in immature states or non-existent. The roads in Haiti are often filled with civilians that are extremely hungry, there are few airports in Haiti, and the railway system is no longer functional. Haiti can be described as a humid and warm country which doesn’t exactly fit our product’s ideal location. Haiti has also experienced a terrible earthquake that has stunted the country’s functions. The obesity rate in Haiti is surprisingly higher than we anticipated: 10.7%. Haiti’s internet usage rate falls at a low 10.9%.



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FOREIGN COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE. (2013, July 3).

Doing Business in Haiti: 2014 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies. Retrieved

February 28, 2016, from http://photos.state.gov/libraries/haiti/231771/PDFs/ccgfinalcopy.pdf
Global Security. (n.d.). Military. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/haiti/infrastructure.htm
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https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/print_2228.html
Inveneo. (2015). 20% of the Haitian Population Now Has Broadband Access via the Haiti

Connected Cities Program. Retrieved February 28, 2016, from
http://www.inveneo.org/2012/06/20-of-the-haitian-population-now-has-broadband-access-
via-the-haiti-connected-cities-program

C. Country Evaluation

a. Evaluation Spreadsheet