Minnesota's Black Baseball Players



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"Minnesota's Black Baseball Players," by Steven R. Hoffbeck.
Researchers should acknowledge that they received information from this web site when using the data in written works.
The purpose of this paper is to track the careers of the greatest African-American baseball players to have played in Minnesota as a part of an on-going and larger effort to research and preserve information about all the African-American ballplayers who played in the state from the 1860 through the 1940s. It will show that the black ballplayers who spent time in Minnesota had connections to other players from their shared experience on other teams in other places. This research paper shows a true "Brotherhood of Black Baseball" as recounted in the book by Steven R. Hoffbeck, Swinging For The Fences: Black Baseball in Minnesota (St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2005). The book is available from the publisher or from Amazon.com and Barnes and Noble.com (after its release date in February, 2005). If you have questions, please contact Dr. Steve Hoffbeck, see the email and regular mail listings elsewhere on this web page.

Timeline of Black Baseball in Minnesota:



Early Years 1870-1906.
* Bud Fowler. Bud Fowler was the "first black professional player," with Lynn, Massachusetts, International Association ballclub, a white team, in 1878.1 He played P, C, 2B with the Stillwater, MN, ballclub in 1884, & with .302 batting average.2 1892, Lincoln/Kearney team in Nebraska League, BA .273, led the league in stolen bases with 45.3 1894, Findlay, OH, team.4 He organized the Page Fence Giants in Michigan, & spent time in Minnesota touring with his Page Fence Giants in 1895 [team members included William Binga, George Wilson, George Taylor].5 Great player. Team organizer/manager. Justification for inclusion in Hall of Fame: Fowler was a pioneer and leader in team organization with the Page Fence Giants, paving the way for Rube Foster and others.
George Wilson, Pitcher. St.Cloud, 1903. The son of two former slaves, he grew up in Palmyra, MI; 1894, P, Adrian, MI, Light Guard team.6 1895, through July with Page Fence Giants, P; then white Adrian, MI, team, P, record: 29-4 [he played at Adrian with Bud Fowler].7 With Page Fence Giants, P, 1895 [with teammates William Binga, John W. "Bud" Fowler, George Hopkins, George Taylor, & Billy Holland]; and in 1896 [with teammates William Binga, Billy Holland, George Taylor, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson--the 1896 team won the championship of Black baseball by defeating the Cuban Giants, 9 games to 6 games [Wilson pitched a no-hitter vs. Defiance, OH, in June].8 Page Fence Giants in 1897 [with teammates William Binga, Billy Holland, George Taylor, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson; and 1898, playing on the same team with Sherman Barton, William Binga, & George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson. Then in 1899, Chicago Columbia Giants, P, with teammates Sherman Barton, William Binga, George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson; and in 1900; here he again played baseball with Sherman Barton, William Binga, Billy Holland and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.9 Chicago Union Giants, 1901-1902; [1904-1905 [?]]. 1902 for Waseca, MN.10 St. Cloud, MN, 1903.11 1905, Chippewa Falls, WI, and Renville, MN.12 Cuban winter league, 1907. Career: 1895-1905.13 Sol White wrote that Wilson in his prime was equivalent to Rube Waddell.14
William "Billy" Holland. Pitcher. Throws: Left. Perhaps he started playing baseball in 1893, Chicago Union Giants.15 But listed with the Chicago Unions of 1894 [with teammate George Hopkins].16 Page Fence Giants, 1895 [with teammates William Binga, John W. "Bud" Fowler, George Hopkins, George Taylor, and George Wilson];17 and 1896 [with teammates William Binga, George Taylor, George Wilson, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.18 Back to the Chicago Unions in 1897 [with teammates Robert Footes, George Hopkins, & Willis Jones]; and 1898 [with teammates Robert Footes, George Hopkins, William Horn, Bert Jones, & Willis Jones]; and 1899 [teammates included Robert Footes, George Hopkins, William Horn, Bert Jones, and Willis Jones].19 In 1900, he was CF for the Columbia Giants, and his teammates included Sherman Barton, William Binga, George Wilson, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.20 Holland came to pitch for Waseca, MN, in 1901 as a teammate of pitcher George Wilson and catcher Robert Woods.21 In 1902, he again pitched for Waseca.22 In 1903, he was recruited away from the Waseca team, which had played Algona several times, as a pitcher and 1B for the Algona Brownies; and his teammates included Sherman Barton, Johnny Davis, William Horn, George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson, Bert Jones, and Willis Jones.23 1904=? The 1905 season had him on the Chicago Leland Giants roster as a pitcher [with teammates including Sherman Barton, William Binga, and George Taylor.24 In 1906 and 1907, OF and P with Brooklyn Royal Giants; in 1906 his teammates included Robert Footes; in 1907 his teammates included George ["Rat" or "Chappie] Johnson and Eugene Milliner.25
* George "Rat" [also nicknamed "Chappie"] Johnson. Born 1876 in Bellaire, Ohio [the same hometown as Sol White]. "As a boy he played ball on the 'kid' teams of the city and was early marked as a 'phenom.' He played on white teams in and around Bellaire and other neighboring towns when he was thirteen and fourteen years old and acquired quite a reputation even at this early age. He got into professional ball when eighteen years of age and has made ball playing his business ever since."26 At about age 20, in 1896, LF with Page Fence Giants, also 1897, 1b; and 1898, C.27 In 1899 (C or 1B) for Columbia Giants of Chicago,28 and 1900 for Columbia Giants, 1B; 1901 probably for Columbia Giants.29 Chicago Union Giants, 1902, first part of the season,30 then Algona Brownies, mid-summer, 1902; also listed with Philadelphia Giants as C in 1902.31 Algona [Iowa] Brownies, 1903;32 and the Cuban X-Giants in 1903--champs of Black baseball.33 Philadelphia Giants, 1904, champs of Black baseball.34 Renville, MN, team 1905;35 and Brooklyn Royal Giants, 1905.36 1906 he was recruited by Jess McMahon to play with Philadelphia Quaker Giants.37 Brooklyn Royal [Giants?] in 1907.38 St. Paul Colored Gophers, C, 1908, and he was captain of the team.39 St. Paul Colored Gophers, C, in 190940; and Long Prairie, MN, town team, C, 1909; "[Sherman] Barton of the Gophers has accompanied Johnson ever since he started playing with the Page Fence Giants and [George] Wilson, the colored pitcher, played with him up to within the past three years."41 Chicago Leland Giants at end of 1909 season.42 In 1910, with the Chicago Giants, C, [along with Walter Ball, Bobby Marshall, Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Felix Wallace--all former St. Paul Colored Gophers players].43 St. Louis Giants, C, in 1911, [with former Minnesota teammates Felix Wallace, Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, and Ben Taylor.44 In 1912, again with St. Louis Giants, C, this time with former teammates Walter Ball, Felix Wallace, and Archie Pate.45 Schenectady Mohawk Giants, C, 1B, along with Walter Ball in 1913; in winter 1913 with Royal Ponciana Hotel team.46 Listed as C with St. Louis Giants AND Mohawk Giants in 1914;47 OR C with Chicago American Giants AND Louisville White Sox AND Schenectady Mohawk Giants in 1914.48 1915: ? 1916 he was "co-owner and manager of the Dayton Chappies.49 In 1919, C, with Atlantic City Bacharach Giants [with teammate Steel Arm Johnny Taylor].50 Playing manager, C, 1B, Norfolk Stars in 1921, (at Norfolk he developed players Nip Winters and Scrip Lee).51 1925, manager, Chappie Johnson's Stars team.52 1926, Manager, Chappie Johnson's Stars.53 1927, he was manager of Chappie Johnson's Stars;54 and continued as a manager through the 1939 season in later years at Saratoga (mentor to Dick Seay and Ted Page).55 Great catcher. Coach/Manager/Mentor. Justification for inclusion in the Hall of Fame rests upon the judgment of Sol White [writing in 1907] who listed George ["Rat" or Chappie"] Johnson as being of "Major League calibre:" "of the catchers at present, the veteran, Clarence Williams, is very good, owing to his many years of base ball he would be taken as a good man for young pitchers: George (Chappie) Johnson, Bob Footes; Robinson, of Leland Giants, Petway, of Philadelphia Giants."56; his work to develop teams and talent as a catcher/manager was a long-lasting contribution to black baseball.
* Walter Ball, 1893, P, for Young Cyclone team in St. Paul, MN, then pitched for a number of teams, including Occola team in the St. Paul City League through 1898.57 Grand Forks [ND] team 1899, 1900; 1901, P, for Lakota, ND, and later for York, ND, in 1901.58 St. Cloud ballclub, P, in 1902, P.59 1903, P, for Chicago Union Giants.60 1904, P, Cuban X Giants.61 1905 started with the Brooklyn Royal Giants as P; then second half of the season back with Chicago Union Giants.62 1906, P, New York Quaker Giants until the team disbanded on July 1, then he returned to Chicago with Leland Giants.63 Chicago Leland Giants, P, 1907 (though he helped organize and pitched for the first St. Paul Colored Gophers team in the early part of the season). In 1908, in the early season, he helped organize and pitched for the new Minneapolis Keystones team, with old teammates William Binga, Eugene Barton, Alex Irwin, Felix Wallace, and Andrew Campbell until June and then he went back to the Chicago Leland Giants for the remainder of the 1908 season.64 Chicago Leland Giants, P, in 1909.65 He was with the Chicago Giants [along with Bobby Marshall, George "Rat" Johnson, Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Felix Wallace--all former St. Paul Colored Gophers players) in 1910.66 In 1911, he pitched for Chicago Leland Giants, P, [along with former teammates from Minnesota-- Sherman Barton and Bill Gatewood].67 In 1912, he moved to the St. Louis Giants, along with George "Rat" Johnson and Felix Wallace.68 In 1913, he played for the Brooklyn Royal Giants, P, RF; and the Schenectady Mohawk Giants, P, OF, alongside George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.69 In 1914, he was P with the Lincoln Giants of New York, with Bill Gatewood and Felix Wallace as teammates; and CF for Lincoln Stars of New York.70 In 1915, he played P for Rube Foster's Chicago American Giants, along with Bill Gatewood and Hurley McNair.71 1916=? 1917, P and OF for Chicago Giants [with Archie Pate as teammate].72 1918 was a war year=?. 1919, P, Chicago Giants.73 1920, P, Chicago Giants, with teammate Steel Arm Johnny Taylor.74 1921, P, for Chicago Giants, with teammate Steel Arm Johnny Taylor.75 Great Pitcher/Coach. Sol White in 1907 listed Walter Ball as one of the nine black pitchers who were of "Major League calibre," and some of his best years were still ahead of him in the years after 1907.76

Bert Jones. 1896, P and OF, Atchison in Kansas State League, also 1897 and 1898.77 1898, P, Chicago Unions, as a teammate of Billy Holland and Robert Footes.78 Chicago Unions, P, in 1899 and 1900.79 He joined the new Chicago Union Giants as P in 1901.80 In 1902, he was a P for the Algona Brownies, along with Robert Footes.81 1903, Algona Brownies, P, with George "Rat" Johnson, Billy Holland, Sherman "Bucky" Barton, and Johnny Davis.82 I believe he played for Waseca, MN, in 1904, but need to reference this idea. 1905, Renville, MN, team, with teammates George Wilson and George "Rat" Johnson.83 1906, probably Brookings, SD. In 1907, most likely Bottineau, ND. In 1908, Bryant, SD.84 1909=? In 1910, he possibly was the Bert Jones listed with Watertown, SD, as CF.85 1911, CF, 1B, St. Paul Colored Gophers,86 listed as "formerly of the Algona Brownies."87 [Jones pitched at least two games for Colored Gophers in 1911.]88 Possibly on 1923 Minneapolis Askin & Marine Red Sox team.89


"Burt Jones, the well-known Northwest colored player and former member

of the star Renville, Brookings and Bottineau clubs, is spending a few

days in the Twin Cities with friends. Regarding his plans for this

summer this tricky ball tosser had the following to say: "Yes, sir: I

am still a free man. No hurry about the old boy signing up. I have

several offers under consideration, but think that I will sign up with

the Brandt, N.D. [this should be SD, there is no Brandt in ND, author's note], town."
in "What the Independents Are Doing," Minneapolis Sunday Tribune, April

12, 1908, p. 3, Sports Section.


Billy Williams. First baseman. In 1903, he played for the Chippewa Falls, WI, team, "the undisputed champion of Wisconsin."90 1907, 1B, with Chaska, MN, team.91

1910, 1B, with Phil Dellar's semi-pro white team, then with the Sauk Rapids, MN, team, and he was with the Twin City All-Stars, a touring team that played in ND and SD for 10 days that summer.92


All-Black Teams. 1907-1942.
William Binga. Born February 26, 1869, in Michigan; died October 14, 1950; Father's name: Joshua Binga; Mother's name: Lucy Binga.93 In 1895 [at age 26], he played three games as Catcher for Adrian, Michigan, team at the same time as George Wilson;94 then Page Fence Giants, 1895,951896.96 Columbia Giants, 3B, 1899, 1900, 1901.97 1902, 3B for Chicago Union Giants.98 In 1903, he went East, recruited by Sol White, with Philadelphia Giants, 3B.99 1904 listed as C for Chicago Union Giants.100 3B for Chicago Leland Giants in 1905.101 1906: unknown. 1907, RF, played again for Sol White, for champion Philadelphia Giants.102 He joined the new Minneapolis Keystones team in 1908, 3B, joining old teammates Walter Ball, Eugene Barton, Andrew Campbell, Alex Irwin.103 He switched teams and played for the St. Paul Colored Gophers in 1909, 3B in the early season, then he switched to RF after James "Candy Jim" Taylor joined the team in June, 1909, except for a series with the Chicago Leland Giants, when James Taylor played SS or 3B; and Binga played 3B or RF [this team won the Championship of Black baseball in 1909}.104 In 1910, with the St. Paul Colored Gophers in the early season, at SS, then at usual 3B position;105 listed later in the year at 3B, with Kansas City [KS] Giants.106 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, RF.107 In 1912, he stayed in Minnesota and played for the Twin Cities black team, Hennepin Clothing Compnay, C, 1B, alongside Bobby Marshall and Johnny Davis.108 1913, Hennepin Negro Giants, RF, batting lead-off, [this team had Bobby Marshall, Johnny Davis, and Alex Irwin on it].109 1914-1920, unknown. In 1921, he played 1B and RF for Willmar, MN, team.110 1926, Willmar, MN, team, manager & catcher, at age 58.111 Great player (Third Baseman).
*George "Rat" [also nicknamed "Chappie"] Johnson. [same as listed in the previous category.]
*Walter Ball. Chicago Leland Giants, 1909. [same as listed in the previous category.]
[HOF] Rube Foster. In 1908, he played a game for the St. Paul Colored Gophers against the Hibbing, MN, team, winning 5 to 0, and pitching a no-hitter.112
William "Big Bill" Gatewood. Chicago Leland Giants, 1906, P.113 Chicago Leland Giants, 1907, P.114 St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1908, P.115 Chicago Leland Giants, 1909, P;116 and he pitched one game for the Minneapolis Keystones near the end of the 1909 season.117 Chicago Leland Giants, P, 1911 [along with former Minnesota teammate Sherman Barton].118 Chicago American Giants, P, 1912.119 Chicago American Giants, 1913, P, along with Louis ["Dicta"] Johnson, Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor.120 Chicago American Giants, 1915, P, 1B, along with Walter Ball and Hurley McNair; and listed with St. Louis Giants, P, OF, along with Felix Wallace.121 1916, P, St. Louis Giants [with Felix Wallace].122 In 1917, P, Indianapolis ABCs, with teammates Candy Jim Taylor and Louis "Dicta" Johnson; also St. Louis Giants, P."123 1918, St. Louis Giants, P, with Felix Wallace as teammate.124 1919, St. Louis Giants, P, with Felix Wallace as teammate.125 1920, P, (17 W, 5 L; ERA of 3.28), Detroit Stars, with teammates Louis "Dicta" Johnson and Webster McDonald.126 1921, P, Detroit Stars.127 1922, P, St. Louis Stars.128 1923, P, Milwaukee Bears, with teammates Louis "Dicta" Johnson & Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman.129 1923, P, Toledo Tigers [teammates: Louis "Dicta" Johnson and Candy Jim Taylor].130 1924: ?. 1925, P, Memphis Red Sox.131 1926: ?. 1927, St. Louis Stars, P, with teammate Candy Jim Taylor; Birmingham Black Barons, p, [teammate: Satchel Paige];132 Gatewood taught Satchel Paige the "hesitation pitch."133 1928, P, Manager, St. Louis Giants.134
Johnny Davis. Pitcher. He was listed with the Chicago Union Giants, 1903, P, probably near the end of the season; he played from May and onward with Algona Brownies, P.135 1905 Chicago Leland Giants, P.136 Chicago Leland Giants, P, 1906.137 1907 St. Paul Colored Gophers, P, RF.138 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, P.139 He re-joined the St. Paul Colored Gophers on July 16, 1909, as P.140 1910, P, for St. Paul Colored Gophers.141 In 1911, P, St. Paul Colored Gophers.142 In 1912, he stayed in Minnesota after the dissolution of the St. Paul Colored Gophers, playing [P] for the black Twin Cities team, the Hennepin Clothing Company team, along with Bobby Marshall, William Binga, and Alex Irwin.143 1913, P, with Hennepin Colored Giants, along with Bobby Marshall, Alex Irwin, and William Binga.144 1923, St. Paul Uptowns, P, Manager, with teammate Bobby Marshall [he had formerly played with an International Harvester team].145 1925, Manager, St. Paul Uptown Sanitary team [in the Golden Valley League with white teams].146 1927, Manager, St. Paul Colored All-Stars [the former St. Paul Uptown Sanitary team].147
* James B. "Candy Jim" Taylor. Born 1884; died 1948. Third Baseman. Brother of Johnny "Steel Arm" Taylor. Anderson, SC, amateur team, 1901, C; Birmingham, Alabama, team, 3B, 1904-1908.148 Joined the St Paul Colored Gophers, 3B, 1909, from the Birmingham, Alabama, team.149 In 1910, he started the season with the Chicago Giants, 3B, [along with Bobby Marshall, George "Rat" Johnson, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Felix Wallace--all former St. Paul Colored Gophers players];150 then he re-joined the St. Paul Colored Gophers in early June, 1910, 3B.151 In 1911 he left Minnesota for the St. Louis Giants, 3B, .211 BA; along with brother Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Ben Taylor, Felix Wallace, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.152 In 1912, he played for the West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels, 3B, .278 BA; with brothers Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, and C.I. Taylor; and with William McMurray [he also played for Rube Foster's Chicago American Giants at some time in the 1912 season also, .238 BA].153 In 1913, Chicago American Giants of Rube Foster, 3B, BA .375; along with Bill Gatewood, Louis "Dicta" Johnson, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Ben Taylor; he was listed on the West All-Star Team of 1913.154 1914, change of teams to Indianapolis ABCs, 3B, .353 BA: and a teammate of Louis "Dicta" Johnson; & brothers Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Ben Taylor, & C.I. Taylor [Manager].155 In 1915, 3B, .333 BA, Louisville Sox, along with brother Johnny Steel Arm Taylor; AND with Chicago Black Sox, .167 BA; with brother Steel Arm Johnny Taylor; AND listed with West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels, .250 BA.156 1916, 3B, Indianapolis ABCs, .282 BA, [with brother Steel Arm Johnny Taylor] and a member of West All-Star team; led both teams in batting with .529 BA in Western championship series victory against American Giants.157 1917, 3B, 2B, Indianapolis ABCs, .241 BA, with Bill Gatewood and Louis "Dicta" Johnson as teammates; again he was a member of the West All-Star team.158 1918, Candy Jim Taylor, 3B, 2B, .194 BA, Manager, Indianapolis ABCs [with John Donaldson as teammate].159 1919, Manager, Dayton Marcos, .077 BA.160 1920, 3B, 2B, P, Manager, Dayton Marcos, .232 BA.161 1922, Manager, 3B, .268 BA, P, Cleveland Tate Stars.162 1923, Manager, 3B, SS, .309 BA, St. Louis Stars, on West All-Star team; and Toledo Tigers, Manager [teammates: Louis "Dicta" Johnson & Bill Gatewood].163 1924, manager, St. Louis Stars, record: 36 W, 31 L, Utility, .347 BA.164 1925, manager, St. Louis Stars, record: 69 W, 26 L, winners of second-half title in West; 3B, RF, P.165 1926, Manager, 3B, .329 BA, P, Cleveland Elite Giants; and Manager, 3B, P, Detroit Stars.166 1927, Manager, record: 60 W, 35 L, 3B, OF, P, St. Louis Stars, with teammate Bill Gatewood.167 1928, 3B, P, Manager, record: 68 W, 25 L, regular season West champions, and playoff champ, West, with St. Louis Stars.168 1929, P, Manager, St. Louis Stars, record: 60 W, 28 L, 2nd in West; with Clarence "Spoony" Palm as C on the team.169 1930, 3B, P, Manager, Memphis Red Sox.170 1931, 3B, .222 BA, P, Manager, Indianapolis ABCs; manager, Louisville White Sox.171 1932, 3B, Manager, record: 34W, 27 L, Indianapolis ABCs.172 1933, P, Manager, Detroit Stars, with Clarence "Spoony" Palm and Ray Dandridge on the team; also Nashville Elite Giants, Manager, with Ray Dandridge on the team.173 1934, Nashville Elite Giants, 3B, Manager, record: 20 W, 28 L; 3B, Wilson's Elite Giants, winter ball.174 1935, Manager of Columbus/Detroit/Nashville Elite Giants; Royal Giants, winter season, Manager, with players Chet Brewer & Satchel Paige.175 1936, Manager, Washington Elite Giants; and manager of Negro All-Star team that won the Denver Post tournament.176 Manager of Chicago American Giants, 1937 (record: 25 W, 14 L; finished 2nd in Negro League West).177 Manager, Chicago American Giants, 1938, record: 25 W, 20 L, finished 4th in Negro League West.178 1939, unclear. 1940, Manager, Birmingham Black Barons; also listed as Manager of Chicago American Giants.179 Manager, Chicago American Giants, 1941, record: 7 W, 13 L.180 1942, Chicago American Giants, Manager, record: 2 W, 16 L.181 1943, Manager Homestead Grays, he managed them to the Black World Series Championship.182 1944, Manager [replacing Vic Harris], Washington Homestead Grays [record: 27 W, 12 L; 1st-place finish Negro League East; winner of Black World Series].183 1945, Manager, Chicago American Giants [record: 39 W, 35 L, 3rd-place finish, Negro American League (West).184 1946, Manager, Chicago American Giants, record: 27 W, 45 L.185 1947, Manager, Chicago American Giants.186 He died in 1948. Candy Jim succeeded in getting Ray Dandridge to play ball with the Detroit Stars where he was manager.187 His eligibility for the Hall of Fame rests upon his playing ability, his tenure as a manager, and his longevity--he played in the era of the establishment of black teams, played and managed in the Negro Leagues, and, before he died, he witnessed the breaking of the color line by Jackie Robinson in 1946-1947.
John A. "Steel-Arm Johnny" Taylor. Pitcher. Brother of James "Candy Jim" Taylor. He joined the St. Paul Colored Gophers on June 7, 1909, coming from a Birmingham, Alabama, team, P.188 In 1910, he was with the Chicago Giants, P, along with Walter Ball, George "Rat" Johnson, and Felix Wallace, all from the 1908 or 1909 St. Paul Colored Gophers or Minneapolis Keystones.189 In 1911, he moved to the St. Louis Giants team, P, with his brothers Candy Jim Taylor and Ben Taylor, and Felix Wallace and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.190 For 1912, he moved again to the West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels, P, along with William McMurray, Candy Jim Taylor and C.I. Taylor, probably Ben Taylor, too.191 In 1913, P, with Rube Foster's Chicago American Giants, along with Candy Jim Taylor, Ben Taylor, Bill Gatewood, and Louis "Dicta" Johnson; and he was listed also with the West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels, P, in 1913.192 1914, P, Indianapolis ABCs with brothers Candy Jim Taylor, Ben Taylor, and C.I. Taylor [manager]; Louis "Dicta" Johnson.193 In 1915, P, Louisville Sox, with brother Candy Jim Taylor; AND with Chicago Black Sox, P, with brother Candy Jim Taylor.194 1916, P, Indianapolis ABCs [with brother Candy Jim Taylor.195 1917, P, Hilldale club.196 1918 & 1919, unknown. 1920, P, Chicago Giants, with teammate Walter Ball; and with Indianapolis ABCs [teammate: Louis "Dicta" Johnson].197 1921, P, Chicago Giants [teammate: Walter Ball]; also in winter ball, P, RF, Colored All-Stars [Teammates: Hurley McNair].198
Robert "Bobby" Marshall. 1907 St. Paul Colored Gophers. 1908 Minneapolis Keystones RF.199 1909, 1B, St. Paul Colored Gophers. In 1910, he started the year with Chicago Giants, 1B, then in early June returned to St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1B.200 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, Manager, 3B.201 In 1912, he stayed in Minnesota, playing for the Hennepin Clothing Company team, the Twin Cities black team, P, 1B, C, and Manager, alongside Johnny Davis, William Binga, and Alex Irwin.202 1913, he played 3B with Hennepin Negro Giants, along with Johnny Davis, Alex Irwin, and William Binga;203 but in July, he began to play on the St. Cloud, MN, Pretzels, 2B, on an all-white team which featured Al "Lefty" Dretchko, P, who had been a teammate of Marshall's on the 1907 University of Minnesota baseball team.204 In 1914, he played 2B with St. Cloud Pretzels [again with Al Dretchko as a teammate], until he quit in late July to join the Twin Cities Colored Gophers team.205 For the 1915 season, Marshall, 1B & C, was the only black player on the Cokato, MN, semi-pro team, and in a double-header, Cokato hired Al "Lefty" Dretchko, a white, former University of Minnesota baseball teammate of Marshall's in 1907; and Marshall's former semi-pro football teammate "Rube" Ursella [a former U of M football player], joined Marshall for Cokato for an August tournament game.206 1919, Mott, ND, and Regent, ND, teams.207 1921, Estevan, Saskatchewan, with teammate Joe Davis; he hit .450 in 57 games.208 1922, Askin and Marine Colored Red Sox, Captain, teammates: Joe Davis and Lee Davis.209 1923, Uptown Sanitary team, 1B, 2b, C; with teammates, Johnny Davis, Joe Davis and Lee Davis.210 1925, 1B, Potts Motor Company.211 1926, 1B, Minneapolis Colored Red Sox.212 1927, Johnny Baker Post team, St. Paul.213 1928, 3B, Johnny Baker Post team.214 1932, 1B, St. Paul Monarchs.215
Sherman "Bucky" Barton. In 1898, P, Adrian [MI] Page Fence Giants, with teammates William Binga, George "Rat" Johnson, and George Wilson.216 CF in 1899 for Chicago Columbia Giants, with teammates William Binga, George "Rat" Johnson, and George Wilson.217 RF for Chicago Columbia Giants in 1900, with William Binga, George "Rat" Johnson, George Wilson, and William Holland as teammates.218 In 1902, Algona Brownies, with teammates Bert Jones, Robert Woods.219 In 1903, LF, Algona Brownies, with teammates Johnny Davis, Billy Holland, George "Rat" Johnson, Bert Jones.220 In 1904, LF, for Chicago Union Giants.221 1905, on Chicago Leland Giants, LF with teammates William Binga, Johnny Davis, Billy Holland, George Taylor.222 In 1906, LF, Chicago Leland Giants; and then with Philadelphia X-Giants, with teammates Bill Gatewood, Bobby Winston.223 He joined the new St. Paul Colored Gophers in 1907, CF, with teammates Johnny Davis, Clarence "Dude" Lytle, Walter Ball, Willis Jones.224 1908, St. Paul Colored Gophers, CF.225 1909, St. Paul Colored Gophers, CF.226 1910 with the St. Paul Colored Gophers, CF.227 In 1911, CF, with Chicago Giants, with former Minnesota teammates Walter Ball, Bill Gatewood, Clarence "Bobby" Winston; and with Chicago Leland Giants in the same season.228 His career appears to have ended with the 1911 season.
Eugene "Gene" Milliner. Outfielder. 1903 Chicago Union Giants, LF.229 1907, Outfielder for the Brooklyn Royal Giants, teammate of "Rat" Johnson and Billy Holland.230 1909, LF, St. Paul Colored Gophers;231 1909 listed as CF for Kansas City Royal Giants.232 In 1910, he played as a late-season addition to the St. Paul Colored Gophers, LF, in September.233
Eugene Barton. Played LF for Minneapolis Keystones in 1908.234 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, LF.235 He was undoubtedly the brother of Sherman "Bucky" Barton.
Felix Wallace. Second baseman. Born in Owensboro, KY, c. 1884.236 Began his career with Paducah Nationals, Paducah, KY, in 1903; played for Paducah Nationals in 1904 and 1905.237 1906, Cuban Giants of New York City; also 1907.238 Another source lists him in 1907 with Baltimore Laurels, infielder.239 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, 2B.240 1909, St. Paul Colored Gophers, 2B.241 In 1910, he was with the Chicago Giants, owned by Frank Leland, 2B playing alongside former teammates [from the St. Paul Colored Gophers] Walter Ball, Bobby Marshall, George "Rat" Johnson, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, and Candy Jim Taylor.242 For 1911, he joined the St. Louis Giants, 2B, where his teammates included Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Ben Taylor, and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.243 1912, again with St. Louis Giants, 2B, alongside Walter Ball and George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson.244 In 1913, in the winter, he played SS, 2B, for Breaker's Hotel team, and then in the regular season, he played again with the St. Louis Giants, 1b, utility; and was listed with the 1913 West All-Star team, along with Candy Jim Taylor and Rube Foster.245 1914, SS, for New York Lincoln Giants, along with Walter Ball and Bill Gatewood [in a two game series against white major league players, he was the black leader with a .500 batting average.246 1915, listed with St. Louis Giants, SS, along with Gill Gatewood.247 In 1916, Bacharach Giants, 2B; and St. Louis Giants [with Bill Gatewood] and a game against major leaguers [one hit in five at-bats]; and resort baseball in Florida with the Breakers team.248 1917, Bacharach Giants, CF; New York Lincoln Giants, SS.249 1918, SS, New York Lincoln Giants [with John Donaldson as teammate]; St. Louis Giants [with Bill Gatewood as teammate].250 1919, 3B, with Hilldale club; also SS with St. Louis Giants [teammate Bill Gatewood].251 1920, 3B, 2B, St. Louis Giants.252 1921, St. Louis Giants, Manager, SS.253 1922-1926: unknown. 1927, Manager, 3B, St. Louis Giants.254

Clarence "Dude" Lytle. Pitcher. 1901, Chicago Union Giants, P.255 Chicago Union Giants, 1902, P;256 but by July, he was with the Algona Brownies, 1902, P.257 1906, Chicago Leland Giants, P.258 He joined the new St. Paul Colored Gophers in 1907, P and OF.259 In 1908, P, RF, St. Paul Colored Gophers, with teammates George "Rat" Johnson.260 1909, unknown. 1910, unknown. 1911, P, mid-season replacement for St. Paul Colored Gophers.261


Thomas Means. Pitcher. Chicago Unions, 1900, P.262 1904 Chicago Union Giants, P.263 St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, P.264
Nathan Knight. Pitcher. Prior to 1908, he was on the "Leading colored nines of St. Louis, MO," namely, the St. Louis Colored Giants [probably early season, 1908]265 By late July, 1908, St. Paul Colored Gophers, P.
Howard Petway. Pitcher. Throws: Left. Originally from Nashville, TN.266 Chicago Leland Giants, 1906, P.267 St. Paul Colored Gophers, RF, 1908, May through July.268
William Horn. Pitcher. 1908, he was with the Chicago Leland Giants during the regular season, then with the St. Paul Colored Gophers, a late September addition, P.269
Booker. Pitcher. Listed as being with the St. Paul Colored Gophers, probably 1908, P. Was reported to be playing for Kenyon, MN, team, in July, 1909.270
Julius London. Pitcher. 1909, St. Paul Colored Gophers, P.271
Fred Roberts. 3B. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, 3B.272 1908 with Minneapolis Keystones, 2B.273
Robert "Buster" Garrison. Pitcher. 1909, St. Paul Colored Gophers, P.274
Tommy "Lefty" Pangbourn. Pitcher, throws left-handed. 1910, St. Paul Colored Gophers, P.275 Mid-season replacement, 1911, P, St. Paul Colored Gophers.276
Kennedy. Shortstop. 1910, listed with St. Paul Colored Gophers in May, SS.277
George Taylor. First Baseman. Page Fence Giants, 1895, 1B, played in MN in April [teammates: Billy Holland, George Hopkins, Bud Fowler].278 1896, Page Fence Giants, 1B.279 1897, Page Fence Giants, 1B.280 1898, 1B, Page Fence Giants.281 1903, 1B, Chicago Union Giants [teammates: Eugene Milliner, Walter Ball, Johnny Davis].282 1904, 1B, Chicago Union Giants [teammates: Sherman Barton, William Binga, Tom Means].283 1905, 1B, Chicago Leland Giants.284 1906, 1B, Chicago Leland Giants.285 St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, 1B.286
Haywood Rose. First baseman. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1B, 1908.287 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, 1B.288
Jesse "Babe" Schaeffer. Catcher. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, C.289 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, RF, after injuries to other players; by July he switched to play C for Minneapolis Keystones.290 1909, 2B, Minneapolis Keystones.291 Listed at RF for St. Paul Colored Gophers in 1910 for a short time in early season.292 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, C.293
Willis Jones. Outfielder. 1895, Chicago Unions, RF.294 1896, Chicago Unions, RF.295 1897, Chicago Unions, RF.296 1898, Chicago Unions, RF.297 1899, Chicago Unions, RF.298 1900, Chicago Unions, RF.299 1901, Chicago Unions Giants, LF.300 1902, Chicago Union Giants, RF.301 1903, Algona Brownies, RF.302 St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, LF.303 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, LF.304 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, RF.305 He is probably the "Jones" listed on St. Paul Colored Gophers roster, 1910, LF.306
Ford. Pitcher. 1910 St. Paul Colored Gophers, P, he had been with the Phildelphia Giants previously, according to one report but was not listed in other sources [he seems to have been with the team just a short time].307

Louis "Dicta" Johnson. Pitcher. The "Ex-University of Ill[inois]'s Star."308 Began to pitch for the St. Paul Colored Gophers in June 1910, P.309 1911, P, St. Paul Colored Gophers.310 With the break-up of the St. Paul Colored Gophers after the 1911 season, he moved to Chicago where he played for Rube Foster's Chicago American Giants, 1912, P, with teammates including Bill Gatewood and Candy Jim Taylor.311 Again, in 1913, P, Chicago American Giants, with Steel Arm Johnny Taylor, Candy Jim Taylor, Bill Gatewood, Ben Taylor.312 1914, P, Indianapolis ABCs with Candy Jim Taylor, Steel Arm Johnny Taylor; also listed with Chicago American Giants, P, along with George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson; and listed with Louisville White Sox.313 1915, P, Indianapolis ABCs, with a 13-6 win-loss record, 2nd in victories and 1st in winning percentage314. In 1916, P, with Chicago American Giants; with Indianapolis ABCs [along with Steel Arm Johnny Taylor and Candy Jim Taylor and Johnson pitched a three-hit, 1-0 shutout vs. the Chicago American Giants in the playoffs] and Bowser's ABCs, P [with Archie Pate]; Florida resort baseball with Poinciana team.315 1917, P, Indianapolis ABCs with Candy Jim Taylor and Bill Gatewood as teammates.316 He had to leave the Indianapolis ABCs in 1918 to serve in the military in World War I.317 In 1919, he had a 4-1 record, P, with Detroit Stars [teammates: John Donaldson and Hurley McNair].318 1920, Detroit Stars, P, with Bill Gatewood and Webster McDonald; also with Indianapolis ABCs [teammate: Steel Arm Johnny Taylor].319 1921, P, [14 W, 10 L], Indianapolis ABCs.320 1922, P, [4 W, 6L], Indianapolis ABCs.321 1923, P, Milwaukee Bears, with teammates Bill Gatewood and Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman.322 1923, P, Toledo Tigers, with teammates Bill Gatewood & Candy Jim Taylor.323


Board. Listed as 3B, 1B, for St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1910, for a short time in the beginning of the season.324
Hill. Listed as RF, 1910, St. Paul Colored Gophers, probably a short-term replacement player.325
Wesley. OF, 3B. Listed with St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1910, LF, 3B, until late July.326
Brown. LF. Listed as LF in a July 1910 series with Chicago Giants, and into August; and played some 3B in September.327
Sammy Ransom. Second baseman. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, 2B.328 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, at least one game at 1B.329
William "Willie" McMurray. Second baseman. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, latter part of the season, 2B.330 1908, St. Paul Colored Gophers, 3B.331 1909, St. Paul Colored Gophers, LF, C.332 In 1910, St. Louis Stars, 1B.333 1911, ?. 1912: ?. In 1913, with the West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels, C, 1B.334 1914, RF, 3B, with West Baden, Indiana, Sprudels.335
Arthur McDougal. Shortstop and 2B. Joined St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1909, SS.336 1910, listed at 3B for St. Paul Colored Gophers.337 In 1911, 2B, St. Paul Colored Gophers.338
Selden. Shortstop. In 1910, SS, Chicago Giants.339 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, SS,340 listed as "formerly with the Chicago Giants."341 1912, unknown. In 1913, no doubt he was listed with the Indianapolis ABCs, 2B, listed as "Seldom."342 1914, Chicago Giants.343
Stoddard [or, sometimes, Stallard.] Pitcher, LF, CF. In 1911, P, LF, CF, St. Paul Colored Gophers.344
Frank "Bunch" Davis. Shortstop. St. Paul Colored Gophers, 1907, SS.345 1908 St. Paul Colored Gophers, SS.346 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, SS.347 1910, Minneapolis Keystones, SS.348 In 1911, SS, Minneapolis Keystones.349
Andrew Campbell. Catcher. Chicago Union Giants, 1903, C.350 1906 Chicago Leland Giants, C.351 Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, 1908, C.352 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, C.353
George Armstrong. Listed as Catcher for 1910 St. Paul Colored Gophers.354 Mid-season replacement, C, St. Paul Colored Gophers.355
George Bowman. Second Baseman. Listed with St. Paul Colored Gophers in 1910, 2B, until his release in late August for "loafing" and he "did not take any interest in the games."356
Harry Brown. Pitcher, Third Baseman. 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, P, 3B.357
Hardaman [or Hardiman]. 1911, St. Paul Colored Gophers, 2B.358
Alex Irwin. Shortstop. Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, 1908, SS.359 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, 2B.360 1910, unknown. 1911, 2B, St. Paul Colored Gophers.361 In 1912, he stayed in Minnesota, playing for the Twin Cities black team, Hennepin Clothing Company team, 2B, along with Bobby Marshall, William Binga, and Johnny Davis.362
George Hopkins. Centerfielder. 1908 Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, CF.363 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, CF.364
Willie Green. Catcher. 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, C, 3B.365 He was listed as a member of the 1910 Minneapolis Keystones at C in pre-season publicity.366
Milroy McCune. Third Baseman. He came from Texas prior to playing 3B for Minneapolis Keystones, 1909.367 1910, probably with the Minneapolis Keystones. In 1911, 3B, for Minneapolis Keystones. 368 1912, unknown. In 1913, 3B, for Chicago Giants, along with Hurly McNair and Archie Pate.369
Graham. Pitcher. 1908 Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, P.370
Charles Jessup. Pitcher. 1908 Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, P.371 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, P.372
William Dewberry or Duberry. Pitcher. Listed as "Dewberry" and C for Chicago Union Giants, 1903.373 1908, Minneapolis Keystones, P, 2B.374
Charles "Slick" Jackson. Pitcher. Joined the Minneapolis Keystones in later August, 1908, P.375 1909, Minneapolis Keystones, P.376 In 1910, Minneapolis Keystones, P.377 1912, P, for Minneapolis Keystones.378
W. J. Freeman. Pitcher. 6-foot-6, 225 pounds, prior to 1908, he played for the "leading semi-professional clubs of Omaha, Kansas City and Chicago, and has also been a member of the Anaconda and Butte teams.379 1908, Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, a July replacement, P.380
Hurley McNair. Pitcher and outfielder. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, P, OF.381 In 1912, he moved to Chicago to play with Chicago Giants, OF, P.382 In 1913, again with Chicago Giants, P, along with Milroy McCune and Archie Pate.383 1914, unlisted. 1915, Chicago American Giants of Rube Foster, P, RF, along with teammates Walter Ball and Bill Gatewood.384 1916, RF, Chicago American Giants; P with Chicago Union Giants.385 1917, All Nations, CF [with John Donaldson].386 1918, unknown. 1919, RF, Detroit Stars [with teammates John Donaldson and Louis "Dicta" Johnson].387 1920, LF, [first in West with 20 doubles & 8 triples, 5th in stolen bases with 10], Kansas City Monarchs, with teammates John Donaldson and Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman; in winter, LF, Los Angeles White Sox.388 1921, Kansas City Monarchs, LF, [teammate: John Donaldson, Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman]; winter ball, Colored All-Stars, LF, P, teammate of Steel Arm Johnny Taylor.389 1922, LF, Kansas City Monarchs, West Team All-Star, [batted .420]; with teammates John Donaldson and Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman.390 1923, CF, Kansas City Monarchs [West All-Star team selection]; with teammate John Donaldson.391 1924, Kansas City Monarchs, (BA .346), RF, OF, P; with teammate John Donaldson.392 1925, LF, RF, [BA .365], Kansas City Monarchs, with teammate Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman.393 1926, RF, [BA .289] Kansas City Monarchs.394 1927, RF, OF, Kansas City Monarchs, [BA .275], teammate: Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman.395 1928, RF, Detroit Stars; teammate Ted "Double Duty" Radcliffe.396 1929, ?. 1930, LF, Gilkerson's Union Giants.397 1932, OF, John Donaldson's All-Stars of Fairmont, MN, with teammates Sylvester "Hooks" Foreman, John Donaldson, & others.398 1934, RF, Kansas City Monarchs, with John Donaldson.399 An argument could be made that Hurley McNair was good enough for the Hall of Fame, but he was a high-average hitter and was not a home-run slugger.
Archie Pate. Pitcher. 1909, he joined the Minneapolis Keystones, P.400 In 1910, he played RF and P for Minneapolis Keystones.401 1911, he played P, C, for Minneapolis Keystones.402 In 1912, he joined the St. Louis Giants, P, alongside George ["Rat" or "Chappie"] Johnson, Walter Ball, and Felix Wallace.403 In 1913, he moved to the Chicago Giants, C, along with Hurley McNair and Milroy McCune.404 1914, RF, New York Stars.405 He was listed with the Chicago American Giants in 1915, RF; and then with Chicago Union Giants.406 1916, OF, 3B, Bowser's ABCs [with Louis "Dicta" Johnson].407 1917, Chicago Giants, OF, [with teammate Walter Ball].408
Jack Johnson. First baseman. Minneapolis Keystones, initial year of the ballclub, 1908, 1B.409
Phillips. Infielder. 1911 he was with the Minneapolis Keystones.410
James Willis. Catcher and Outfielder. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, C, LF.411
Briscoe. CF. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, CF.412
Woods. RF. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, RF.413
Bockman. 2B. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, 2B.414
Embry. 1B. 1911, Minneapolis Keystones, 1B.415
Players who played against Minnesota teams in Minnesota:
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