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Teacher____________________________________ Period_________________________

U.S. History


E.O.C. Review

Adapted from: M. Morrison

Describe with words or pictures how each of Alexis de Tocqueville’s five values are important to U.S. democracy.

3. Populism —Popular Sovereignty—

People participate in political life—people rule

2. Individualism

  • Free to choose

  • Little to no government control

  • Laissez-Faire —Free enterprise—

  • Individual controls own interests

  • No government control over economy

4. Egalitarianism —Equality—

  • Society where people are equal

  • Land ownership

  • Social equals

5. Liberty

  • Freedom

  • No overly controlling gov’t

  • Rule of law

Then, what is the importance of Democratic Process—Civic Responsibility? “Building a More Perfect Union”

Lobbying: attempt to influence government officials

Non-violent protest: means of changing injustices

Litigation: resolving disputes in court

Amendments: official changes made to Constitution as needed

Alexis de Tocqueville said these values are crucial to America’s success.


Founding Fathers’ Line-up

  1. Explain the significance of these Founding Fathers to the formation of the United States. Create a symbol to c:\users\admin\appdata\local\microsoft\windows\temporary internet files\content.ie5\jwifjpmk\mc900200519[1].wmf

help you remember the last 6 people.

  1. Using the twitter pages from the Moodle Review, who would these Founding Fathers follow and who would

follow them?

file:benjamin rush painting by peale.jpg

Benjamin Rush

“Father of American Medicine” who was a doctor, teacher and humanitarian who signed the Declaration of Independence.

file:john hancock 1770-crop.jpg

John Hancock

Businessman and President of the Continental Congress. Large signature on Declaration of Independence symbolized freedom.

John Jay

Favored independence and helped negotiate a peace agreement with Britain ending the American Revolution.

John Witherspoon

Minister who signed the Declaration of Independence and supported independence through education. President of

John Peter Muhlenberg

Minister who recruited soldiers to fight against the British.

Charles Carroll

Wealthy supporter of independence who financed the American Revolution.

portrait of gov. jonathan trumbull

Jonathan Trumball, Sr.

Governor of Connecticut who sided with the colonists against the British.

John Locke

English philosopher whose ideas from “Two Treatises of Government” stated that people were born with natural rights and a ruler’s power comes from the people.

George Washington

Commanded the new Continental Army.

Thomas Jefferson

Wrote most of the Declaration of Independence listing grievances against British


Charters of Freedom

Declaration of Independence


Bill of Rights

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.


We hold these truths to be self‐evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.‐‐That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, ‐‐That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a

more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic

Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.constitution.gif

The Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a

desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

In your own words…


In your own words…


In your own words…








Principles of the U.S. Constitution

Protections of the Bill of Rights

Explain these in your own words or draw an image that reflects the meaning
Checks & Balances—

creates a balance

of power between

3 branches—each branch (legislative, executive, judicial) assigned certain powers

Fill in the blanks
Freedom of speech





2 right to bear arms

Federalism—division of power based on location




3 no quartering of troops

4 no unreasonable search

and seizure

Separation of Powers—divides government powers into 3 branches

  1. legislative – law-making body

  2. executive – executes the law

  3. judicial – judges the law

5 no self-incrimination

no double jeopardy

grand jury

eminent domain. . . the government can

take over property with just


6 trial by jury

right to a lawyer

speedy trial

Limited Government—government has only the powers given in the Constitution

7 trial by jury (civil cases)

Republicanism—democratic government chosen by the people-representation

8 no cruel and unusual punishment

Popular Sovereignty—people hold the power over government

9 rights of the people are not limited to those in the Constitution

Individual Rights—protected rights of the people in the Bill of Rights

10 all powers not specified in the Constitution are given to the states


Homestead Act: made land available to settlers. What impact did this have on settlement of the West? Opened the opportunity to settlement of the West by settlers desiring land.

Railroads: What impact did the railroad industry have on settlement? Attracted settlers & business to the West through transportation connections


Which Railway connected east with the west? Transcontinental Railroad

Indian Wars: much conflict erupted as settlement pushed westward. What did the U.S. government do to attempt to solve the conflict?

  • Sent military

  • Forced removal

  • Treaties

Explain the Dawes Act: Abolished Native American tribes by giving each family 160 acres to encourage Americanization

amhis_oregontrail.gif Farm Issues:

  • List challenges of the frontier—drought, weather grasshoppers

  • Eventual economic problems—low crop yields

  • Barbed wire impact—conflict between farmers & ranchers

  • Populists—3rd party movement that tried to address

farmers’ problems

What was Manifest Destiny? The belief that the nation was meant to spread to the Pacific.

How did this change demographic patterns? Government encouraged Western Expansion

What role did ranchers play in western expansion? (cattle industry boom) Ranching caused movement of cattle to railroad lines

amhis_gold_rush[1].gif What was the Klondike Gold Rush? Rush to the Yukon area to find gold.

How did mining impact western expansion? Miners would move hoping to strike it rich which spread settlement into new areas



Free enterprise, laissez-faire government and abundant resources caused — growth in business

  • Led to growth of industry / corporations / trusts / monopolies

  • Entrepreneurs

    • Andrew W. Carnegie - Gospel of Wealth (philanthropy)

    • John Rockefeller – Standard Oil

  • List workplace abuses—low wages, long hours, dangerous work environments, repetitive tasks

    • Why was this called the Gilded Age? wealth for some; poverty for others

    • What was Social Darwinism? competition in business-stronger would survive


  • Who was the famous political boss of Tammany Hall, NYC?

William “Boss” Tweed

  • Corruption

  • Bribery


  • Rural to urban-Why did people move?

  • Rapid growth brought problems:

    • Overcrowding

    • Sanitation problems

    • Tenements

    • Infrastructure

    • Corruption


  • Elevator

  • Telephone/telegraph

  • Oil drilling

  • Bessemer Process

  • Electricity

  • How did technology impact business?

improved productivity and standard of living


  • Push factors? poverty, war, discrimination

  • Pull factors? freedom, jobs, opportunity

  • New immigrants from southern/eastern Europe

  • What was nativism? viewpoint that wanted to restrict immigration

  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)—What was the economic impact?

restricted immigration of Chinese workers

  • Social Gospel – Christian value that motivated social reform efforts (ex. Salvation Army)


What are some characteristics of the time?

Progressive Era

Instructions: Trace the problems to the reform and then explain the impact.




What impact did the reform have?


  1. Monopolies/trusts

  2. Banks

  3. Laissez-faire government

  • Ida Tarbell

Theodore Roosevelt

  • Woodrow Wilson

  • Business regulation:

    • Interstate Commerce Act

    • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    • Clayton Anti-Trust

Increased the federal government’s ability to prevent unfair business activities

  • Federal Reserve Act 1913—Established the Federal Reserve System to help with economic issues

Federal government’s movement toward enacting monetary policy

  • 16th Amendment—Income Tax

Congress could now tax personal income


  1. Civil Rights

  2. Suffrage

  3. Working conditions

  4. Living conditions

  5. Consumer safety

  • Ida B. Wells

  • W.E.B. DuBois

  • Elizabeth Cady


  • Susan B. Anthony

  • Jane Addams, Jacob Riis

Booker T. upton sinclair


Upton Sinclair

wrote —The Jungle


Gave a voice to racial equality

  • 19th Amendment

Moved nation toward equality based on gender

  • Settlement houses

  • Education

Movement toward social reform

  • Meat Inspection Act

  • Pure Food and Drug Act

Protection of consumer health

  • Labor Unions — AFL, Knights of Labor

Gave a voice to workers’ rights


  1. Government corruption

  2. Amendments

  • Lincoln Steffens

  • Robert LaFollette

  • Initiative—voters can introduce bill

  • Recall—voters can remove elected officials

  • Referendum—voters could seek legislators to put a bill on a ballot

  • Direct Primary—used by voters to choose candidates

  • 17th Amendment—direct elec. of senators

  • Civil Service Reform— testing to make sure qualified people get govt. jobs

Helped end corruption and increased participation in democratic process


  1. Abuse of natural resources

  • National Park Service Act—established parks & monuments under federal control

  • National Park System—supervision & maintenance of natural parks, monuments

Conservation of natural resources by the federal government


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