On substances that deplete the ozone layer



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MONTREAL PROTOCOL
ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE
THE OZONE LAYER

UNEP



2014 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee

2014 Assessment

UNEP

2014 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee
2014 Assessment

Montreal Protocol

On Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer


UNEP

2014 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee
2014 Assessment
The text of this report is composed in Times New Roman.
Co-ordination: Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee
Composition: Lambert Kuijpers and Roberto Peixoto (Co-chairs)
Formatting,

Reproduction: RTOC co-chairs and UNEP Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat

Date: February 2015
No copyright involved

Printed in Kenya, 2015




ISBN: 978-9966-076-09-0

N.B. Slight corrections have been made to tables 2-8 and 2-9, highlighted in yellow.


DISCLAIMER
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) co-chairs and members, the Refrigeration AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, co-chairs and members, and the companies and organisations that employ them do not endorse the performance, worker safety, or environmental acceptability of any of the technical options discussed. Every industrial operation requires consideration of worker safety and proper disposal of contaminants and waste products. Moreover, as work continues - including additional toxicity evaluation - more information on health, environmental and safety effects of alternatives and replacements will become available for use in selecting among the options discussed in this document.
UNEP, the TEAP co-chairs and members, the Refrigeration, AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, co-chairs and members, in furnishing or distributing this information, do not make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or utility; nor do they assume any liability of any kind whatsoever resulting from the use or reliance upon any information, material, or procedure contained herein, including but not limited to any claims regarding health, safety, environmental effect or fate, efficacy, or performance, made by the source of information.
Mention of any company, association, or product in this document is for information purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation of any such company, association, or product, either express or implied by UNEP, the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel co-chairs or members, the Refrigeration, AC and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee co-chairs or members, or the companies or organisations that employ them.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The UNEP Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee acknowledges with thanks the outstanding contributions from all of the individuals and organisations who provided technical support to committee members. In developing this report, particularly the chapter lead authors were instrumental.
The names of chapter lead authors, co-authors and contributors are given at the start of each chapter. Addresses and contact numbers of the chapter lead authors and all other authors of the UNEP TOC Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps can be found in the Annex.
The opinions expressed are those of the Committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of any sponsoring or supporting organisations.
Gratitude is expressed to UNEP’s Ozone Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya for the co-operation in formatting and styling of the report and for the reproduction of this report.

UNEP

2014 Report of the

Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps

Technical Options Committee
2014 Assessment
Table of Contents

Key Messages 9

Refrigerants 9

Domestic appliances 9

Commercial refrigeration 9

Industrial systems 10

Transport refrigeration 10

Air-to-air air conditioners and heat pumps 10

Water heating heat pumps 10

Chillers 11

Vehicle air conditioning 11

Sustainable refrigeration 11

Abstract Executive Summary 13

Refrigerants 13

Domestic appliances 13

Commercial refrigeration 14

Industrial systems 14

Transport refrigeration 15

Air-to-air air conditioners and heat pumps 15

Water heating heat pumps 16

Vehicle air conditioning 17

Sustainable refrigeration 18



Executive Summaries of all Chapters 19

Refrigerants 19

Domestic appliances 19

Commercial refrigeration 20

Industrial systems 21

Transport refrigeration 21

Air-to-air air conditioners and heat pumps 22

Water heating heat pumps 23

Chillers 24

Vehicle air conditioning 24

Sustainable refrigeration 26

1 Introduction 29

1.1 Montreal Protocol developments 29

1.2 The UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel 30

1.3 The Technical Options Committee Refrigeration, A/C and Heat Pumps 33

1.4Refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps 35

2 Refrigerants 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Refrigerant descriptions 47

2.3 Data summary 52

Table 2-9: Data summary for azeotropic refrigerant blends 55

2.4 Concluding remarks 57

2.5 References 57

Annex to chapter 2 - safety standards and regulations 62

References 66



3 Domestic appliances 69

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Options for new equipment 70

3.3 Options for existing domestic refrigerators 76

3.4 End-of-life disposal 77

3.5 Concluding remarks 77

3.6 References 77

4 Commercial refrigeration 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Applications 83

4.3Options for new equipment 84

4.4 Options for existing equipment 93

4.5 References 94



5 Industrial systems 98

5.1 Introduction 98

5.2 Applications 102

5.3 options for new equipment 106

5.4 Options for existing equipment 109

5.5 Service requirements 111

5.6 Concluding remarks 111

5.7 References 111



6 Transport refrigeration 116

6.1 Introduction 116

6.2Options for new equipment 116

6.3Options for existing equipment 121

6.4 Concluding remarks 123

6.5 References 123



Annex to Chapter 6 126

7 Air-to-air air conditioners and heat pumps 134

7.1 Introduction 134

7.2 Equipment types 135

7.3 Options for new equipment 138

7.4 Options for existing equipment 146

7.5 High ambient considerations 149

7.6 Concluding remarks 154

7.7 References 154



8 Water heating heat pumps 166

8.1 Introduction 166

8.2Heat pump types, implications and trends 166

8.3 Options for new equipment 169

8.4Refrigerant charge Levels 173

8.5 Options for existing systems 173

8.6 Concluding remarks 173

8.7 References 174



9 Chillers 177

9.1 Introduction 177

9.2 Types of equipment and applications 178

9.3Options for new equipment 179

9.4Options for existing chiller equipment 184

9.5 Alternatives for high ambient conditions 186

9.6 Concluding remarks 186

9.7 References 187



10 Vehicle air conditioning 193

10.1 Introduction 193

10.2 Description of systems and current and future applications of mobile air conditioning systems 193

10.3 Options for New and Future Mobile Air Conditioning Systems 196

10.4 Options for existing Systems 205

10.5 Concluding Remarks 205

10.6 References 206

Annex to Chapter 10 213

11 Sustainable refrigeration 221

11.1 Introduction 221

11.2 Sustainability applied to refrigeration 221

11.3 Direct impact of refrigerants 224

11.4 Indirect impacts due to energy use 229

11.5 Equipment life cycle considerations: equipment design, operation, maintenance, and end-of-life 230



Annex 1 - TEAP Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee (RTOC) - Membership status 12/14 235

Annex 2 - Contact details for authors, co-authors and contributors to the 2014 RTOC Assessment Report (to be completed) 237
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