Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2008 May 20, 2009 Abstract

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Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2008

May 20, 2009


This guide describes important tuning parameters and settings that can result in improved performance for the Windows Server® 2008 operating system. Each setting and its potential effect are described to help you make an informed judgment about its relevance to your system, workload, and performance goals.

This information applies to the Windows Server 2008 operating system.

The current version of this guide is maintained on the Web at:

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References and resources discussed here are listed at the end of this guide.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
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Document History



May 20, 2009

Updated the Power Guidelines, Network Subsystem Tuning, File Server Tuning, and Virtualization Server Tuning sections for Windows Server 2008 SP2.

May 27, 2008

Added “Power Guidelines” under Server Hardware section and added “Performance Tuning for Virtualization Servers” section.

October 16, 2007

Added “Performance Tuning for Terminal Server” and “Performance Tuning for Terminal Server Gateway” sections.

August 31, 2007

First publication


Introduction 4

In This Guide 4

Performance Tuning for Server Hardware 4

Power Guidelines 7

Changes to Default Power Policy Parameters in Service Pack 2 8

Interrupt Affinity 9

Performance Tuning for the Networking Subsystem 9

Choosing a Network Adapter 10

Offload Capabilities 10

Receive-Side Scaling (RSS) 11

Message-Signaled Interrupts (MSI/MSI-X) 11

Network Adapter Resources 11

Interrupt Moderation 11

Suggested Network Adapter Features for Server Roles 11

Tuning the Network Adapter 12

Enabling Offload Features 12

Increasing Network Adapter Resources 12

Enabling Interrupt Moderation 13

Binding Each Adapter to a CPU 13

TCP Receive Window Auto-Tuning 13

TCP Parameters 14

Network-Related Performance Counters 14

Performance Tuning for the Storage Subsystem 15

Choosing Storage 16

Estimating the Amount of Data to Be Stored 16

Choosing a Storage Array 17

Hardware RAID Levels 18

Choosing the RAID Level 21

Selecting a Stripe Unit Size 25

Determining the Volume Layout 26

Storage-Related Parameters 26

NumberOfRequests 26

I/O Priorities 27

Storage-Related Performance Counters 27

Logical Disk and Physical Disk 27

Processor 29

Power Protection and Advanced Performance Option 29

Block Alignment (DISKPART) 30

Solid-State and Hybrid Drives 30

Response Times 31

Queue Lengths 32

Performance Tuning for Web Servers 33

Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 33

Operating System Practices 33

Tuning IIS 7.0 33

Kernel-Mode Tunings 35

Cache Management Settings 35

Request and Connection Management Settings 36

User-Mode Settings 37

User-Mode Cache Behavior Settings 37

Compression Behavior Settings 37

Tuning the Default Document List 38

Central Binary Logging 39

Application and Site Tunings 40

Managing IIS 7.0 Modules 40

Classic ASP Settings 41

ASP.NET Concurrency Setting 42

Worker Process and Recycling Options 42

Secure Sockets Layer Tuning Parameters 43


Managed Code Tuning Guidelines 43

Other Issues that Affect IIS Performance 44

NTFS File System Setting 44

Networking Subsystem Performance Settings for IIS 44

Performance Tuning for File Servers 44

Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 44

Server Message Block Model 45

Configuration Considerations 45

General Tuning Parameters for File Servers 46

General Tuning Parameters for Client Computers 47

Performance Tuning for Active Directory Servers 48

Considerations for Read-Heavy Scenarios 49

Considerations for Write-Heavy Scenarios 50

Using Indexing to Increase Query Performance 50

Optimizing Trust Paths 50

Active Directory Performance Counters 50

Performance Tuning for Terminal Server 52

Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 52

CPU Configuration 52

Processor Architecture 52

Memory Configuration 53

Disk 53

Network 54

Tuning Applications for Terminal Server 54

Terminal Server Tuning Parameters 55

Pagefile 55

Antivirus and Antispyware 55

Task Scheduler 55

Desktop Notification Icons 56

Client Experience Settings 57

Desktop Size 58

Windows System Resource Manager 58

Performance Tuning for Terminal Server Gateway 58

Monitoring and Data Collection 59

Performance Tuning for Virtualization Servers 59

Terminology 60

Hyper-V Architecture 61

Server Configuration 62

Hardware Selection 62

Server Core Installation Option 63

Dedicated Server Role 63

Guest Operating Systems 63

CPU Statistics 64

Processor Performance 64

Integration Services 64

Enlightened Guests 64

Virtual Processors 64

Background Activity 65

Weights and Reserves 65

Tuning NUMA Node Preference 65

Memory Performance 66

Enlightened Guests 66

Correct Memory Sizing 66

Storage I/O Performance 66

Synthetic SCSI Controller 67

Virtual Hard Disk Types 67

Passthrough Disks 68

Disabling File Last Access Time Check 68

Physical Disk Topology 68

I/O Balancer Controls 69

Network I/O Performance 69

Synthetic Network Adapter 70

Multiple Synthetic Network Adapters on Multiprocessor VMs 70

Offload Hardware 70

Network Switch Topology 70

Interrupt Affinity 70

VLAN Performance 70

Performance Tuning for File Server Workload (NetBench) 71

Registry Tuning Parameters for Servers 71

Registry Tuning Parameters for Client Computers 71

Performance Tuning for Network Workload (NTttcp) 72

Tuning for NTttcp 72

Network Adapter 73

TCP/IP Window Size 73

Receive-Side Scaling (RSS) 73

Tuning for IxChariot 73

Performance Tuning for Terminal Server Knowledge Worker Workload 74

Recommended Tunings on the Server 75

Monitoring and Data Collection 77

Performance Tuning for SAP Sales and Distribution Two-Tier Workload 77

Operating System Tunings on the Server 78

Tunings on the Database Server 78

Tunings on the SAP Application Server 79

Monitoring and Data Collection 79

Resources 79

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