The International Association of Marine aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) has undertaken a comprehensive review of maritime radiocommunication systems. This contribution is intended to initiate a report on systems in the Maritime mobile radiocommunication service and their mode of operation.
This document is proposed as a replacement for Annex 19 to ITU-R Document 5B/167.
Maritime Mobile Radiocommunication service systems are involved in virtually all facets of modern maritime operations. On open ocean transits, while operating on inland waterways and in the logistical functions of ports these radiocommunication systems support safety and reliability. Systems critical to Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), to safety of life and safety of navigation are subject to specific maritime treaty requirements. New systems and applications continue to provide access to a wide range of other communication resources.
This is an extract of a larger IALA report on maritime communications.
The information presented is intended to support various ITU efforts to identify existing and evolving systems which support maritime radiocommunication services.
This Report is expected to beneficial to preparations for both WRC-15 and WRC-18.
“to consider regulatory provisions and spectrum allocations to enable possible new Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology applications and possible new applications to improve maritime radiocommunication in accordance with Resolution 360 (WRC-12);”
The purpose of this Report is to review existing maritime systems and build visions of future maritime communications technologies. Specifics will address emerging digital communications, navigational technologies, hydrographic matters and vessel traffic management.
Maritime Radiocommunication systems 4
1 Current Maritime Radiocommunication systems 4
1.1 Propagation 4
1.1.1 Low Frequency Band (LF) 4
1.1.2 Medium Frequency / High Frequency Band (MF/HF) 4
1.1.3 Very High Frequency Band (VHF) 6
1.1.4 Automatic Identification System (AIS) 7
1.1.5Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) 9
1.1.6Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) 9
1.1.7X-band and S-band radar, radar beacon (racon) and radar SART 9
1.1.8Other communication technologies using the UHF/SHF band 10
1.1.9Technologies not widely used for maritime radio communications 10
1.1.10Low Frequency Band (LF) 10
1.1.11Medium Frequency/ High Frequency Band (MF/HF) 10
1.1.12Very High Frequency Band (VHF) 11
1.1.13Ultra High Frequency Band / Super High Frequency Band (UHF/SHF) 12
Table 1VHF Channels and Frequencies for VDES (AIS, ASM and VDE) 15
Table 2 VDES Communications including AIS, ASM and VDE 17
Table 3 Geographical classification of e-Navigation data and voice communication techniques Ship-Shore 18
Table 4 Geographical classification of e-Navigation data and voice communication techniques Ship-Ship 20
BACKGROUND TO SERVICE PROVISION 21
1.1.16Guidance and control 21
UNDERSTANDING MARITIME RADIOCOMMUNICATION 23
1.1.21Maritime Communication Requirements 23
1.1.22Vision: Automated selection process of available communication technologies 25
1.1.23Modernization of GMDSS 26
Table 5 Current GMDSS system components 27
188.8.131.52 Possible system components for the modernization of GMDSS 27
Table 6 Potential system components for modernization of GMDSS 29
Securing the Spectrum 29
Situation with respect to existing spectrum usage 29
ANNEX A SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 31
ANNEX B MARITIME FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 39
Annex B Table 1 Maritime Frequency Allocations 39
ANNEX C CURRENT AND EVOLVING WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT 51
Annex C Table 1 Summary of spectrum requirements of new commercial data links 51
Annex C Table 2 Summary of maritime radio spectrum 53
ANNEX D DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CHARACTERISTICS 59
Annex D Table 1 ITU-R recommendations for Maritime Radio Applications 60
ANNEX E AIS AND VHF DATA COMMUNICATION 73
ANNEX F Glossary of Terms 76