Annotated Bibliography- EDU6700
August 2, 2013
Dr. Laurie Campbell
Abu Bakar, N., & Nosratirad, E. (2013). Sustaining vocabulary acquisition through computer game: A case study. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 235-236-242. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n5p235
Authors Bakar and Nosratirad ascertained through a case study that gaming has strong abilities to increase learner education, and in this particular study, vocabulary gains for adult ESL learners. The authors cite a great deal of research that shows the results of using computer games for learning languages. The case study has a small subset; using only three participants, making conclusions and assumptions less credible due to the limited amount of data retrieved from the case study. Computer games are ideal because according to the article, they promote motivation, pleasure and vocabulary increases. The article is about adult learners of a language, which is a significant piece of information because of the article’s advocacy for self-regulated learning, and the authors cite research that states adult learners are intrinsic and desire self-regulation. In order for teachers to apply information from this article, more research needs to be done using younger students as the participants in the case study. When making decisions on the type of computer games that may be in the classroom, the learner and appropriate learning style must be addressed, an idea echoed in the article, Our Princess is In Another Castle: A Review of Trends in Serious Gaming for Education. As teachers, it is important to create an environment that spurs creativity and opportunities to explore and discover, so long as the social and developmental constraints are adhered to. With the rigors of mandated testing and growth in results, teachers must choose which opportunities are more conducive to students’ learning and capitalize on those opportunities.
Annetta, L. A. (2008). Video games in education: Why they should be used and how they are being used. Theory into Practice, , 229-230-239. doi:10.1080/00405840802153940
As evidenced by the title, the article advocates strongly for the use of video games in a classroom, specifically for students above third grade and students at the university level. Author Annetta cites two examples for how video games are used in the classroom. Similar to the article about young toddlers and tablets, evidence supporting the notion that video games can be used as quality learning tools is scarce, but the article states that this is largely due to the rapidly changing field of technology that advances faster than researches can make discoveries about the technology being researched. Learning strategies are discussed in the article, but the connection between learning strategies and gaming in the classroom is not clearly addressed. As teachers, it is important to understand which technologies, games, and apps work best in each particular content area, and utilize the time and technologies accordingly. With the increase in mandated testing, incremental growths, merit pay, and financial measures based on school performance, students and teachers are pressured to maximize time and energy and used only the learning tools that produce the greatest opportunities for learning. The article, reminiscent of the article by Manusos, Busby, and Clark, advocates for students to create their own games using appropriate game creating software, stating that games created by students may be the most powerful use of video game education.
Bellocchi, A. (2012). Practical considerations for integrating alternate reality gaming into science education. Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association, 58(4), 43-44-46.
Author Alberto Bellocchi offers his experiences in integrating an alternate reality game as well as practical applications into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics education classrooms. The article begins with the research that supports gaming as a learning platform, though only citing two studies as evidence to support the claim. The article distances itself from the research by stating the type of game used is different from video games or simulation games because it is a game that supports open-ended results and fosters creativity. Like applications featured in the article “The Touch Screen Generation”, students are encouraged to use certain games and technologies that do not necessarily have a finite goal or ending point but are still beneficial in the learning process. The students use a game to try to solve real-world problems. One important take away from the article is the idea of the TINAG aesthetic, which requires players to break the mentality of playing a game and try to imagine that the scenario is real life. Giving students an opportunity to place themselves in the setting of social and world issues such as hunger and disease is crucial because they are learning about the issue, but also contriving a set of ideals about that particular issue, which could one day lead to action. It is imperative for teachers to create settings that push students to become engaged citizens in their communities and world, and by using a game, there is a greater potential for motivation to learn about the issues and how to solve them.
Hansen, L., & Sanders, S. (Fall 2011). Fifth grade students' experiences participating in active gaming in physical education: The persistence to game. SD Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance, 5(2), 33-34-40.
The article discusses active gaming in physical education. Using a small group of students from one school, the authors concluded that active gaming greatly benefits the overall curriculum of physical education. Like the article by Annetta, according to authors Hansen and Sanders, gaming captures and holds students’ attention spans, promotes social interaction within groups, and motivates students to continue to participate. In order to implement an effective physical education program that uses gaming, adequate space is needed, a great deal of finances are required, and appropriate planning must be implemented. The article stated that the students’ interest levels were sustained for longer periods of time and students were more actively participating than with standard physical education practices, conclusions based on teacher observations and student feedback. With only one case study and such a small group studied, more research should be attempted in order to make conclusions that represent a wider range of the student population. Furthermore, if students are more engaged in these games that promote physical activity than in standard games, adequate funding and training need to be given to teachers in all varieties of school settings, otherwise the disparity between low-performing and high performing schools will perpetuate, and the gap will continue to widen.
Manusos, D. O., Busby, J. R., & Clark, A. C. (2013). Authentic design in gaming changing the rules of play. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 72(8), 8-9-13.
The article describes a low tech approach to playing computer games that transition into a high tech application to computer games. The authors, professors and students of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education, can be considered credible sources for quality ideas that can be implemented in the classroom. Students are required to modify board games and build their own games. Those games are the practical framework for creating a computer game, moving students from a concrete game to a digital representation. Teachers can create an atmosphere that invites social and technological learning development. Schools struggling with funding and opportunities to work with technology can use this idea of moving from a low-tech to high-tech game, as most of the creation can be done using materials found at craft or office supply stores, and then use free online software to create their games. Tactile learners can benefit from concrete development, and modifications for specific learning needs can be addressed due to the concrete nature of the activity. Students create higher quality games with greater meaning and playability because students can play the game and identify errors or changes that need to be made before moving to a web or online format. Teachers create an environment that fosters a desire to participate in a wider array of educational games, spurring greater opportunities for meaningful social and content based learning. This article is one of the only proponents for using traditional methods of learning using a tactile approach with concrete materials, with the exception of the article, “Our Princess Is In Another Castle: A Review of Trends in Serious Gaming for Education”.
Rosin, H. (2013). The touch-screen generation. Atlantic Monthly, 311(3), 56-57-65.
Author Hanna Rosin, mother and Atlantic national correspondent, describes the current and future situation regarding children in the early childhood education realm and their relationship with tablets and electronic devices. According to the article, toddlers’ access to technology has become increasingly prevalent, specifically the use of iPads and tablets. Young children are increasingly competent with technology, especially touch-screen technology, because of the ease of the product and the instant feedback that the device gives. As teachers of young children, called curriculum needs to involve these new technologies and opportunities to work with quality educational applications and games need to be presented as often as possible to students, if not daily. Tablets and computers need to be readily integrated into activities that produce quality learning opportunities, and activities that are outdated and no longer hold students’ interests need to be replaced with technology-based activities. Teachers need to spend time selecting adequate apps and games that integrate the content standards, or perhaps like the article discussing ECE Pre-service teachers by Tokmak and Ozgelen, teachers need to create and modify apps and games in order to best meet the needs of their students. Like many of the articles researched, tablet technology is engrossing and a high motivator for young children to continue to participate in the game, creating an environment of subconscious learning. Due to the highly evolving nature of tablet technology and the increasingly high rate of availability for young children, more research needs to be done to show the effects of technology-based learning, although media researchers are excited about the possibilities that early evidence has shown.
Tokmak, H. S., & Ozgelen, S. (2013). The ECE pre-service teachers' perception on factors affecting the integration of educational computer games in two conditions: Selecting versus redesigning. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(2), 1345-1346-1356.
The article is about the planning and implementation process teachers must undergo when choosing materials for their technology based lesson plans. Citing a few notable researchers, the author states it is no longer a question of if technology should be used in the classroom, but rather how that technology must be implemented. Using the term “digital natives,” which is described in the article by Rosin, the article discusses how these young children, born and raised with access to computers, smart phones, and internet ready devices, can best be served in the early childhood classroom. Based on the materials available, teachers must prepare lessons that use technology, hold students’ interests, and meet the content standards appropriately. During the research, the author discovers that the pre-service teachers seem to gain more benefit and were able to use the technology to meet more of their students’ needs by creating and modifying computer games, rather than simply selecting a game for use. Game development Is a useful tool for many age ranges, as noted in the article by (author of Authentic Design in Gaming as well as the article by Manusos, Busby, and Clark. Teacher created materials are not a new trend in the education field, but they do require ample amount of time and energy by the teacher, as well as appropriate training. Because of the constant requirements to evolve and adapt to an ever-changing field, teachers should be able to learn new technologies as part of their professional development plans and allot time for development of appropriate computer and online games that enhance the overall learning experience.
Young, M. F., Slota, S., Cutter, A. B., Jalette, G., Mullin, G., Lai, B., . . . Yukhymenko, M. (2012). Our princess is in another castle: A review of trends in serious gaming for education. Review of Educational Research, 82(1), 61-62-89. doi:10.3102/0034654312436980
The article, a collaborative work by Young, Slota, Cutter, Jalette, Mullin, Lai, Simeoni, Tran, and Yukhymenko, from the University of Conneticut, is a detailed review of the research involving serious gaming as tools for education. The authors attempt to take a great deal of research information, coordinate and study those articles, and make conclusions based on the findings of others. This article is packed with categorizing information and the organization of a massive amount of research. The article spans the entire K-12 age range, which sets it apart from other articles discussing gaming in education, which focused on a certain group of students within the K-12 age range. Teachers are encouraged to pay careful attention to pairing educational games with appropriate learning theories. Teachers should also spend time getting to know the students’ technological abilities, motivation to play computer games, and search for or create and modify games that adequately meet the content standard. Unfortunately, this article depicts these tasks as extremely difficult due to the layers of information that are needed to be taken into account in order to achieve a technological gaming environment that is conducive to learning and will obtain the highest level of results from the students. Like many articles reviewed, the authors note that there is a lack of evidence to support educational games are actually beneficial in student learning, but the authors come to the conclusion that because of the lack of evidence, research methods and assessments need to be altered in order to make clearer conclusions between video gaming and educational benefits. The article is comprehensive and covers a wide array of information in all content areas of learning. Overall, this article could be considered the most beneficial for teachers to internalize because the articles raise a great deal of concerns and questions about gaming in education that other articles did not address, and though the constantly changing field of technology can be an exciting time, teachers must be thoughtful and purposeful when deciding what tools work best for each classroom and each student within that classroom.