Short Answer Question answers period 3 Question 1 is based on the passage below



Download 77.96 Kb.
Date conversion11.10.2016
Size77.96 Kb.

AP European History Short Answer Question ANSWERS Period 3


Question 1 is based on the passage below.

“Insurrection by means of guerrilla bands is the true method of warfare for all nations desirous of emancipating themselves from a foreign yoke. This means of warfare supplies the want—inevitable at the commencement of an insurrection—of a regular army; it calls the greatest number of elements into the field, and yet may be sustained by the smallest number. It forms the military education of the people, and consecrates every foot of the native soil by the memory of some warlike deed.”


Giuseppe Mazzini, 1831



  1. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.




  1. Briefly explain ONE way Mazzini’s views were influenced by the political situation in Italy during the early 19th century.




  1. Briefly explain ONE reason an opponent of Mazzini’s views may have interpreted the situation differently.

C) Explain ONE historical example of another nation facing similar concerns as Italian patriots such as Mazzini during this time period.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-4 Analyze how new political and economic theories from the 17th century and the Enlightenment challenged absolutism and shaped the development of constitutional states, parliamentary governments, and the concept of individual rights.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.

Contextualization

Interpretation

Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence


3.3.I.F


Answer

A) Explanations of Mazzini’s main point in this passage relative to Italian politics may include the following:



  • Mazzini saw the multiple small states of Italy as distracted by fighting amongst themselves instead of uniting to free themselves from foreign dominance.

  • Mazzini felt that freedom and unification for Italy required a popular movement to accomplish such aims.

  • Italy of the nineteenth century was a fragmented patchwork of states constantly manipulated and bullied by the larger powers of Europe. This led to a desire to throw off the “foreign yoke.”

  • Large portions of Italy continued to be controlled by foreign nations, such as the Austrians and Spanish, leading patriots such as Mazzini to call for independence and unification.

B) Explanations of the views of opponents to Mazzini’s ideas may include the following:

  • Some opponents of Italian unification pointed to centuries of history and tradition in the form of independent states which would lose their identities in a unified Italian state.

  • Some proponents of Italian unification sought to raise an army and fight for unification on equal terms rather than through guerilla warfare, arguing that a popular rising could be quelled or ignored as had already occurred in earlier decades.

  • Some proponents of unification hoped to free Italy from foreign influence through diplomacy, negotiation, and political intrigue as a means to accomplish nationalist goals without pitting Italians against other Italians or opening Italy to military intervention from abroad.

  • Many Conservatives in Italy, as in the rest of Europe, viewed nationalism as dangerous and wished to continue with the traditional multi-national states of the past that rested upon feudal loyalties to a ruler rather than national identity. They viewed this traditional structure as a more stable form of state.

C) Explanations of ONE example of another country seeking unification or independence may include the following:

  • Germany, like Italy, continued to be a fragmented society that could be dominated and bullied by larger powers.

  • Belgium was in the process of consolidating its independence and state following attempts by Catholics as well as French and Flemish speaking inhabitants of the region to throw off control by Dutch Protestants.

  • At the time of Mazzini’s writing, Greek patriots were in the midst of a guerilla war for independence such as Mazzini called for in Italy.

  • Bulgarian and Rumanian Christians were beginning to agitate for independence from the Ottomans just as the Greeks had begun to do.



Question 2 is based on the passage below.

“This is why we are passionate opponents both of the State and of every State. For so long as there exist States, there will be no humanity; and so long as there exist States, war and its horrible crimes and inevitable consequences, the destruction and general misery of the peoples, will never cease. So long as there are States, the masses of the people will be de facto slaves even in the most democratic republics, for they will work not with a view to their own happiness and wealth, but for the power and wealth of the State.”


Mikhail Bakunin, ““Three Lectures to Swiss Members of the International,” 1869-1871

2. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Explain the main point of the passage in the context of Bakunin’s ideology.
B) Explain ONE counter-argument that could be used by opponents of Bakunin’s ideals.
C) Explain ONE additional counter-argument that could be used by opponents of Bakunin’s ideals.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-1 Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance, as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual.

OS-9 Explain how new theories of government and political ideologies attempted to provide a coherent explanation for human behavior and the extent to which they adhered or diverged from traditional explanations based on religious beliefs.

IS-5 Explain how and why class emerged as a basis for identity and led to conflict in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Interpretation

Historical Argumentation

Comparison


3.3.I.E


Answer

A) Explanations of the passage and its relation to anarchismmay include the following:



  • Bakunin argued the anarchist perspective that the existence of formal states was the source of all political, military, and social conflict. In this view, without states, there would not be violence and conflict.

  • The state, in Bakunin’s anarchist view, enshrined and preserved economic and social inequality serving to keep the majority of the population in poverty and want while diverting resources to purposes of the state.

  • Bakunin argues that states remove the good-natured tendencies of society and that it is the state that is the source of the evils in society.

B/C) Explanations of TWO counter-arguments may include the following:

  • The primary source of contention with Bakunin’s viewpoint is over the role of the state in society. Most detractors of anarchism would argue that the state exists to prevent the evils and destruction that individuals may perpetrate.

  • The destruction of states would not end violence and warfare. Regardless of states, humans would come into conflict over control or access to resources, thus warfare would continue even if not between conflicting states.

  • One of the precepts of modern, liberal society is the right to private property as espoused by John Locke. In this perspective, one of the main purposes of the state is to protect the right to private property of individuals even if that means a greater portion of private property for some individuals compared to the majority of the population.

  • Problems with the distribution of wealth are inherent in the existence of wealth, not the existence of the state. Even without the state, greed and hoarding would exist and leave a society of “haves” and “have-nots” with much the same problems as under governance of a state.



Question 3 is based on the passage below.
“Let the sovereignty be granted us over a portion of the globe large enough to satisfy the rightful requirements of a nation; the rest we shall manage for ourselves.
The creation of a new state is neither ridiculous nor impossible. We have in our day witnessed the process in connection with nations which were not largely members of the middle class, but poorer, less educated, and consequently weaker than ourselves. The Governments of all countries scourged by Anti-Semitism will be keenly interested in assisting us to obtain the sovereignty we want.”
Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State, 1896



  1. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.

A) Explain Herzl’s main point in the passage.


B) Briefly analyze ONE incident or circumstance in the modern era that motivated the creation of a Jewish state.
C) Briefly explain how ONE other “nation” established in Herzl’s time served as inspiration for the creation of a Jewish state.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

IS-7 Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society.

IS-10 Analyze how and why Europeans have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history.

Periodization

Historical Causation

Appropriate Use of Relevant Historical Evidence


3.3.I.G

Answer

A) Explanations of the passage and its relation to Zionism may include the following:



  • The point made by Herzl is that the creation of a Jewish state, the concept referred to as Zionism, was an essential step in protecting Jews from harassment and persecution.

  • Herzl argues that the establishment of an ethnically homogenous state for Jews is a logical step in the tradition of other nationalistic rebellions and states as seen throughout Europe in the nineteenth century.

  • Herzl argues that a Jewish state would be a logical, peaceful solution to anti-Semitism that would benefit all countries by preventing the turmoil caused by outbreaks of anti-Semitism simply through removing Jews to a state of their own.

B) Explanations of ONE incident or circumstance that motivated the creation of a Jewish state may include the following:

  • The turmoil surrounding the Dreyfus Affair was the immediate spark to Herzl’s ideas. The rampant anti-Semitism of the Dreyfus treason trial illustrated the bigotry which still existed toward Jews in France, as well as the rest of Europe.

  • Russian pogroms of the nineteenth century forced many Jews to flee their homes and resulted in uncounted deaths.

  • The social dislocation caused by the Russian pogroms led to tensions in the bordering states where increasing numbers of Jews fled. Increased Jewish populations led to increased instances of anti-Semitism.

  • The most prominent and egregious event motivating the creation of a Jewish state was the Nazi-incited Holocaust, albeit it an event well after the works of Herzl.

C) Explanations of ONE other nation’s success in creating an independent stateas a model for a Jewish ethnic state may include the following:

  • The Greeks had established an independent state by the 1830s as a culmination of their efforts to free themselves from Ottoman domination.

  • Belgium had been created in the early 1830s as a haven for Catholics from domination of the Protestants of the northern part of the Netherlands. Although not ethnically uniform, Belgium was a model for a state established to created freedom from religious domination.

  • Italy in the 1860s was a sign of the type of state creation based upon common identity that Zionists envisioned, despite Italy itself lacking much of the cultural unity that was at times assumed. Italy was a prime example of creating a distinct ethnic enclave as a means to fend off foreign domination and oppression.

  • Germany’s unification in the 1870s was a model of creating a strong state on the lines of ethnic and nationalistic grounds.

  • The agitation of Bulgarians and Rumanians for independent states in the 1870s culminating in their successful creation in 1878 mirrored calls for a Jewish state that would allow them freedom to practice their own religion.



Question 4 is based on the passage below.

“The experience of recent years and previous centuries has proved how little Italy has benefitted from conspiracies, revolutions, and disorderly uprisings. . . . And now the first conditions for the good of the peninsula is the restitution of her good name, . . . . To this effect, two things are necessary: first, we must prove to Europe that Italy has sufficient civic sagacity to govern herself liberally, and that she is in a condition to give herself the most perfect form of government; secondly, we must show that our military valour is still what it was in the time of our ancestors. In the last seven years you have done much for Italy. You have proved to Europe that the Italians can govern themselves sagaciously….But you must do more. Our country must give evidence that her children can fight courageously on the field. Believe this, that the glory our soldiers will know how to achieve on the Eastern coasts will do more for the future of Italy than all the noisy talking in the world. . . .”


Camillo di Cavour, speech to Parliament of Piedmont, 1855
4. Use the passage above and your knowledge of European history to answer parts A, B, and C.
A) Explain the main point of the passage.
B) Explain ONE way that an opponent of Cavour’s ideals may refute his argument.
C) Briefly explain how the Crimean War related to Cavour’s plans for Italy as presented in the passage.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

SP-4 Analyze how new political and economic theories from the 17th century and the Enlightenment challenged absolutism and shaped the development of constitutional states, parliamentary governments, and the concept of individual rights.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.

PP-10 Explain the role of social inequality in contributing to and affecting the nature of the French Revolution and subsequent revolutions throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

Contextualization

Interpretation

Historical Argumentation


3.4.II.B; 3.4.III.A


Answer

A) Explanations of the passage and its relation to the unification of Italymay include the following:



  • The passage presents Cavour’s stance that Italians must prove themselves on the international stage in order for the major powers to take the issue of Italian unification seriously.

  • Cavour argues that rebellion and conspiracies are not as effective a means of achieving Italian independence and unification as overt actions of good government and international cooperation.

  • Cavour sought to gain the goodwill of major powers in Europe to back his plans to unite Italy under Piedmont’s leadership. To do this, he felt Italy must aid in projects that the Great Powers sought to accomplish so that they would acquiesce in Piedmont’s leadership of a united Italy.

  • Cavour argues that action is needed to achieve Italy’s aims while the talking and debate of the past had failed to achieve any benefit for Italy.

B) Explanations of ONE way that opponents could refute Cavour’s arguments may include the following:

  • The argument of many Italian patriots seeking independence and unification rested upon the idea that the Italian states were not strong enough to openly face major European powers and therefore should rely upon guerilla warfare to achieve their ends.

  • Some Italian patriots sought a peaceful path to unification arguing that Italy could be unified piece by piece through diplomacy.

  • Many people throughout Europe, including a small segment of Italians, sought to maintain feudal, multi-ethnic states based upon loyalty to a monarch, such as the Austrian Empire. These Conservatives sought to hold on to the order and stability of the past political and social order.

  • Many of the political elite of Piedmont, including some of Cavour’s supporters, did not see the need for Italy to risk its soldiers’ lives in a foreign war or seek the approval of the Great Powers to achieve its ends.

C) Explanations of the role of the Crimean War in Italian unification may include the following:

  • The Crimean War provided the opportunity for Italians, in the form of Piedmont troops, to prove their worth on an international stage by aiding the British and French in the war with Russia.

  • The Crimean War was an opportunity to gain the goodwill of France and Britain by assisting in their war effort in the hopes that they would acquiesce to Piedmont’s territorial ambitions in Italy.

  • Partly due to the French goodwill gained in the Crimean War, Piedmont gained the assistance of French troops in driving the Austrians out of much of northern Italy, allowing the unification of most of northern Italy under Piedmont’s rule and inspiring rebellion in southern Italy against its foreign monarchical rulers.

5. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Briefly explain the role of the “Hungry ‘40s” in the unrest leading to the Revolutions of 1848.
B) Briefly explain ONE other factor leading to the Revolutions of 1848.
C) Briefly explain the most important impact of the Potato Famine on Ireland.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-3 Explain how geographic, economic, social and political factors affected the pace, nature and timing of industrialization in western and eastern Europe.

IS-10 Analyze how and why Europeans have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history.

Historical Causation

Periodization

Contextualization


3.2.V


Answer

A) Explanations of the role of the Hungry ‘40s in causing the Revolutions of 1848 may include the following:



  • The poor harvests and accompanying famine of the 1840s led many peasants to chafe under the traditional social and economic strictures in much of Europe.

  • The poor harvests and accompanying famine of the 1840s led many peasants to resent the inaction of most governments to attempt to ease their plight.

  • The economic struggles of the 1840s caused many people, peasants and middle class liberals alike, to resent the lack of reform in the wake of the 1830s revolutions.

  • Oppressed peoples throughout Europe blamed others for their misfortunes: the Irish blamed the British; many Germans blamed the Jews; and peasants universally blamed wealthy merchants and nobles.

  • Repression of discontent during the 1840s led to a backlash against conservative, Restoration governments.

B) Explanations of one additional cause of the Revolutions of 1848 may include the following:

  • The liberal reforms of Pope Pius IX inspired others, particularly in Italy, to seek reform from their governments.

  • Long-standing grievances amongst peasants and laborers erupted in conflict over merchant control of prices and landlords’ exorbitant rents.

  • The dislocation and change of a modernizing, urbanizing, and industrializing society called into question many traditional aspects of society and politics.

  • Increasingly wealthy commoners, the emerging middle class, sought a greater say in politics and commercial policy.

  • The conservative, Restoration governments of Europe failed to follow through on the promises of reform that seemed possible following the revolutions of the 1830s and proved to be increasingly reactionary, thus alienating greater numbers of the populace.

C) Explanations of the most important impact of the Irish Potato Famine may include the following:




  • The Irish Potato Famine saw the death of as many as one million people. This dramatic population decline had the most profound impact of all factors upon Ireland’s future.

  • The famine drove nearly two million Irish to emigrate, the vast majority to the United States. The departure of so many able-bodied Irish left Ireland reeling under labor shortages and reshaped the ethnic make-up of the United States.

  • The failure of the British government to attempt to remedy the crisis enflamed tensions over British domination of Ireland as many blamed British trade restrictions for much of the calamity.

  • The famine alerted many in Ireland to the need to diversify and modernize agricultural production in the country.

6. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Select ONE of the attempts at resistance to European imperialism from the list below and briefly explain ONE impact of that attempt.

  • the Sepoy Rebellion

  • the Boxer Rebellion

  • the Meiji Restoration

  • the creation of the Indian Congress party

B) Select ONE more of the attempts at resistance to European imperialism from the list below and briefly explain ONE impact of that attempt.



  • the Sepoy Rebellion

  • the Boxer Rebellion

  • the Meiji Restoration

  • the creation of the Indian Congress party

C) Select one of the incidents you chose in (A) or (B) and explain ONE reason it had a more important impact than the other incident you chose.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

INT-1 Assess the relative influence of economic, religious, and political motives in promoting exploration and colonization.

SP-9 Analyze how various movements for political and social equality—such as feminism, anticolonialism, and campaigns for immigrants’ rights—pressured governments and redefined citizenship.

IS-7 Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society.


Interpretation

Appropriate Use of Historical Evidence

Comparison


3.5.III.C


Answer

A/B) Explanations of the impact of TWO instances of resistance to European imperialism may include the following:



The Sepoy Rebellion

  • The rebellion initiated by Sepoys, Indian soldiers in the employ of the British, led to widespread turmoil and violence throughout India until eventually put down by the British.

  • The rebellion led to the British government assuming direct control of India from the British East India Company.

  • The British, in response to the rebellion, began a program of modernizing India; building extensive railroads, investing widely in industrial development (under British control and to Britain’s economic benefit), and imposing a stricter reform of the police and judiciary.

The Boxer Rebellion

  • The brutal anti-foreigner sentiment of the Boxer Rebellion led to a unified attempt by imperial powers to suppress the revolt, which resulted in a large number of deaths on both sides.

  • The failure of the Boxer Rebellion led to the forced leasing of significant portions of China (such as Hong Kong) to European powers. These extra-territorial portions of China would exist as symbols of disunity for decades.

  • The Chinese were burdened by reparation payments for the expenses of the Imperial powers in suppressing the revolt which stunted the Chinese economy for decades.

The Meiji Restoration

  • The Meiji Restoration succeeded in modernizing Japan and making a force to be reckoned with that could, and did, stand up to European powers on an equal footing.

  • The Japanese decided, under Meiji rule, to modernize on its own terms as a means to compete with and defend itself against European powers.

  • The nationalistic reforms of the Meiji Restoration put Japan on a crash course with the Imperial powers in Asia.

The creation of the Indian Congress party

  • The establishment of the Indian Congress was an important step in unifying Indian sentiment for independence.

  • The Indian Congress gave leadership and direction to India’s independence movement, things India had lacked in earlier rebellions and unrest, such as the Sepoy Rebellion.

  • The Indian Congress would provide the means to fill the political void left when the British departed India, serving as one of the main political parties throughout the history of post-colonial India.

C) Explanations of why one instance of resistance had a more important impact may include the following:

The Sepoy Rebellion

  • The Sepoy Rebellion changed the nature of British rule in India with a profound impact upon the growth and development of India.

    • In contrast, the Boxer Rebellion did not have as lasting of an impact upon China.

    • In contrast, the Meiji Restoration did not fundamentally alter the relationship between Japan and Europe.

    • In contrast, the Indian National Congress did not have a concrete impact until decades later.

The Boxer Rebellion

  • The brutal Boxer Rebellion served to dramatically weaken China leading directly to the turmoil and unrest that would plague the country for the following four decades.

    • By comparison, the Sepoy Rebellion in India did not have the same degree of impact upon the governance of the country; India continued to be ruled by the British while China struggled through imperial collapse, attempts at self-governance, and civil war.

    • By comparison, the Meiji Restoration was a peaceful internal transition that did not cause the kind of disruptions that occurred in China.

    • By comparison, the Indian National Congress failed to have the kind of immediate impact as seen from the Boxer Rebellion.

The Meiji Restoration

  • The Meiji Restorationsucceeded in maintaining the independence of Japan, something the other events were unable to accomplish, making Japan a world power in the process.

    • In contrast, the Sepoy Rebellion led to decades more of rule by the British.

    • In contrast, the Boxer Rebellion led to decades of further turmoil and exploitation by European powers in China.

    • In contrast, the Indian National Congress took decades to gain Indian home-rule as opposed to maintaining independence and thriving as Japan managed to do.

The creation of the Indian Congress party

  • The establishment of the Indian National Congress created a relatively peaceful internal approach to gaining independence without the large-scale prolonged violence of other independence movements.

    • By comparison, the Sepoy Rebellion had spurred more thorough control by the British as opposed to gaining self-rule for India.

    • By comparison, the Boxer Rebellion led to increased exploitation of China and prolonged instability and turmoil.

    • By comparison, the Meiji Restoration enacted changes that destroyed much of traditional Japanese culture for the sake of modernization and led to the imperial actions of Japan, directly in imitation of the European imperialists that they opposed.

7. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Identify ONE negative aspect of working class life following the Industrial Revolution which spurred calls for reform.
B) Briefly explain ONE attempt to improve the quality of life for the working class by the mid- 1800s.
C) Briefly explain ONE additional attempt to improve the quality of life for the working class by the mid-1800s.



Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-15 Analyze efforts of government and nongovernmental reform movements to respond to poverty and other social problems in the 19th and 20th centuries.

IS-6 Evaluate the causes and consequences of persistent tensions between women’s role and status in the private versus the public sphere.

IS-9 Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefited from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onwards.


Periodization

Patterns of Continuity or Change over Time

Interpretation


3.2.III.B


Answer

A) Explanations of ONE negative aspect of working class life may include the following:



  • The practice of employing children in factories and mines was common due to the lower wages they could be given compared to adult male workers.

  • The practice of employing women in factories and mines was common due to the lower wages they could be given compared to adult male workers.

  • Many workers, including women and children, worked very long hours, often 12 or 14 hours per day.

  • Much industrial work took place in unsafe, or downright dangerous, conditions such that industrial accidents leading to deaths and disfigurement were commonplace.

  • Low wages for industrial workers led many families to rely on the income of both father and mother working to make ends meet. This had a negative impact upon the family unit as child care was often left to older siblings or children were left unsupervised.

  • Low wages for industrial workers led many families to rely upon additional income from putting their children to work in the factories and mines to help support the family.

B/C) Explanations of TWO attempts at improving the quality of life for the working class may include the following:

  • In Britain, the Factory Act of 1833 established an inspection system to enforce new regulations governing child labor in mills, including a ban on the use of children under the age of nine in the mills.

    • The Factory Act allowed younger children to remain at home, or hopefully, in school.

    • The Factory Act provided for enforcement of labor laws, something which had been lacking previously, and made later laws more effective as well.

  • In Britain, the Mines Act of 1842 banned the use of females or children under the age of 9 in underground mines.

    • The Mines Act saved women and children from the most dangerous of work that the industrial age had presented.

  • In Britain, the Ten Hours Act of 1847 established 10 hours as the maximum to be worked by women and children per day.

    • The Ten Hours Act gave women and children more time away from work and provided a boost to family life which had been under assault by the new regimen of industrial life.

  • Throughout Europe, governments passed legislation to provide reduced labor for women and children, thus opening more jobs for unemployed males which aided the wealth of families as a whole.

  • Throughout Europe labor and radical political movements agitated for improved working conditions and better pay for industrial workers.

  • The right to strike became an important tool gained by workers in most major countries.

8. Using your knowledge of European history, answer parts A, B, and C.


A) Briefly explain Otto von Bismarck’s view of German nationalism
B) Briefly explain Adolph Hitler’s view of German nationalism.
C) Briefly explain ONE important difference between their views.

Learning Objective

Historical Thinking Skill

Key Concepts in the

Curriculum Framework

PP-8 Analyze socialist, communist and fascist efforts to develop responses to capitalism and why these efforts gained support during times of economic crisis.

OS-9 Explain how new theories of government and political ideologies attempted to provide a coherent explanation for human behavior and the extent to which they adhered or diverged from traditional explanations based on religious beliefs.

OS-12 Analyze how artists used strong emotions to express individuality and political theorists encouraged emotional identification with the nation.

SP-17 Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability.

Periodization

Historical Argumentation

Comparison


3.3.I.F

3.4.II.B

4.2.II.B



Answer

A) Explanations of Bismarck’s viewsof German nationalism may include the following.



  • Bismarck disliked nationalism and nationalists but viewed them as a useful tool to help accomplish his aims of strengthening and expanding Prussian power and influence.

  • Bismarck used nationalism as a means to undercut clamor for reform and as a means to “steal the thunder” of republican nationalists.

  • Bismarck viewed nationalism as a tool to be coupled with conservatism to save traditional aristocratic rule.

  • Bismarck appealed to nationalistic and liberal ideals only when it served his purposes.

B) Explanations of Hitler’s views of German nationalism may include the following.

  • Hitler was an avid supporter and advocate of German nationalism.

  • Hitler sought to use the nationalism of the lower classes as a means to empower his concepts of reform and change.

  • Hitler’s racial and ethnic policies were the height of ultra-nationalism, intended to purify the nation to allow for unbridled development and expression of nationalism.

C) Explanations of ONE important difference between the views of Bismarck and Hitler may include the following.




  • Bismarck feared nationalism whereas Hitler embraced nationalism whole-heartedly.

  • Bismarck viewed nationalism as a power to be controlled while Hitler sought to unleash unbridled nationalism.

  • Bismarck sought to use nationalism as a tool to help maintain traditional political order and practices while Hitler sought to use nationalism as a means to reshape society and in many ways base society upon nationalism.


The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2016
send message

    Main page