1.1 Description of Physical Site
Definition of Site
The Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (HKK) is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site in Thailand. It is located at the southern end of the Dawna Range .The ecoregion name is the Kayah-Karen Montane Rain Forests [IM0119] , the Google coordinates are 15°36'-17°50'N, 99°19'-16°47'E.
The maps show location of Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary , Uthaithanee Province , Thailand
The terrain is generally hilly with many permanent and seasonal streams. The highest peak (Khao Pai Huai Kha Khaeng) lies in the extreme north of the sanctuary. Valleys are interspersed with small lowland plains. The sanctuary comprises the catchment area of the Huai Kha Khaeng, which flows through the middle of the sanctuary into the Kwae Yai and the Sri Nakarin Dam in Kanchanaburi Province, and much of the uppercatchment area of the Huai Thap Salao, which flows into the Sakrae Krang in Uthai Thani Province.
Red-brown earths and red-yellow podzols are the predominant soils, the former derived from limestone and found in the level uplands and Mae Chan Valley, whilst the latter is found in the Huai Kha Khaeng Valley. A physical feature that is important for wildlife is the presence of mineral licks. These occur throughout the sanctuary as either wet or dry, and most appear to be located on, or around, granite intrusions in areas with red-yellow podzolic soil and may be associated with the massive faults or lineaments in the intensely folded geomorphology of this area. Small lakes, ponds and swampy areas occur, some being seasonal whilst others are perennial; these are important wildlife habitats.
Topographically, the forest of Huai Kha Khaeng covers a series of complex mountains with the north-south flowing 100-km-long Huai Kha Khaeng stream as its main water source. The combination of suitable climate, topography, humidity and general richness of the area, means the area is a centre of biodiversity in which almost all types of forests, including deciduous, dry dipterocarp, dry evergreen, hill evergreen, and moist evergreen, can be found. These forests support populations of rare animals.
Conditions range from tropical to sub-tropical. The climate is monsoonal, with a dry season from November to April. The heaviest rains generally arrive in September or October, as a result of typhoons in the South China Sea. Annual rainfall is about 1700mm. Temperatures range from an average of 19°C in December (min. 10°C, max. 28°C) to an average of 28°C in May (min. 20°C, max. 37°C)
Infrastructure around the site
(I can’t seek information about infrastructure around the site from internet but I can get information when I go back to my site.)
1.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Site
HKK was designated as a wildlife sanctuary in September 4, 1972 and covers an area of 281,279 hectares (approximately 2,780 km2) in Amphoes Lan Sak, Huai Kot and Ban Rai in Uthai Thani and Amphoe Umphang in Tak. HKK was inscribed as a Natural World Heritage Site by UNESCO at a conference in Tunisia on December 9, 1991, the first such site in Thailand.
Land Use and Land Tenure
HKK was established 26 August 1972 under the 1960 Wild Animals Reservation and Protection Act, which was re-enacted in 1992. In 1991, inscribed with Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary on the World Heritage List. HKK is a protected area that does not have any villages inside. The land tenure is under management of the Government in Uthaithani provinces. It has a management under Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation.
Main Livelihoods and Incomes
Almost all of people in the area basically live off the agriculture lands out side the protected area. Majority of people earn a living off the agriculture such as plant crops such as corn and cassava. Also, they farm domesticated animals such as cattle , buffalo, goat, chicken and duck. (Word Heritage Site Conservation Office 2008)
(Information about income I will get when I go back to the site)
Site population and neighbors
Along the eastern side of HKK are 29 villages located within three kilometers from the sanctuary boundary. All of the village areas cover 3 Amphoes (district) are Lansak , Huai-kot and Banrai, 7 Tambon (sub-district) are Rabam , Po-oa, Thaonlang, Kokkawa, Chaowat , Kanmakrut and Banrai. In the population of 29 villages, there are about 4,589 household, with about 17,500 people. (Word Heritage Site Conservation Office 2008)
(Information about summarize household survey data and reference I will get when I go back to the site)
The map shows HKK area and village in buffer zone. (WEFCOM 2004)
1.3 Main Factors Affecting the Site
Known Threats to Local Biodiversity
Threats in HKK include hunting, habitat conversion, and non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection. Over two years of the new patrol system in HKK reveals that people living near the sanctuaries are the source of different threats to wildlife especially tigers and their prey. Among threats, poaching of tiger prey including the sambar, gaur, banteng has seriously depleted food supplies for tigers in many areas. The cause of hunting is mostly for selling wild meat to local wild meat restaurants located outside the protected areas with large ungulates and primates as the main targets. Although selling of wild meat is illegal in Thailand the underground business is still going on in many local restaurants. In 2007-09 the data from the survey of wild meat food shops and restaurants in 3 districts next to HKK reveals that there are 13 out of 67 food shops that are likely to sell wild meat. (WCS 2007)
(I hope to get more information about some of the other threats in the region and more details on the people behind the threat when I go back to my site)
1.4 Conservation Issues
Biodiversity of Site
HKK is one of the last areas for numerous wildlife species including threatened species and has been well recognized among tiger conservation scientists as a key site for tiger conservation and restoration of the Indochinese tiger in SE Asia. From the IUCN threats classification Indochinese tiger is listed in The Red List Category as Endangered C2a(i). (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/136853)
HKK is the best habitat for tigers in Thailand and South East Asia. This landscape quality for conservation of viable population of tigers has been confirmed with a photographic capture-recapture sampling revealing that HKK could hold 113 tigers at the density estimate of 3.98 tigers/ 100 km2. Simcharoen et al. (2007) estimated in the WEFCOM could hold 720 tigers, with the potential to harbor 2,000 if prey densities were to increase.
Fauna and Flora
HKK is one of the most outstanding conservation areas in mainland Southeast Asia on account of its largely undisturbed primeval forest. It contains one of the last important areas of lowland reverie forest remaining in Thailand, which supports the last viable populations of several riparian bird species in the country. These include green peafowl, lesser fishing eagle, red-headed vulture and crested kingfisher. It is also the most important area in Thailand for banteng and, together with Thung Yai Wildlife Sanctuary, for gaur. The combined area may be the only conservation area in Thailand large enough to offer long-term prospects for the survival of many large mammal species.
HKK supports a significant proportion of Thailand's animal species, including several more commonly seen in the north or south of the country. Of Thailand's 265 mammals, 67 are known to occur in this sanctuary. Among these are three of the Reserved Wildlife Species of Thailand: mainland serow Capricornis sumatraensis (VU), hog deer Cervus porcinus and wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee (EN). The only herd of wild water buffalo in Thailand, some 25-50 animals, is found in the south of the Sanctuary, but there may have been interbreeding with domestic animals. Hog deer are said to have been seen at least twice just south of Huai Mae Dee, a tributary of the Huai Kha Khaeng, but they are assumed to number very few.
All five macaque species occurring in Thailand are present: rhesus Macaca mulatta, crab-eating M. fascicularis, pig-tailed M. nemestrina (VU), stump-tailed M. arctoides (VU) and Assam M. assamensis. The presence of these sympatric species may be the result of the area having been a Pleistocene refugium. Other primates include silver leaf monkey Presbytis cristata, Phayre's leaf monkey P. phayrei and white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar.
Other threatened mammals include Asiatic wild dog Cuon alpinus (EN), two otters, oriental small-clawed Aonyx cinerea and smooth-coated Lutra perspicillata (VU), and a number of felids and viverrids: tiger Panthera tigris (EN), clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa (VU), leopard Panthera pardus, black forms being as often seen as spotted.
There are also Asian elephant Elephas maximus (EN), Fea's muntjac Muntiacus feae and Asian tapir Tapirus indicus (VU) which is rarely seen, though tracks are common in parts of the sanctuary. Gaur Bos gaurus (VU) and banteng Bos javanicus (EN) are still fairly common, although they have become increasingly rare elsewhere in Thailand due to poaching.
The vegetation is largely undisturbed, with little logging or shifting agriculture practiced in the past. Five types of forest can be distinguished. The highest slopes are covered with hill evergreen forest (covering 38,400 ha), while slopes above 600 m generally support dry semi-evergreen forest (46,300 ha). The rest of the sanctuary supports mixed deciduous (117,300 ha) and bamboo forest (18,300 ha), and dry dipterocarp forest (34,500 ha) in areas with poor or shallow soil. In unusually moist areas along some rivers and streams, evergreen gallery forest is present. The result is often a patchy mosaic of vegetation types, particularly in valley bottoms. In lowland areas, mainly near the larger rivers, there are some small patches of open grassland. Commercially important tree species include teak Tectona grandis, Terminatia nudiflora, Xylia kerii, L. calyculata, A. xylocarpa, D. alatus, H. odorata, Anisoptera cochinchinensis.
(I will try to find and adding pictures of some of the more interesting animals in this section)
HKK is an important area for providing ecological services to people of Thailand, especially people in Uthaithanee Province. The people get direct consumption of ecological goods such as water, mineral and Non timber forest product (NTFPs). They also get direct consumption of ecological services such as camping, nature education, hiking, bird watching, and wildlife watching. This includes in-direct consumption of ecological services such as conservation of biodiversity, wildlife conservation, purification of air and water, and watershed protection.
HKK had been managed directly by the Government’s Department of National
Park,Wildlife and Plant Conservation. In 1999, The Danish Government (DANCED, now DANIDA) has provided technical and financial support to the Royal Forest Department (now National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department) to manage and conserve the abundant biological resources in the Western Forest Complex (WEFCOM) through the Ecosystem Management Approach, called Western Forest Complex Ecosystem Management Project (WEFCOM Project). The project was successfully completed by April 2004. (WEFCOM 2004)
In October 2004-2006, The National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department had a The Natural World Heritage Site Ecosystem management project in Huai Hha Khaeng and Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary that contributed budget to The Danish Government (DANIDA). The Natural World Heritage Site was chosen because of its uniqueness and special importance in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem function. The area, therefore, deserves special attention and extra efforts in the management and conservation to keep its ecosystem healthy and intact.
(The Natural World Heritage Site Ecosystem management project 2007)
Since 1980, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) has started wildlife research in HKK. In 2004 WCS -Thailand Program has been working closely with the government of Thailand’s Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation to improve protection quality, tiger and prey population monitoring standards, and other local capacity building activities for HKK-TY. Regarding the patrol system and patrol database, HKK has shown a significant improvement in terms of patrol frequency, patrol coverage, and reporting system.
HKK has a management framework or conceptual model setup following the living landscape approach and the tiger is a landscape species for managers and others to work on listed interventions to reduce listed threats in order to reach the goal of increasing tiger population up to at least 5 tigers/100 km2 within 2015. With this structure the park has overcome the day-to-day management and is working towards management with structure and information-based and a strong monitoring system backup.
HKK patrol system has been running in full scale with all 19 patrol teams working under new patrol system. Now the Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation has started to use the system as a model to improve protection quality for the whole protected area system in Thailand. (WCS 2007)
Previous Conservation Education Campaigns (CEC)
HKK is the best area for nature and environmental education. It is a Natural Library for students and general people in Thailand. HKK has been working on nature and wildlife conservation education with children, school, local people and general people (WEFCOM 2004). In 2004 , The Natural World Heritage Site Ecosystem Management Project (The Project under National Park ,Wildlife and Plant conservation) and HKK were established conservation education program for nature study and recreation based on an ecosystem approach in the recreation zone ,called Front Gate to World Heritage Site Program. In 2007 WCS Thailand and Thai Petroleum Company: Exploration and Production Public Company Limited were established the project called Conservation Education Program on Saving Thailand’s tiger project. The project has been very successful in getting local school children to be more aware of the important of the protected area for tigers and other wildlife conservation. (Saving Thailand’s tiger project 2007)
At the meantime, Huai Kha Khaeng wildlife conservation development and extension station has been working closely with local communities and schools around HKK boundary to educate about conservation awareness for wildlife conservation activities. http:// www.dnp.go.th
(I can not find more information about Huai Kha Khaeng wildlife conservation development and extension station such as the specific activities/events , goals and the success of the activities but I can find the information from the annual report when I go back to my site and I will write about impact from they activity for my Pride campaign again)
International Convention Signed by the Country
From the past century, Thailand has developed a number of important
policies and legal frameworks to support the conservation and management of
wildlife, forests, plant resources.
In 1983, Thailand ratified the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and became the 80th member
of the Convention. CITES-Thailand has been effective in dealing with trade in plant
within the CITES System, especially wild orchids, cycads species and tree ferns.
Prior to Thailand’s ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 2003, the country undertook a great deal of preparations for the Convention. In 1999, the Plant Variety Protection Act was enacted providing protection of novel varieties, and native plants - both landraces and wild species. The Act on Protection and Promotion of Thai Traditional Medicinal Intelligence was passed in the same year to protect and promote traditional Thai medicinal plants and practices. In 2001 alone, there were 14 Acts, two Cabinet Resolutions, five national plans and policies; and two departmental regulations related to the conservation of biodiversity (World Bank, 2004). Thailand ratified the CBD on 31st October 2003 and became the 188th member of the Convention on 29th January 2004. Thailand also has many international conventions for conservation and environment such as World Heritage Convention (1987), Agnda 21 (1992), Kyoto Protocol ( 1999). (Vessabutr S. 2005)
Special Designations that Apply to Site
HKK has inscribed with Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria vii, ix and x in 1991
Legislation and Government Policies
HKK is a protected area. It has management under the Department of National Park , Wildlife and Plant Conservation. HKK has been under the 1960 Wild Animals Reservation and Protection Act, which was re-enacted in 1992.
(For this part I can find more information about Government Policies when to go back to my site)
1.5 Protected Area Management
Protect Area Management Overview
HKK had been managed directly by the Government’s Department of National
Park ,Wildlife and Plant Conservation , the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) and administration manages by an government officer. (Vessabutr S. 2005). A management plan has been prepared by a team from Kasetsart University in 1989, and this has been discussed and approved by the National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department's Management Plan Committee in 1990. (IUCN 1991)
Stakeholders in Protected Area Management
HKK has stakeholders in both government and non-government organizations. WCS-Thailand Program is one stakeholder that is working closely with HKK regarding the patrol system and patrol database. In the part of management, HKK has a Protected Area Committee (PAC). The committee includes representatives from main stakeholder of HKK such as local government, local NGOs, lecturer from university and representatives from local people. This committee has been performed to give advice to HKK management.
2.0 Project Team and Key Stakeholders
Lead Agency and Pride Campaign Manager
In the project the lead agency is Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Thailand program. The history of the Wildlife Conservation Society in Thailand dates to the early 1970s. At the invitation of the government of Thailand, WCS opened a project office in 1997 to support a wildlife management training program, initiate an Indochina tiger conservation program, support conservation research of government staff, and help make wildlife conservation sustainable and more effective in Thailand. In 2002, WCS and the Thailand government agreed to a comprehensive Memorandum of Understanding, to expand their working relationship and extend its term. (WCS 2004)
Pride Campaign Manager
Angkana Makvilai has extensive experience of working within conservation education, be it leading outreach programs or working inside government and international projects. Prior to her current position, Angkana worked as a training and outreach assistant for the Western Forest Complex Ecosystem Management Project on 2000 – 2004 and technician coordinator for the Natural World Heritage Site Ecosystem Management Project in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary on 2005-2007 . Angkana’s responsibility was managing project activities and coordinating both stakeholders and community members. Angkana also designed a curriculum and conducted workshops for volunteers, community members, and government staff as part of her role.
Angkana worked as a Conservation Education Officer in the Conservation Education Program for ‘Saving Thailand’s Tiger’ project; a project co-funded by WCS Thailand and Thai Petroleum on 2007 and after finishes the project she worked with Thai Nature Game Group (Local NGOs in Uthaithanee Province) before apply to Rare campaign.
The campaign stakeholders have a many types of stakeholder that they have a stake in the success of the campaign. The types of stakeholders include executive stakeholders, community and end – user stakeholders, expert stakeholders and media for example;
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (HKK WS)
Wildlife Conservation Division , Department of National Park ,Wildlife and Plant Conservation
Natural Word Heritage Site Management Office
HKK Wildlife development and extension station
Thai Nature Game Group (Local NGO)
Seub Nakasathein Foundation (NGO)
Faculty of science and Technology, Nakornsawan University
Umphur Lansak (Lansal Distric , Uthaithanee Province)
Umphur Banrai (Banrai Distric , Uthaithanee Province)
Umphur Huaikot (Huaikot Distric , Uthaithanee Province)
Dek Rat Pa - Nature and art education center, Surin Province (NGO)
Lansak Vittaya School
Ruang Ta Tee Vittaya School
Ban Rai Vittaya School
Bung Ay Jaime School
Huai Palo School
Huai Kha Khaeng Vittaya School
Thong Lang Vittaya School
Rabam Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
Paa-Or Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
Thonglang Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
KokKhay Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
Chaowat Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
Banrai Subdistrict Administrative Organization (SAO)
Community forest committee , Ban Pong Sam Sib
Community forest committee , Ban Phai Ngam
Community forest committee , Ban Aung Haui Domg
Community forest committee , Ban Bungcharone
Community forest committee , Ban Ko Mo 53
HKK Country Home Resort
Uthaithanee Local Guide Club
Local Newspaper in Uthaithanee Province
Local Reporter in Uthaithanee Province
Wat Tampratatmuangtep (Temple)
IUCN (1991). World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Summary. Thungyai - Huai Kha
Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. Gland, Switzerland.
Saving Thailand’s tiger project . 2007 . Project Final Report.
Simcharoen, S., A. Pattanavibool, K. U. Karanth, J. D. Nichols, and N. S. Kumar.
2007. How many tigers Panthera tigris are there in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife
Sanctuary, Thailand? An estimate using photographic capture-recapture
sampling. Oryx 41: 447-453.
Smith, J. D., S. Tunhikorn, S. Tanhan, S. Simcharoen, and B. Kanchanasaka. 1999.
Metapopulation structure of tigers in Thailand. Pages 166-175 in
J. Seidensticker, J., S. Chirstie, and P. Jackson, eds. Riding the tiger: Tiger
conservation in human-dominated landscape. Cambridge University Press.
WCS. 2007. Building a Monitoring System for Tiger Conservation in the Western
Forest Complex, Thailand. A Final Report to the USFWS-RTCF.
WEFCOM Project. 2004. GIS Database and its applications for ecosystem
management. National Park, Wildlife, and Plant Conservation Department,
Word Heritage Site Conservation Office . 2008. Basic Information of the village in
buffer zone in Huai kha khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary. 2008
World Bank. 2004. Thailand Environment Monitor: Biodiversity. The World Bank,
Bangkok, Thailand. 54 pages.
Vessabutr S. 2005 . Thailand Country Report - ASEAN-CHINA Workshop .
15-19 May 2005.