Snow, ice, avalanches and glaciers

Battle, W. R. B., and Lewis, W. V. 1951. Temperature observations in bergshurnds and their relationship to cirque erosion. J. Glaciology 59, p. 537-545

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Battle, W. R. B., and Lewis, W. V. 1951. Temperature observations in bergshurnds and their relationship to cirque erosion. J. Glaciology 59, p. 537-545.

Benn, D. I., and Evans, D. J. A. 1998. Glaciers and Glaciation. Arnold, London, England. 734 p.

Benn, D. I., and Owen, L. A. 1997. The role of the South Asian monsoon and mid-latitude cooling in Himalayan glacial cycles: review and speculative discussion. J. Geological Society. In press.
Bentley, W. A. and Johnson W. J. 1931. Snow crystals, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 227 pp.
Birkeland, K. W. 1998. Terminology and predominant processes associated with the formation of weak layers of near-surface faceted crystals in the mountain snowpack. Arctic and Alpine Research, 30(2), p. 193-199.
Boulton, G. S. 1972. The role of the thermal regime in glacial sedimentation. In Price, R. J. and Sugden, D. E. (eds.), Polar Geomorphology, Institute of British Geographers, Special Publication 4, p. 1-19.
CAIC. 2002a. U.S. and world avalanche accident statistics. Colorado Avalanche Information Center, Denver, Colorado.
CAIC. 2002b. International avalanche danger scale. Colorado Avalanche Information Center, Denver, Colorado.

Colbeck, S. C. 1983. Snow particle morphology in the seasonal snowcover. Bull. American Meteorological Society, (64) 6, p. 602-609.

Colbeck, S. C., Akitaya E., Armstrong, R., Gubler, H., Lafeuille, J., Lied, K., McClung, D. Morris, E. Undated, ca. 1990. The international classification for seasonal snow on the ground. International Commission on Snow and Ice of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology. Co-issued by the International Glaciological Society. 23 pp.

Denton G. H., and Hughes, T. J. 1981. The last great ice sheets. J. W. Wiley and Sons, New York, New York.

Dexter, L. R. and Kokenakais, A. 1998. The rime river. Proc. International Snow Science Workshop, Sun River, Oregon, U.S.A., September 27- October1 1998, p. 544-550.

Dunne, T. and Leopold, L. B. 1978. Water in environmental planning. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, California. 818 pp.

Dyurgerov, M.B. and Meier, M. F. 1997a. Mass balance of mountain and subpolar glaciers: a new global assessment for 1961-1990. Arctic and Alpine Research. 29(4), p. 379-91.

Dyurgerov, M.B. and Meier, M. F. 1997b. Year-to-year fluctuation of global mass balance of small glaciers and their contribution to sea level changes. Arctic and Alpine Research. 29(4) p. 392-401.
Gardner, J. S. 1987. Evidence for headwall weathering zones, Boundary Glacier, Canadian Rocky Mountains, J. Glaciology 33, p. 60-67.
Gerrard, A. J. 1990, Mountain environments, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 317 pp.
Glen, J.W. 1955. The creep of polycrystalline ice. Proc. R. Soc. A. 228 (1175), 519-538.
Gillespie, A. and Molnar, P. 1995. Asynchronous maximum advances of mountain and continental glaciers. Reviews of Geophysics 33, p. 311-364.
Gordon 1977. Morphometry of cirques in the Kintail-Affric-Cannich area of northwest Scotland. Geografiska Annaler 63A, p. 55-65.
Graydon D. (ed.) 1995. Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills 6th ed. The Mountaineers, Seattle, Washington.
Gray, D. M. and Male, D. H. 1981. Handbook of snow. Pergamon Press, Toronto, Canada, 776 pp.

Haeberli, W., M. Hoelzle, M., and S. Suter, S. eds. 1998. Into the second century of world glacier monitoring - prospects and strategies. In Studies and Reports in Hydrology - A Contribution to the IHP and the GEMS, 56. World Glacier Monitoring Service.

Hooke, R. L. 1998. Principles of glacier mechanics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 248 pp.

Imbrie, J., Berger, A., Boyle E. A., Clemens, S. C., et. al. 1993. On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles 2. The 100,000 year cycle. Paleoceanography 8, p. 699-735.

Imbrie, J., Boyle E. A., Clemens, S. C., Duffy, A., et. al. 1992. On the structure and origin of major glaciation cycles 1. Linear responses to Milankovitch forcing. Paleoceanography 7, p. 701-738.
Jarrell, R. L. and Schmidt, R. A. 1990. Snow fencing near pit reservoirs to improve water supplies. Proc. Western Snow Conference, April 17-19 1990, Sacramento, California 58, p. 156-159.
Knight, C. A. 1967. The freezing of supercooled liquids. Van Nostrand Momentum Books, 14, Princeton, New Jersey, 145 pp.
LaChapelle, E. R. 1980. The fundamental processes in conventional avalanche forecasting. J. Glaciology 26(94), p. 75-84.

LaChapelle, E. R. and Armstrong, R. L. 1977. Temperature patterns in an alpine snow cover and their influence on snow metamorphism. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research Technical Report, February, 1977, 33 pp.

Leggett, J. (ed). 1990. Global warming: the Greenpeace report. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.

Logan N. and D. Atkins 1996. Snowy Torrents 1980-86 CGS Special Publication 39.
Marchand, P. 1996. Life in the cold: an introduction to winter ecology, 3rd ed. University Press of New England, Hanover, New Hampshire. 304 pp.
Martinelli, M. 1972. Simulated sonic boom as an avalanche trigger. USDA Forest Service Reseearch Note RM-224, 7 pp.
Martinelli, M. 1974. Snow avalanche sites – their identification and evaluation. Agriculture Information Bulletin 360, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, 26 pp.
Martini I. P. , M. E. Brookfield and S. Sadura. 2001. Principles of glacial geomorphology and geology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 381 pp.
McClung, D. and J. Schweizer. 1999. Skier triggering, snow temperatures and the stability index for dry slab avalanche initiation. J. Glaciology, 45(150), p. 190-200.
McClung, D. 2002. The elements of applied avalanche forecasting (Parts I and II). Natural Hazards, 25, 111-146.
McClung, D. and Schaerer, P. 1993. The avalanche handbook. The Seattle Mountaineers, Seattle, Washington, 271 pp.
Nakaya U. 1954. Snow crystals: natural and artificial. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
NOVA. 2001. Vanished. Public Broadcasting System, Washington, D. C.
NSIDC. 2002. Mountain Glacier Fluctuations: Changes in terminus location and mass balance., National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado.
Paterson, W. S. B. 1994. The physics of glaciers, 3rd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, England.
Price, L. W. 1981. Mountains and man: a study of process and environment. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 506 pp.
Robin, G. de Q. 1976. Is the basal ice of a temperate glacier at the pressure melting point? J. Glaciology 16, p. 259-271.
Schweizer, J. 1999. Review of dry snow slab avalanche release. Cold Reg. Sci. Tech. 30, p. 43-57.
Selby, M. J. 1985. Earth’s changing surface: an introduction to geomorphology. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. 607 pp.
Sharp, R. P. 1988. Living ice: understanding glaciers and glaciation. Cambrdge University Press, Cambridge, England. 225 pp.
Sovilla, B., F. Sommavilla, and A. Tomaselli. 2001. Measurements of mass balance in dense snow avalanche events. Annals of Glaciology 32, p. 328-332.
Sugden, D. E. 1977. Reconstruction of the morphology, dynamics and thermal classification of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at its maximum. Arctic and Alpine Research 9, p. 27-47.
Sugden, D. E. and John, B. S. 1976. Glaciers and landscapes. Edward Arnold, London, England. 376 pp.
Thompson L. 2001. Disappearing glaciers: evidence of a rapidly changing earth. Proc. American Association of the Advancement of Science Meeting, Feb. 15-20, 2001, San Francisco, California.
Thorn, C. E. 1979. Ground temperatures and surficial transport in colluvium during meltout: Colorado Front Range. Arctic and Alpine Research 11. p. 41-52.
Thorn, C. E. and Hall, K. 1980. Nivation, and arctic-alpine comparison and reappraisal. J. Glaciology 25, p. 109-124.
Tremper, B. 2001. Staying alive in avalanche terrain. The Mountaineers, Seattle, Washington, 284 pp.
Williams, K. and Armstrong, B. 1984. The snowy torrents: avalanche accidents in the United States 1972-79, Teton Bookshop Publishing Company, Jackson, Wyoming. 221 pp.

Figure captions:

  1. The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen mechanism for snow crystal growth in the atmosphere. Greater saturation vapor pressure over liquid water than over ice causes supercooled droplets to evaporate and ice crystals to grow. (from Knight)

  2. A classic example of the six-sided hexagonal crystal structure of ice I. (photo from EMU www site)

  3. A sample of the thousands of snow crystal photographs taken by Wilson Bentley. (from Bentley www site)

  4. Wilson Bentley at work photographing snow crystals outdoors. (from Bentley www site)

  5. Nakaya’s diagram showing the consistent relationship between cloud conditions and ice crystal form (from Nakaya, 1954)

  6. ICSI classification for solid precipitation (new snow) (from Armstrong and Williams, 1986).

  7. Equilibrium metamorphism diagram showing the crystal change over time and a Scanning Electron Microscope image of a sample crystal (image from EMU www site)

  8. Kinetic metamorphism diagram showing the crystal change over time and a Scanning Electron Microscope image of a sample crystal. (image from EMU www site)

  9. Surface hoar, a form of kinetic crystal growth by direct deposition of water vapor onto a cold snow surface. (from Avalanche photo www site)

  10. Melt-freeze metamorphism diagram showing the crystal change over time and a Scanning Electron Microscope image of a sample crystal. (image from EMU www site)

  11. Method of approximating the regional snowline. The regional snowline occupies the zone lying between the highest peaks not supporting glaciers and the lowest peaks that do support glaciers. (After Flint 1971, p. 64, and Oesterm 1974, p. 230)

  12. Generalized altitude of snowline on a north south basis. The reason for a slightly depressed snowline elevation in the tropics is the increased precipitation and cloudiness in these latitudes. Mean temperature and mean precipitation are also illustrated. (After Charlesworth 1957, p. 9)

  13. Mt. Washington summit observatory covered in rime. (from Schaefer and Day)

  14. Ice formations in lakes. (from Gray & male)

  15. Ice formations in rivers. (from Marchand)

  16. A snow avalanche in the (Irene) (Battleship) avalanche path, San Juan Mountains, Colorado (from Armstrong or Avalanche photo www site)

  17. Snow avalanche damage in Alta, Utah, an area plagued by such hazards. This avalanche occurred January 1, 1974. Three ski lodges were damaged, two people were injured, and thirty-five cars were damaged or destroyed. (R. Perla, Environment Canada) (photo)

  18. Typical forms displayed by loose-snow avalanches and slab avalanches (After U.S. Department of Agriculture 1968, p. 27) (figure)

  19. Loose-snow avalanches (sluffs) in the Swiss Alps near Davos. Such avalanches are usually small and harmless, often occurring during or shortly after storms. (Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research) (photo)

  20. The breakaway zone (crown) of a slab avalanche. Note the sharp crown fracture and the base over which the snow moved (E. LaChapelle, University of Washington)

  21. Avalanche path nomenclature. (from avalanche photo www site)

  22. Characteristic slope angles for snow avalanches of various size. (from avalanche photo www site).

  23. Large snow cornices on the Jungfrau in central Switzerland. (A. Roch, Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research)(photo)

  24. Treeless strips on a forested slope caused by snow avalanches near Davos, Switzerland. Forests in many mountain areas have been greatly reduced by human activities increasing the frequency and extent of avalanching. This, in turn, makes it difficult for trees to re-establish and grow back. (L. Price 1981) (photo)

  25. Avalanche fatalities in the United States by year from 1950-2001. (Compiled from K. Williams, 1975, Armstrong and Williams 1986 and CAIC, 2002)

  26. Avalanche fatalities in the United States by activity from1950-2001. (Compiled from K. Williams, 1975, Armstrong and Williams 1986 and CAIC, 2002)

  27. Avalanche fences in the snow accumulation zone above Davos, Switzerland. Such structures tend to retain the snow and stabilize the slopes. (E. Wengi, Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research) (photo)

  28. Avalanche protection structures (sheds) over a highway in the Italian Alps. Snow is allowed to cover the structures and avalanches slide harmlessly over the top. The area between the two structures is protected by a natural rock buttress upslope that splits the flow into two channels that flow over the sheds. Nevertheless, a small snow fence has been placed next to the highway to trap localized accumulation. Structures like these exist by the hundreds in the Alps. (L. Price 1981) (photo)

  29. Avalanche diversion mounds, like these above Innsbruck, Austria, are often placed in runout zones to dissipate the energy of a flowing avalanche. (U.S. Forest Service photo) (photo)

  30. Several small cirque glaciers along a north-east-facing ridge in the central Sierra Nevada, California. The photo was taken in late Sepetmber, 1972, and the snowline (firn line) shows up between the bright white tone of firn and the darker gray tone of glacial ice. The lobate deposits represent very recent morainal material while the bare rock further downslope owes its exposure to strong ice scouring in the past when glacial ice coverage was more extensive. (A. Post, U.S. Geological Survey) (photo)

  31. Icefield ranges in the St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. The large massif in the far background is Mt Logan, 6, 052 m (19,850 ft.) high, the second highest mountain in North America. The view is to the southwest toward the Gulf of Alaska. The glacial ice here may extend to depths of 300-900 m (1,000-3,000 ft.) or more. Peaks sticking above the ice are called nunataks. The darker surface in the immediate foreground represents the firn line since last years snow has melted away from areas below this point. The photo was taken near the end of the melt season.(L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  32. Kluane Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. This large valley glacier flows toward the interior while similar glaciers on the other side of the range flow to tidewater in the Gulf of Alaska. Note the very broken surface crisscrossed by crevasses. The rocky material deposited at the edges of the ice are lateral moraines. At the extreme right is a small glacial tongue that was at one time connected to the main valley glacier but is now receding. (L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  33. Longitudinal section of a typical valley glacier showing areas of accumulation and ablation separated by the annual snowline (or equilibrium line) Long arrows within the glacier represent flow streamlines. (After Sharp 1960, p. 9 and Flint 1971, p. 36) (fig)

  34. Small valley glacier located in the North Cascades, Washington. The photo was taken near the end of the summer (September 9, 1966) and the firn line is evident midway up the glacier. The very lightest-toned snow had fallen within the previous few days. (A. Post, U.S. Geological Survey) (photo)

  35. South Cascade Glacier photographed in 1928. (NDCSI www site

  36. South Cascade Glacier photographed in 2000. (NDCSI www site

  37. A graph showing glacier retreat based on many mass balance studies. (NDCSI www site

  38. Glacial striations showing direction of ice movement on basalt bedrock at an altitude of 2,700 m (9,000 ft). on Steens Mountain, southeastern Oregon. (L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  39. A crevasse on Collier Glacier, Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon Cascades. Downslope is to the left. The rocky debris has fallen onto the ice from a nearby projecting ridge. (L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  40. Mount Assiniboine in the Canadian Rockies. This peak represents a classic glacial horn and small cirque glaciers are still present. Note the well-defined bergschrund at the glacier head. (A. Post, U.S. Geological Survey) (photo)

  41. Ogives in the Gerstel Glacier, Alaska. (from Sharp, 1988)

  42. Kennicott Glacier in the Wrangell Mountains, Southeastern Alaska, August, 1969. This large glacier flows 43 km (27 mi.) to the southeast from Mount Blackburn, which is 5,000 m (16,390 ft.) high. Note the ridges of rocky debris on the glacier. Those at the very edges of the glacier are lateral morines (especially prominent along the lower left edge). Those in between are all medial moraines and represent the confluence of two lateral morines somewhere up ice as can be seen in several places in the photo. (A. Post U.S. Geological Survey) (photo)

  43. Idealized cross-section of a valley glacier showing the relationship between lateral and medial moraines along with their subsurface extension into the glacier. Note that the moraines from the small tributary glacier on the right maintains itself at the depth ar which it joins the main glacier. The photo in figure 12 shows examples of this moraine/glacier relationship. (Drawn by Ted M. Oberlander, University of California)(fig)

  44. Generalized areas of mountain glaciation in the western coterminous United States. The southern extent of the Laurentide continental ice sheet is also shown. (Adapted from Flint 1971, p. 475) (fig) Shade in Yellowstone/Wind Rivers

  45. Generalized conception of landform development before, during and after glaciation. (Drawn by Ted M. Oberlander, University of California) (fig)

  46. Cirques and glacial lakes in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming. The glacial features may be cut into an older erosional surface composed of subdued and gently rolling uplands although there are other interpretations of this relationship. (Austin Post, U.S. Geological Survey) (photo)

  47. Sequence of events showing headward erosion by cirque glaciers to create steep sawtooth ridges (arêtes) and glacial horns. (From Davis 1911; Lobeck 1939; Cotton; 1942)

  48. A narrow rocky saddle (col) separating two glacial cirques in the Ruby Range, Yukon Territory, Canada. Note the angular frost-shattered blocks. (L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  49. Glacial trough at Lauterbrunnen in the Swiss Alps. The deep and steep-walled valley was created by glacial erosion. The flat floor resulted from infilling and deposition during glacial retreat. (L. Price, 1981) (photo)

  50. Terminal moraine marking the maximum extent of the most recent advance of the Kaskawulsh Glacier, St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. A Debris-covered glacial tongue can be seen in the right side of the picture. The glacial meltstream forms the Slims River (also shown in 21). (L. Price 1981) (photo)

  51. Slims River, a glacial meltstream draining the Kaskawulsh Glacier (26 km upstream) into Kluane Lake (bottom of the photo), St. Elias Mountains, southwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. The heavily silt-laden stream is building a delta into the lake. The Alaska Highway can be seen crossing the river at this location. (L. Price 1981) (photo)

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