SS8H10 the student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of ga from 1945-1970

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SS8H10 the student will evaluate key post-World War II developments of GA from 1945-1970.

  1. Analyze the impact of the transformation of agriculture on Georgia’s growth.

313,000 soldiers returned to Georgia after WWII to find very different Georgia than when they left. Due to the industry needed during the war, many people left the farms, moved to the cities, and worked in wartime industries. This left the agricultural industry not as dominant as it once had been. Because of so many people leaving the farms, there was a boom in the populations of the cities.

With the introduction of rayon and nylon fabrics, the price of cotton and the demand for cotton fell. Farmers began planting peanuts, soybeans, and corn instead of cotton. Poultry began to become an important source of income for farmers. Improved machinery allowed farmers to work more acres. Small farms averaging 110 acres in 1940 gave way to large farms averaging 1,299 acres by 1950. In 1940, 66% of Georgia’s population was rural and 34% was urban. BY 1970, 60% was urban and 40% was rural.

  1. Explain how the development of Atlanta, including the roles of Mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr., and major league sports, contributed to the growth of Georgia.

Read, “Atlanta: A case study in Change”, pages 447-449, then do the following:

William B. Hartsfield- write down what Mayor Hartsfield did on the following dates: 1937-1941, 1942-1961, 1946, 1948, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960 (two things), 1961.

  1. Other than civil rights, what issue is Mayor Hartsfield best remembered for?

Ivan Allen, Jr.-

  • Integrated city government and fire departments

  • Reduced restrictions on African-American police officers

  • Removed all “Colored” and “White” sign in Atlanta’s City Hall

  • Brought professional athletic teams to Atlanta

  1. What major improvement was voted down during Mayor Allen’s terms?

Major League Sports



Facts (when team came to ATL; where they came from; where they play)





  1. Why did Atlanta business and civic leaders of the 1960’s want to bring professional sports teams to Atlanta?

  2. Which member of the Atlanta Braves broke Babe Ruth’s career home run record?

  1. Discuss the impact of Ellis Arnall

Ellis Arnall:

-Defeated _________________________________ in the governor’s race in 1942.

-Became the first governor to serve a ___________term.

-Became Georgia’s __________________governor.

-Supported the University system of GA by making the ____________________ a separate entity of the governor’s office.

-Removed the _______________ system from the governor’s control. Arnall established a board of ____________________ to oversee state prisons and a pardon and _________________ board to handle those requests.

-Abolished the ____________tax.

-Adopted a new state constitution in _________.

-Gave 18 year olds the right to ______________ (first state in nation to do this)

-Ran for governor again in 1966, but lost to ______________________________.

SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of GA in the modern civil rights movement.

  1. Describe major developments in civil rights and Georgia's role during the 1940's and 1950's; include the roles of Herman Talmadge, Benjamin Mays, the 1946 governor's race and the end of the white primary, Brown v. Board of Education, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1956 state flag.

Benjamin E. Mays

Benjamin Mays was an educator who taught at Morehouse College and help found Omega Psi Phi fraternity. From 1934-1940 he was Dean of Howard University School of Religion and in 1940, became President of Morehouse College. He remained President of Morehouse for 25 years. He became the Atlanta School Board's first African American President. He became a mentor and advisor for Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King when King was a student at Morehouse and continued mentoring and advising Dr. King the rest of King’s life. Dr. Mays retired from Morehouse in 1967 and then became Chairman of the Atlanta Board of Education. He served as chair for 12 years and retired in 1981. In recognition of his service to education, a street and a school in southwest Atlanta were named in his honor.

End of the White Primary

The 15th amendment guaranteed blacks the right to vote, however, the GA legislature said this only applied to the general election. In 1900, Democratic leaders ruled that only white Democrats could vote in the primary election. Because Republicans and Independents rarely ran, GA was essentially a one party state. The candidates for office were chosen in the white primaries and those candidates were almost assured victory in the general election. In 1946, the U.S. Supreme court ruled in King v. Chapman that white primary systems in GA were unconstitutional. In the election of 1946, black voters were allowed to vote in the primary election for the very first time since Reconstruction.

1946 Governor’s Race

Read “The three Governors Episode” on pages 430-432

Answer the following:

  1. What would have happened had something serious occurred in the state during this time?

  2. How long did Herman Talmadge serve as governor before Melvin Thompson was named governor by the GA Supreme Court?

  3. Why did Secretary of State Ben Fortson refuse to release the state seal to any of the men?

  4. Could such an incident happen in Georgia today? Why or why not?

Using an outline format, summarize the Three Governors Episode.

Herman Talmadge

Herman Talmadge was easily re-elected governor in 1950. He was a segregationist and did not want to integrate GA’s public schools. During his re-election campaign, he promised to bring back the white primary (he was not able to do this).

During his governorship, he:

  • Restructured the state highway department

  • Created the GA Forestry Commission

  • Provided leadership for improvements in soil conservation programs, county health departments, and the state’s prison system.

  • Expanded school grades to 12th grade.

  • Got the general assembly to pass the Minimum Foundation Program for Education Act in 1949. This lengthened the school year to 9 months and raised standards for buildings, equipment, transportation, and school curricula. A 3 percent sales tax was passed n 1951 to pay for these changes.

In 1956, Talmadge was elected to the U.S. Senate and served until 1981.

Brown v. Board of Education

Linda Brown, a 7 year old African American student in Topeka, KS, tried to enroll in an all-white school in 1950. She was denied entry, and with the help of the NAACP, her father sued the Topeka Board of Education. The Brown v. Board of Education reached the Supreme Court. In 1954, the Court said separate-but-equal schools were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court further ruled that all schools should integrate as quickly as possible. Sixty years after court approved segregation, Plessy v. Ferguson was finally overturned. Many states took their time to integrate schools.

Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of separating students in schools by methods such as race, religion, height, sex, weight, hair color, or eye color.



Martin Luther King, Jr.

Read “A nonviolent movement is born”, pages 441-442. Then answer the following questions:

  1. Which approaches did MLK, Jr. use to gain equality and civil rights for all people?

  2. Which action of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., directly influenced the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

  3. Which Civil Rights Organization was led by Martin Luther King, Jr.?

  4. To bring about social change, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., favored ______________________.

  5. What prestigious award did Dr. King receive in 1963?

  6. What prestigious award did Dr. King receive in 1964?

  7. What was the 4-pronged approach Dr. King believed in, for gaining civil rights for all Americans?





1956 State Flag

Read “The State Flag Issue”, pages 486-487, then be prepared to discuss and answer the following questions:

  1. Which group was instrumental in getting the 1956 Georgia state flag changed?

  2. In what year did the Georgia state flag become an issue in the race for governor?

  3. What was one reason for keeping the Georgia state flag of 1956?

SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement

  1. Analyze the role Georgia and prominent Georgians played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s; include such events as the founding of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Sibley Commission, admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, Albany movement, March on Washington, Civil Rights Acts, the election of Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta, and the role of Lester Maddox.

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

A sit-in is when people enter a public building and refuse to leave until they are served or their demands are met. In February 1960, a group of black students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College started a sit-in at the lunch counter of Woolworth’s Department Store in Greensboro, NC. They were still refused service, but sit-ins started all over the south. These sit-ins led to the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The first president of the SNCC was Georgia’s John Lewis. This group helped get blacks to register to vote, led protests, sit-ins at lunch counters, and boycotts of businesses who would not serve blacks.

Sibley Commission

John Sibley, an Atlanta attorney and banker, was asked to head a 14 member commission to study the problem of integration. Most school systems in GA refused to integrate. It was so bad, the General Assembly voted to cut off public funds to any school system that did not integrate. In 1960, Ernest Vandiver won governor based on his promise to keep the schools segregated. Because of this, the general assembly organized the Sibley Commission. The Sibley commission went all over the state speaking with the public about how they felt about integration. The commission found out the citizens of GA, by a 3-2 margin, would rather close schools than integrate. The commission recommended that local school systems be allowed to decide if they would integrate or close their schools. Because of this, private schools opened all over GA to avoid the issue.

Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter

On January 6, 1961, the University of GA, with Governor Vandiver’s backing, allowed it first two black students to be escorted into the school by state patrol officers. These students were Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter. Many UGA alumni and supporters and GA politicians pleaded with Governor Vandiver to close the school rather than integrate. The governor told UGA President, Dr. O.C. Aderhold, to open its doors to Holmes and Hunter. Many Georgians were furious with the governor because he ran on the pledge not to integrate schools. Governor Vandiver admitted he was wrong in his segregation speeches and even asked the legislature to repeal other segregation laws in GA. Because of Governor Vandiver’s actions, integration in GA went much smoother and calmer than in other school systems in both the north and the south.

Albany Movement

In 1961, Albany, GA was a town about 40% African American. The schools were still segregated and very few African Americans were allowed to vote. In 1955, the Interstate Commerce Commission prohibited segregation in interstate bus and train stations. In 1961, workers with the NAACP and SNCC decided to test this ruling and went to the Albany bus station and sat in the “Whites Only” waiting room. They were quickly arrested and thrown in jail. This prompted Dr. William Anderson to unite the African Americans and form the Albany movement. In December 1961, “freedom riders” arrived in Albany to support the Albany movement. They were arrested at the Central Railway Terminal. The next day, SNCC organizer James Forman led a march of African American high school students to the same train station. The students were arrested and jailed while the nation watched. Over the months of the protest, over 500 people were arrested and jailed, included Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Reverend Ralph Abernathy. By the end of the protest, a biracial committee was formed to study concerns of the African American community in Albany.

March on Washington 1963

On June 19, 1963, President Kennedy sent a strong civil rights bill to congress. It called for several things:

  1. An end to discrimination in public facilities

  2. Assurance of fair employment and voter registration practices

  3. Withholding of federal funds from projects where discrimination was practiced

  4. The authority of the attorney general of the US to file suit against school districts where desegregation had not been carried out.

Because congress was taking its time with this bill, over 250,000 people of all races, creeds, and nationalities gathered before the Washington Monument on August 28, 1963 to demonstrate for its passage. At this march, Dr. MLK, Jr made his most remembered “I have a dream” speech.

Find and read Dr. Kings “I have a dream” speech, then write down 5 concepts you gained from the speech.

Civil Rights Act

On November 23, 1964, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, TX. Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson of Texas became President. President Johnson vowed to continue the fight to pass President Kennedy’s Civil Rights bill. Because of President Johnson’s leadership, the civil rights act of 1964 became law.

This act made it illegal to have segregated restaurants, theatres, hotels, public recreational areas, schools, and libraries. This act gave the federal government to right to withhold public funds from schools that did not integrate. It also prohibited discrimination in businesses and labor unions.

Maynard Jackson

Read “American spotlight” on page 571, then list Maynard Jacksons achievements from birth until his death.

Lester Maddox

Lester Maddox was a restaurant owner who supported segregation. He went as far as to close his restaurant rather than to integrate it. In 1966, he ran for governor of GA. His democratic opponent was former governor Ellis Arnall. In a runoff election for the democratic nominee, Maddox won over Ellis. In the general election, Maddox ran against Bo Callaway. Because many people still voted for Ellis in a write in campaign, no one received a majority of the vote and the election went to the democratic legislature, who chose Maddox. Most white Georgians were surprised when Maddox appointed more African Americans for state boards and commissions than all the previous governors combined. He appointed the first African American to the state board of pardons and parole, reformed the prisons, and integrated the GA State Patrol. Governor Maddox raised teachers salaries and increased spending for higher education. Governor Maddox also established “people’s days” where, twice a month, anyone could visit eh governor’s mansion and talk about whatever they wanted. Because Maddox could not succeed himself as governor, he ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1970 and won by a large margin.

SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.

  1. Discuss the impact of Andrew Young on Georgia.

Andrew Young

Andrew Young was a pastor in a Thomasville church when he became involved in the civil rights movement. He joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and eventually became its executive director. He started “citizenship schools” which taught non-violent organizing strategies to potential black leaders. Young was a friend and trusted advisor to Dr. MLK, Jr. and was with him the day he was assassinated in 1968. In 1972, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, the first African American to be elected since reconstruction. He served until 1977, when President Jimmy Carter named him as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. In 1981, Young came back to Atlanta and was elected for two terms as Mayor of Atlanta. He was also the co-chair of the 1996 Olympic Games committee. He is currently a professor at Georgia State University.

SS8AH12 The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970.

  1. Evaluate the consequences of the end of the county unit system and reapportionment.

End of the county unit system

In 1917, a system was put in place to keep the political power in the rural areas of the state even though the urban areas had the greatest population growth. In April 1962, the Georgia federal court ruled that the county unit system violated the 14th amendment. With the county unit system declared

power shifted from the rural areas to the urban areas. This allowed predominately black population areas an equal opportunity to elect legislative representatives. In 1962, Leroy Johnson, an Atlanta attorney became the first black state senator in GA since reconstruction.


Gray v. Sanders- the federal court decision on the county unit system was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

One-person, one-vote- every citizen’s vote should be equal to every other citizen’s vote no matter where the person lived.

In 1964, the federal court again ruled that Georgia’s constitution, which ensured each county in the state at least one seat in the legislature, violated the one-person, one-vote concept.

Wesberry v. Sanders- The U.S. Supreme Court stated that legislative districts should depend solely on population rather than county boundaries.

The General Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) its congressional voting districts to ensure that the districts were of equal population sizes.

One-person, one-vote concepts and reapportionment shifted power from rural to urban areas and influenced the campaign styles and election of the state’s governor.

  1. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.

Jimmy Carter

Make a timeline of important events of Jimmy Carter’s life from birth until today.

Name three accomplishments Jimmy Carter achieved during his presidency.

What two events cost Jimmy Carter a second term as President?

  1. Analyze the impact of the rise of the two-party system in Georgia

Rise of the two-party system (pages 476-479)

  • The 1980’s and 1990’s saw a major shift in politics in GA and other southern states.

  • Citizens would elect democrats to statewide offices, they tended to vote more conservative in national elections.

  • For the first time since the Bourbon Redeemers over a hundred years ago, Georgia was now a two party state.

  • In 1980, Mack Mattingly was the first republican voted into the senate since reconstruction.

  • In 1994, GA’s Newt Gingrich became Speaker of the House

  • In 2002, Georgian’s elected the first republican governor since reconstruction, Sonny Perdue.

  • In 2002, both U.S. senators from GA were republicans and most of the U.S. House representatives from GA were republicans.

  1. Evaluate the effect of the 1996 Olympic Games on Georgia.

The 1996 Olympic Games (pages 479-480)

How many athletes competed in the 1996 Olympics?

How many countries were represented?

What GA cities hosted Olympic competitions?

What happened on July 29, 1996?

Why were Olympic planners criticized?

What 4 long term benefits to GA were brought by the Olympics?

  1. Evaluate the importance of new immigrant communities to the growth and economy of GA


Northwest GA is a huge world leader in the production of carpet. Because of the increase of jobs, many people from Mexico and other Latin America countries have immigrated here to find work. In some areas, Latino residents are the majority in school districts. Many Latino churches. Restaurants, and businesses have sprung up in these areas to serve the people who now make Georgia home. The city of Gainesville has also seen a large influx of Latino immigrants to work in the poultry industry. In south GA, many migrant worker move to the Vidalia area to help work the onion producing industry. This is seasonal work, meaning the migrant workers are only in the area for a portion of the year. This effects the school system as well, because children will enroll in the school for a short period of time. The economy of GA is favorably impacted by the contributions of immigrants and the economy of the state has grown as a result.

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