Stephan Robberts, Christy Kimball, Jarrod Hann, Jeff Gardner, Mike Parrish, Tom Dohman



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Stephan Robberts, Christy Kimball, Jarrod Hann,

Jeff Gardner, Mike Parrish, Tom Dohman.



Material Culture of Grand Forks


AFRICAN



CROSSOVER


EUROPEAN


Venue:

  • Outside



Venue:

  • Bars/Pubs

Ragtime/Blues/Jazz

  • Woodstock

  • Popular Music at Stadiums (outside)



Venue:

  • Stage (Classical)

Opera, Orchestra



Tradition:

  • Oral



Tradition:

  • Written (Maple Leaf Rag)



Tradition:

  • Written - Sheetmusic



Costumes:



Costumes:

  • American Musical

Makeup, Costumes

Regular dress as costume



  • Glitter Rock Costumes



Costumes:

  • Evening Gown/Tux

  • Costumes (Opera/Theatre)



Instruments:

  • Aerophones (European Influence)

  • Membranophones

Hand Drums

  • Chordophones

  • Idiophones



Instruments:

  • Radio

Amplification Equipment

Microphone

Speaker

Amplifier



  • Recording Equipment


Instruments:

  • Aerophones

Flute, Bugle, etc.

  • Membranophones

Stick drums – Timpani, Snare

  • Chordophones

Piano, Guitar, Harp

  • Idiophones

Maraccas, Castanets, sticks, etc.


Material Culture can be split into 4 main categories, as listed below.


Venue:

African music is mainly performed outside as there are no inside venues to perform at.

European Music, looking at the classical genre, is mainly performed in concert halls, opera halls, on stage somewhere. For dancing, there are ballrooms. Folk music can be performed anywhere, but was mainly performed in pubs and bars, which is also associated with some drinking songs.

The Crossover venues are at bars and pubs and restaurants. The jazz/blues genre developed through a mix of both cultures is now mainly performed in bars and restaurants. Some other genres are also performed, like rock and country.


Tradition:

African culture had no way of writing music down. Pictures could depict some cultural elements, for instance hunting. Music was not written down, but transferred orally, and by involving the youth in festivities and events involving music.

European music was, and still is mainly in the written tradition. The only genre that was not traditionally written down was folk music and drinking songs.

The Crossover tradition is writing everything down. You can find any type of music on paper now. Some music is still transferred orally, but is available in sheet music, due to the immense diversity of sheet music. Oral tradition is still used in the transferring of traditional performance practices from European music.


Costumes:

African culture uses body paint, armor, and traditional outfits, including the headdress in ceremonial music. Costumes are close to everyday clothing. A lot of skin is usually showing, probably due to the African heat, it is just tradition.

European culture uses heavy costuming in performances, including tuxes/evening gowns for formal performances for recitals, or costumes for opera, operetta or theatre. The costumes and heavy makeup are all for effect on stage.

The Crossover costumes are Glitter Rock costumes, and many other rock genres. Heavy costuming comes from the European performances. A lot of skin showing comes from the African culture. The American musical is another good example. Heavy makeup and costumes are used, along with regular dress as costumes.


Instruments:

Both cultures use all four categories of instruments, including the Aerophones, Membranophones, Chordophones, and Idiophones. The instruments used are what make the big difference. European instruments have developed quite a bit more, since the need for new music was always a big issue, where African music was mainly for ceremonies and culture.



The Crossover for Instruments is the radio. The need for a larger and less selective audience is a must, which makes recording equipment and radio an indispensable tool in today’s society. CD’s, tapes, and all the other media types out there make distribution over a large area possible without having to pay outrageous amounts of money and traveling far distances to see the performances live. This is also tied in closely with Disco – dance music without a live band.


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