Stress. Tone. Accusative. See Case. Grammatical Relations. Transitivity and Voice



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A

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AAVE. Abbreviation for African American Vernacular English.
Abbreviation.
Absolute. See Case. Grammatical Relations. Transitivity and Voice.
Accent. See Stress. Tone.
Accusative. See Case. Grammatical Relations. Transitivity and Voice.
Acoustic Phonetics.
Acquisition of Language.

  • Phonology.

  • Syntax.

  • Meanings and Forms.

  • Communicative Competence.

  • Critical Periods.

  • Second-Language Acquisition.

  • Sociocultural Approaches.



Active. See Case. Transitivity and Voice.
Adamawa Languages.
Adamawa-Ubangi Languages.
Address.
Adelbert Range Languages.
Adjacency Constraint.
Adjectives.
Adjunct. See Adjunction. Complementation. Clause. Phrase Structure.
Adjunction.
Admiralty Islands Languages.
Adpositions.
Adverbs. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Universals.
Affixation.
African American Vernacular English (AAVE).
African Languages.
Afro-Asiatic Languages.
Agent. See Case. Semantics. Grammatical Relations.
Agglutinating Languages. See Functional Linguistics. Polysynthesis.
Agrammatism.
Agreement.

  • Overview.

  • Gender and Noun Classes.


AINU. See Siberian Languages. Altaic Languages. Languages of the World.
Akkadian.
Alacalufan Languages.
Albanian.
Alexia and Agraphia.
Algic Languages.
Algonkian Languages.
Alphabet. See Writing and Written Language. Language Planning. Literacy.
Altaic Languages.
Ambiguity. See Semantics.
AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES. See Central American Languages. Meso-American Languages. North American Languages. South American Languages. Anthropological Linguistics.
American Sign Language (ASL).
Amharic.
A-Morphous Morphology. See Generative Morphology.

Amto-Musan Languages.
Analogy.
Anaphora.

  • Formal Grammar.

  • Logical Semantics.



Analytic Languages. See Functional Linguistics.
Anatolian Languages.
Andamanese Languages.
Angan Languages.
Anomia.
ANIMAL COMMUNICATION. See Evolution and Language.
Anthropological Linguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Early History in North America.

  • Social and Cultural Approaches to Language.



Antipassive. See Transitivity and Voice.
Antonymy. See Semantics.
Aphasia.

  • Overview.

  • Psycholinguistic Approaches.

  • Comparative Aphasiology.



Apo Duat Languages.
Applied Linguistics.
Apollonius Dyscolus.
Apraxia.
Arabic.
Aramaic.
Arandic Languages.

Araucanian Languages.
Arawakan Languages.
Areal Linguistics.
Argument. See Case. Semantics. Formal Grammar. Subcategorization and Selection. Grammatical Relations.
Aristotle.
Armenian.
Articles. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Universals.
Articulatory Phonetics.
Artificial Intelligence. See Computational Linguistics. Cognitive Science.
Arutani-Sape Languages.
Aryan Languages.
ASL. See American Sign Language.
Aslian Languages.
Aspect.
Assessment. See Language Testing.
Assimilation. See Phonological Processes.
Athabaskan Languages.
Atlantic Languages.
Attitudes to Language. See Language Attitudes.
Augmentatives. See Diminutives.
Austin, John.
Australian Languages.
Austro-Asiatic Languages.
Austronesian Languages.
Autism. See Specific Language Impairment. Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome. Developmental Language Disorders.
Autolexical Theory.
Automata Theory. See Mathematical Linguistics.
Autosegmental Phonology.
Auxiliaries. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Universals.
Awera Languages.
Aztec. See Nahuatl.

B

───═══───


Babbling. See Acquisition of Language.
Back Formation. See Abbreviation.
Backgrounding. See Discourse. Information Structure. Semantics.
Bakhtin, Mikhail.
Bali-Sasak Languages.
Balkan Languages.
Baltic Languages.
Bambara-Mandinka-Malinke.
Bantoid Languages.
Bantu Languages.

Baric Languages.
Barito Languages.
Barriers. See Principles and Parameters.
Base. See Morphology. Formal Grammar. Transformations.
Bashiic-Central Luzon-North Mindoro Languages.
Basque.
Baudouin de Courtenay.
Beboid Languages.
Bengali.
Benue-Congo Languages.
Benveniste, Émile.
Berber Languages.
Berta Languages.
Bilingualism and Multilingualism.

  • Overview.

  • Bilingual Education.

  • Multilingualism.

  • Brain Structures in Bilingualism.



Bima-Sumba Languages.
Binary Features. See Phonological

Features. Phonology. Semantics.

Ethnosemantics. Componential Analysis. History of Linguistics. Syntactic Features.
Binding. See Anaphora.
Biology of Language. See Neurolinguistics. Evolution and Language. Acquisition of Language.
Biu-Mandara Languages.
Black English. See African American Vernacular English.
Blocking. See Morphology.
Bloomfield, Leonard.
Boas, Franz.
Bodic Languages.
Bodish Languages.
Bodo-Garo Languages.
Bopp, Franz.
Borneo Languages.
Borrowing.

  • Overview.

  • Loanword Phonology.



Bougainville Languages.
Bound. See Morphology. Anaphora. Morpheme.
Boundary. See Sentence Phonology.
Brain and Language. See Neurolinguistics. Evolution and Language. Aphasia. Psycholinguistics.
Brugmann, Karl.
Buehler, Karl.
Bulgarian.
Bunaban Languages.
Bungku-Mori Languages.
Burarran Languages.
Burmese.
Burmese-Lolo Languages.

C

───═══───



Caddoan Languages.
Cahuapanan Languages.
Cambodian. See Khmer.
Cariban Languages.
Case.

  • Overview.

  • Case Theory.

  • Case Alignment.



Case Grammar. See Case. Principles and Parameters. Formal Grammar.
Case Theory.
Categorial Grammar.
Caucasian Languages.
Causative.
C-Command.
Celtic Languages.
Central American Languages.
Central and South New Guinean

Languages.
Central Gur Languages.
Central Indo-Aryan Languages.
Central Malayo-Polynesian Languages.
Central Maluku Languages.
Central Philippine Languages.
Central Sudanic Languages.
Central Sulawesi Languages.
Chadic Languages.
Chapacuran Languages.
Chibchan Languages.
Child Language. See Acquisition of Language.
Chimakuan Languages.
Chinantecan Languages.
Chinese.
Choiseul Languages.
Chomsky, Noam. See Formal Grammar. Generative Grammar. History of inguistics. Principles and Parameters. Minimalist Program.
Chomsky Hierarchy. See Mathematical Linguistics.
Chon Languages.
Chrysippus.
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Languages.
Classifiers. See Agreement. Semantics.
Clause.

  • Overview.

  • Clause-Combining Constructions.

  • Complementation.


Clause Chaining. See Clause.
Clinical Linguistics. See Neurolinguistics. Aphasia. Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome. Specific Language Impairment.
Clitics.

  • Overview.

  • Clitic Positioning.

  • Pronominal Clitics.



Coahuiltecan Languages.
Coarticulation and Timing.
Coda. See Syllables.
Code Switching.
Cognitive Grammar.
Cognitive Linguistics. See Cognitive Grammar. Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics. Scripts, Frames, and Schemas.
Cognitive Science.
Cognitive Semantics. See Semantics.

Cognitive Grammar. Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics. Scripts, Frames, and Schemas.
Cohesion. See Text.
Co-Indexing. See Anaphora.
Command. See C-Command.
Communicative Competence. See Sociolinguistics. Acquisition of Language. Psycholinguistics.
COMP. Notation for Complement. See Phrase Structure.
Comparatives. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Universals.
Comparative Method.
Comparative Philology. See Historical Linguistics.
Comparative-Historical Linguistics. See Historical Linguistics.
Competence. See Psycholinguistics. Sociolinguistics. Acquisition of Language. Neurolinguistics.
Complement. See Clause. Adjunction. Subcategorization and Selection. Phrase Structure.
Complementary Distribution. See Phonology.
Complementation. See Clause.
Complementizer. See Clause. Typology and Universals.
Componential Analysis.
Compositionality. See Semantics.

Compounding.
Comprehension. See Psycholinguistics.
Computational Linguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Architectures.

  • Generation.

  • Word-Sense Disambiguation.

  • Grammatical Tagging and Parsing.

  • Grammar Formalisms.

  • Pragmatics and Discourse.

  • Semantics and Knowledge Representation.

  • Interfaces.

  • Applications.



Computational Morphology.
Computational Phonology.
Computer-Assisted Instruction.
Conceptual Semantics. See Semantics. Cognitive Grammar. Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics. Scripts, Frames, and Schemas.
Concord. See Agreement.
Conditional. See Mood. Typology and Universals. Clause.
Congo Languages. See Niger-Congo Languages. Benue-Congo Languages.
Conjunction. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Language Universals. Clause. Coordination.
Clause.

  • Overview.

  • Clause-Combining Constructions.

  • Complementation.


Connectionism.
Connotation. See Semantics.
Coordination.
Consonant Harmony. See Vowel Harmony and Consonant Harmony.
Consonants. See Phonetics.
Constituent. See Phrase Structure.
Contradiction. See Semantics.
Constraints. See Psycholinguistics. Optimality Theory. Minimalism. Acquisition of Language. Learnability. Formal Grammar. Adjacency. Subjacency. Evolution and Language. Cognitive Science and Linguistics. Filters. Formal Grammar. Minimalist Program.

Construction Grammar.
Context. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics. Sociolinguistics. Semantics.
Context-Free Grammars. See Mathematical Linguistics.
Context-Sensitive Grammars. See Mathematical Linguistics.

Continuity Hypothesis. See Evolution and Language Acquisition of Language.
Cognitive Science.
Contour. See Intonation.
Contraction. See Ellipsis.
Contrastive Analysis. See Applied Linguistics.
Contrastive Rhetoric. See Text.
Control.
Conventional Implicature. See Pragmatics.
Convergence. See Dialectology. Historical Linguistics. Areal Linguistics. Etymology.
Conversation Analysis. See Discourse.
Conversational Implicature. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics
Conversion.
Cooperative Principle. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Coordination.
Copula. See Parts of Speech. Typology and Universals.
Co-Reference. See Anaphora.
Corpus Processing.
Countability. Noun.
Creoles. See Pidgins and Creoles.
Critical Linguistics.
Critical Periods. See Acquisition of Language. Evolution and Language.

Cognitive Science.
Cross River Languages.
Cuneiform.
Cushitic Languages.

CV. Notation for Consonant + Vowel. See Syllables.
Cycle. See Formal Grammar. Phonological Derivations. Lexical Phonology.
Czech and Slovak.
D

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Daly Languages.
Dani-Kwerba Languages.
Dative. See Case.
Decipherment.
Declarative. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics. Clause. Systemic Grammar. Computational Linguistics. Mood.
D-Structure. See Levels of Representation.
Deep Structure. See Formal Grammar. Levels of Representation.
Definiteness. See Anaphora. Philosophy of Language. Semantics, Typology and Universals.
Defoid Languages.
Deixis.
Deletion.
Dementia and Language.
Demonstratives. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics. Typology and Universals. Deixis.
Denotation. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Deontic Modality. See Modality.
Derivational Morphology.
Determiners. See Phrase Structure.
Developmental Dysphasia. See

Developmental Language Disorders. Specific Language Impairment. Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome.
Developmental Language Disorders.
Developmental Linguistics. See Neurolinguistics. Psycholinguistics.

Aphasia. Acquisition of Language.
Diachronic Linguistics. See Historical Linguistics. Comparative Method.
Dialectology.
Dialects. See Dialectology. Sociolinguistics. Historical Linguistics.
Dictionaries. See Lexicography. Lexicon.
Diglossia.
Diminutives.
Diogenes of Babylonia.
Dionysius Thrax.
Direct Object. See Objects. Grammatical Relations.
Discourse.

  • Overview.

  • Narrative.

  • Transcription.

  • Critical Discourse Analysis.

  • Discourse and Social Interaction.

  • Conversation Analysis.


Discourse Analysis. See Discourse.
Discourse Markers.
Discourse Representation Theory. See Semantics.
Dissimilation. See Phonological Processes.
Distinctive Features. See Phonological Features.
Distributed Morphology. See Generative Morphology.
Djamindjungan Languages.
Djeragan Languages.
Donatus.
Down Syndrome. See Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome.
Downstep and Downdrift. See Tone.
Dravidian Languages.
D-Structure. See Levels of

Representation.
Dual. See Number. Agreement. Semantics. Morphology.
Durative. See Aspect.
Dutch.
Dyslexia.
Dysphasia. See Developmental Language

Disorders.
E

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e. Symbol for Empty Category. See Anaphora. Formal Grammar. Traces. Phrase Structure. Principles and Parameters. Filters.
East Bird's Head Languages.
East Central Indo-Aryan Languages.
East Central Sulawesi Languages.
East Chadic Languages.
East Indo-Aryan Languages.
East Malayo-Polynesian Languages.
East Mon-Khmer Languages.
East New Guinea Highlands Languages.
East Papuan Languages.

East Sudanic Languages.
East Trans-New Guinea Languages.
ECP. Abbreviation for Empty Category Principle. See Anaphora. Formal Grammar. Traces. Phrase Structure. Principles and Parameters. Filters.
Edoid Languages.
Educational Linguistics.
Egyptian.
Ekoid Languages.
Elamite.
Eleman Languages.
Ellipsis.
Emergent Grammar. See Functional Linguistics.
Empty Category. See Anaphora. Formal Grammar. Traces. Phrase Structure. Principles and Parameters. Filters.
Enclitics. See Clitics.
Endangered Languages.
Endocentric Construction. See Heads. Compounding.
English.
Entailment. See Semantics. Philosophy

of Language.
Epenthesis. See Phonological Processes.
Epistemic Modality. See Modality.
Ergative. See Case. Transitivity and Voice.
Error Analysis. See Applied Linguistics.
Eskimo-Aleut Languages.
Esperanto.
Ethnography of Speaking.

Ethnopoetics.
Ethnosemantics.
Etymology.
Evidentiality. See Discourse. Semantics.
Evolution and Language.
Existential. See Predicate Nominals and Adjectives.
Exocentric Construction. See Heads. Compounding.
Experiencer. See Case. Semantics. Grammatical Relations.
Explanation in Linguistics. See Philosophy of Language.
Extension. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Extrametricality. See Metrical Phonology.
Extraposition. See Transformations. Adjunction. Stylistic Rules.
Extrasyllabicity. See Autosegmental Phonology.
Extrinsic Ordering. See Generative Grammar. Generative Phonology. Phonological Processes.
F

───═══───



Features. See Phonological Features. Syntactic Features. Componential Analysis.
Felicity Conditions. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Fieldwork.

  • Overview.

  • Fieldwork & Linguistic Theory.

Filters.
Finite State Languages. See Mathematical Linguistics.

Finnish.
Firth, John Robert.
Focus. See Information Structure. Discourse. Semantics.
Foot. See Metrical Phonology.
Foregrounding. See Discourse. Information Structure. Semantics.
Formal Grammar.
Formal Semantics. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Formality. See Address. Diglossia. Register and Style.
Formant. See Phonetics.
Formosan Languages.
Fossilization. See Acquisition of Language.
Frame. See Scripts, Frames, and Schemas. Discourse.
Free. See Morpheme. Semantics (Formal Semantics).
Free Variation. See Social Variation. Dialectology. Phonology.
French.
Fula.
Functional Linguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Emergent Grammar.

  • Discourse: Emergence of Grammar.

  • Representation.

  • Iconicity.

  • Usage-Based Grammar .


Fur Languages.
Fusional Languages. See Functional Linguistics.
Fuzziness. See Semantics.
G

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GAPS. See Ellipsis. Parasitic Gaps.
GB. Abbreviation for Government Binding Theory. See Principles and Parameters.
Geelvink Bay Languages.
Gender. See Agreement. Sociolinguistics.
Generalized Phrase-Structure Grammar (GPSG).
Generative Capacity. See Mathematical Linguistics.
Generative Grammar.
Generative Morphology.
Generative Phonology.
Genetic Classification. See Historical Linguistics.
Genetics and Language. See Evolution and Language. Acquisition of Language. Cognitive Science. Neurolinguistics.
Genitive. See Case.
Georgian.
German.
Germanic Languages.
GESTURES. See Nonverbal Communication. Sign Language. American Sign Language.
Gilliéron, Jules.
Given/New. See Information Structure. Discourse. Semantics.
GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY. See Historical Linguistics.
Goal. See Case. Semantics.
Gogodala-Suki Languages.

Government. See Principles and Parameters. Formal Grammar. Phrase Structure.
Government Binding Theory (GB). See Principles and Parameters.
GPSG. Abbreviation for Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar.
Gradation.
Grammar. See Formal Grammar. Functional Linguistics. See also various theories of grammar.
Grammatical Change. See Analogy. Historical Linguistics. Language Change.
Grammatical Meaning. See Logical Form. Semantics. Functional Linguistics. Cognitive Grammar. Grammatical Relations.
Grammaticalization. See Functional Linguistics. Historical Linguistics.
Grammatology. See Writing. Text.
GRAPHEMICS. See Writing Systems.
Greek.
Grice, H. Paul.
Grid. See Metrical Phonology.
Grimm, Jakob.
Grimm’s Law. See Historical Linguistics.
Guaranian Languages.
Gujarati.
Gulf Languages.
Gunwingguan Languages.
Gur Languages.
H

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Hale, Kenneth.

Harris, James.
Harris, Zellig.
Harmony. See Vowel Harmony and Consonant Harmony.
Hausa.
Heads.
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). See Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Categorial Grammar.
Hebrew.

  • Ancient Hebrew.

  • Modern Hebrew.



Hidden Markov Models.
Hindi.
Historical Linguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Classification by “Descent.”

  • Culture History and Historical Linguistics.

  • Methods.

    • Mathematical Methods.

    • Computational Methods.

    • Textual Methods.

  • Obsolescence, and Replacement, Neologism.

  • Relative Chronology.

  • Typology and Universals.


History of Linguistics.

  • An Overview.

  • Ancient World.

    • Babylonian Grammatical Tradition.

    • Ancient India.

    • Ancient Greece and Rome.

  • Eastern Traditions.

    • Arab Grammatical Tradition.

    • Hebrew/Jewish Grammatical Tradition.

    • Chinese Grammatical Tradition.

    • Japanese Grammatical Tradition.

  • Western Traditions.

    • Early Middle Ages

    • Medieval Scholastic Grammar

    • The Renaissance.

    • Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe

    • Comparative-Historical Linguistics.

    • Structuralism.

      • The Prague School

      • American Structuralism.

      • The London School

    • Generative Grammar

    • Current Theories. See. Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Functional Linguistics. Formal Grammar. Categorial Grammar. Principles and Parameters. Minimalist Program. Optimality Theory. Stratificational Grammar. Tagmemics. Systemic Grammar.


Hittite.
Hjelmslev, Louis.
Hmong-Mien Languages.
Hokan Languages.
Holophrastic Speech. See Acquisition of Language.
Honorifics. See Address.
HPSG. Abbreviation for Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.
Humboldt, Wilhelm von.
Humor and Language. See Verbal Play.
Hungarian.
Huon-Finisterre Languages.
Hurrian and Urartian.
I

───═══───



Iconicity.

Idiolect. See Dialectology. Social Variation.
Idiom. See Lexicon.
Idomoid Languages.
Igbo.
Igboid Languages.
Ijoid Languages.
Illocutionary Act. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Imperative. See Mood.
Imperfective. See Aspect.
Implicature. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics. Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Incorporation.
Indefinite. See Anaphora. Philosophy of Language Semantics. Typology and Universals.
Indexicals. See Deixis. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics. Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Indirect Object. See Objects.
Indirect Speech Act. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Indo-Aryan Languages.
Indo-European Languages.
Indo-Iranian Languages.
INDONESIAN. See Malay and Indonesian.
Infinitive. See Clause.
Inflecting Languages. See Functional Linguistics.
Inflection.
Information Structure.

  • Information Flow .

  • Informational and Rhetorical Structure.


Information Theory.
Inheritance.
Inland Gulf Languages.
Innateness. See Evolution and Language. Cognitive Science. Acquisition of Language.
Isolates. See Functional Linguistics.
Institutional Linguistics.

  • Overview of Institutional Discourse Analysis.

  • Law and Language.

  • Medicine and Language.

  • Psychotherapy and Language.

  • Language and Business.

  • Language and Media.


Instrument. See Case. Semantics.
Intensifier. See Semantics.
Intension. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language.
Intention. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Interaction. See Discourse. Sociolinguistics.
Interfaces. See Computational Linguistics. Minimalist Program.

Cognitive Science.
Interjections.
Interlanguage.
Internal Reconstruction. See Reconstruction.
International Phonetic Association.
Interpretation. See Semantics. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics. Translation and Interpretation.
Interrogative. See Clause.

Intonation.
Intransitive. See Transitivity and Voice.
Inuit. See Eskimo-Aleut Languages.
IPA. See International Phonetic Association. Phonetics.
Iranian Languages.
Iroquoian Languages.
Isogloss. See Dialectology.
Isolating Languages. See Functional Linguistics.
Isolates. See Languages of the World.
Italian.
Italic Languages.
Iwaidjan Languages.
J

───═══───



Jakobson, Roman.
Japanese.
Jaqi Languages.
Jarawan Languages.
Javanese.
Javanese Languages.
Jespersen, Otto MAYBE LEAVE, MAYBE PUT UNDER PHONETICS, HISTORY. CHECK.
Jivaroan Languages.
Jones, Daniel. See Phonetics.
Jones, Sir William .
Juncture and Boundary. See Sentence Phonology.

K

───═══───



Kadai Languages.
Kaili-Pamona Languages.
Kainji Languages.
Kalamian Languages.
Kam-Sui Languages.
Kannada.
Karen Languages.
Karnic Languages.
Katukinan Languages.
Kaure Languages.
Kayagar Languages.
Kayan-Kenyah Languages.
Keresan Languages.
Khmer.
Khoisan Languages.
Kinesics. See Nonverbal Communication.
Kinship. See Semantics. Componential Analysis.
Kiowa-Tanoan Languages.
Kiranti Languages.
KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION. See Computational Linguistics. Semantics.

Parsing.
Kolopom Languages.
Komuz Languages.
Konyak Languages.
Kordofanian Languages.
Korean.
Kru Languages.

Kuki-Chin Languages.
Kuliak Languages.
Kurdish.
Kutubuan Languages.
Kwa Languages.
Kwomtari-Baibai Languages.
L

───═══───



Lampungic Languages.
Land Dayak Languages.
Language Acquisition. See Acquisition of Language. Psycholinguistics. Neurolinguistics. Evolution and Language. Cognitive Science.
Language and Gender. See Sociolinguistics.
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT. See Linguistic Relativity. Psycholinguistics. Neurolinguistics. Cognitive Science.
LANGUAGE AREA. See Areal Linguistics.
Language Attitudes.
LANGUAGE CHANGE.

  • Sociohistorical Causes.

  • Ancestry and Descent.

  • Phonological Change.

  • Semantic Change.

  • Syntactic Change.


Language Contact. See Sociolinguistics. Pidgins and Creoles.
LANGUAGE DEATH. See Obsolescent Languages.
LANGUAGE FAMILIES. See Languages of the World.
Language for Specific Purposes.
LANGUAGE LEARNING. See Acquisition of Language. Psycholinguistics. Neurolinguistics. Applied Linguistics. Pedagogical Grammar. Cognitive Science.
Language Origins. See Evolution and Language.
Language Planning.

  • Overview.

  • Educational and Policy Issues.


Language Policy. See Language Planning.
Language Shift. See Sociolinguistics.
LANGUAGE TEACHING. See Applied Linguistics. Institutional Linguistics. Pedagogical Grammar. Computer-Assisted Instruction.
Language Testing.
LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD.
Langue. See Saussure.

Lappic. See Uralic Languages.
Laragiyan Languages.
Lateralization. See Neurolinguistics. Evolution and Language.
Latin.
Law and Language. See Institutional Linguistics.
Learnability.

  • Mathematical Aspects.

  • Psycholinguistic Aspects.


LEARNING. See Acquisition of Language. Psycholinguistics. Neurolinguistics. Applied Linguistics. Pedagogical Grammar. Cognitive Science.

Left May Languages.
LENGTHENING. See Phonology. Phonetics.
Levels of Representation.
Lexemes.

LEXICAL CHANGE. See Language Change.
LEXICAL CLASSES. See Parts of Speech.
Lexical-Functional Grammar.
Lexical Phonology.

  • Overview.

  • Morpheme Structure Constraints.

  • Morphophonemics.


Lexicography.
Lexicology. See Semantics.
Lexicon.

  • An Overview .

  • Form-Meaning Relationships.

  • Formal Grammar.


LEXICOSTATISTICS. See Historical Linguistics.
LF. Abbreviation for Logical Form.
LFG. Abbreviation for Lexical-Functional Grammar.
Lingala.
Lingua Franca. See Sociolinguistics. Pidgins and Creoles.
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY. See Anthropological Linguistics.
LINGUISTIC AREA. See Areal Linguistics.
LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY.

  • World View and Language.

  • Cognitive Approaches.


Linguistics and Literature.

  • Overview: Language and Literature.

  • Stylistics.

  • Rhetoric and Cognition.

  • Pragmatics and Literature.

  • Metaphor.

  • Semiotics and Literature.

  • Language of Prose Fiction.

  • Language of Poetry.

  • Language of Drama.

  • Language and Literary History.


Literacy.

  • Overview.

  • Cognitive Aspects.

  • Sociolinguistic Aspects.


Literary and Linguistic Computing.
Literary Stylistics. See Linguistics and Literature.
Literature. See Linguistics and Literature.
LOANWORDS. See Borrowing.
Locality. See Phrase Structure.
Localism. See Semantics.
LOCALIZATION. See Neurolinguistics.
Locative. See. Case. Semantics.
Locutionary Act. See Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Logic. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics. Natural Language. Processing.
LOGICAL FORM.
Logophoricity. See Pronouns. Anaphora.
Loyalty Islands Languages.
Lule-Vilela Languages.
M

───═══───


Maban Languages.
Machine Translation.
Macro-Ge Languages.
Madang Languages.
Main Clause. See Clause.

Mairasi-Tanahmerah Languages.
Maku Languages.
Malay and Indonesian.

Malayalam.
Malayic Languages.
Malayo-Polynesian Languages.
Mamfe Languages.
Mande Languages.
Mangerrian Languages.
Manner. See Case. Semantics. Phonological Features.
Maran Languages.
Marathi.
Maric Languages.
Marind Languages.
Markedness.

  • An Overview.

  • Markedness in Phonology.



Markham Languages.
Markov Models. See Mathematical Linguistics. Hidden Markov Models.
Martinet, Andre.
Masa Languages.
Mascoian Languages.
Mass Noun. See Noun.
Mataco-Guaicuru Languages.
Mathematical Linguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Generative Capacity.

  • Automata.

  • Context Free Grammars and Languages.

  • Finite State Grammars and Languages.

  • Mildly Context Sensitive Languages.

  • Recognition.

    • Complexity.

    • Speech.

    • Optical Character Recognition.


Maxims of Conversation. See Discourse. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Mayan Languages.
Meaning. See Semantics. Pragmatics and Contextual Semantics.
Medicine and Language. See Institutional Linguistics.
Meillet, Antoine.

Mek Languages.
Mentalism. See Philosophy of Language. Cognitive Science. Psycholinguistics. History of Linguistics.
Mental Models. See Psycholinguistics. Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics. Scripts, Frames, and Schemas. Cognitive Grammar.
Meso-American Languages .
Metaphor. See Linguistics and Literature. Semantics. Cognitive Grammar. Cognitive Semantics. Metaphor and Semantics.
Metaphor and Semantics.
Metathesis. See Phonological Processes.
Metrical Phonology.
Micronesian Languages.
Middle. See Transitivity and Voice. Grammatical Relations.

Mikir-Meithei Languages.
Milne Bay-Central Province Languages.
Minimalist Program.

Minority Languages. See Language Planning. Sociolinguistics.
Mirish Languages.
Misumalpan Languages.
Mixe-Zoque Languages.
Mixtecan Languages.
Modality.
Model. See Semantics. Philosophy of Language. Psycholinguistics.
MODEL-THEORETIC SEMANTICS. See Semantics.
Modification. See Adjectives.
Modistae.
Modularity. See Psycholinguistics. Cognitive Science. Neurolinguistics. Acquisition of Language. Philosophy of Language.
Mongodow-Gorontalic Languages.

Mongolian. See Mongolic Languages.
Mongolic Languages.
Montague Grammar.
MOOD.

Mora. See Metrical Phonology.
Morpheme.
Morphology.

  • Overview.

  • Morphology and Phonology.

  • Morphology and Syntax.


Morphophonemics.
Morphosyntax. See Generative Morphology.
Motherese. See Acquisition of Language.
Movement. See Formal Grammar. Subjacency. Trace. Minimalist Program. Principles and Parameters.

Multilingualism. See Bilingualism and Multilingualism.
Muna-Buton Languages.
Munda Languages.
Muskogean Languages.
N

───═══───



Na-Dené Languages.
Naga Languages.
Nahuatl.
Nambiquaran Languages.
Names. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics.
Narrative. See Linguistics and Literature. Discourse.
Narrow Bantu `A'.
Narrow Bantu `B'.
Narrow Bantu `C'.
Narrow Bantu `D'.
Narrow Bantu `E'.
Narrow Bantu `F'.
Narrow Bantu `G'.
Narrow Bantu `H'.
Narrow Bantu `J'.
Narrow Bantu `K'.
Narrow Bantu `L'.
Narrow Bantu `M .
Narrow Bantu `N'.
Narrow Bantu `P'.
Narrow Bantu `R'.
Narrow Bantu `S'.

Natural Class. See Phonological Features. Syntactic Features.
Natural Kinds. See Philosophy of Language. Semantics.
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING. See Computational Linguistics.
Natural Morphology.
Natural Phonology.
Negation.
Neogrammarians.
NEOLOGISM. See Historical Linguistics. Terminology.
Nepali.
Neurolinguistics.

  • Overview.

  • Neural Structures.

  • fMRI.


NEUTRALIZATION. See Markedness.
New Britain Languages.
New Caledonia Languages.
New Georgia Languages.
New Guinea Languages .
New Ireland-Tolai Languages.
Nicobarese Languages.
Niger-Congo Languages.
Nilo-Saharan Languages.
Nilotic Languages.
Nimboran Languages.
NLP. Abbreivation for Natural Language Processing. See Computational Linguistics.
Node. See Phrase Structure.
Nominative. See Case.

Nonverbal Communication.
North American Languages.
North and Central Vanuatu Languages.
North Bantoid Languages.
North Caucasian Languages.
North Indo-Aryan Languages.
North Luzon Languages.
North Mon-Khmer Languages.
North Trans-New Guinea Languages.
Northeast Borneo Languages.
Northwest Indo-Aryan Languages.
Nostratic. See Languages of the World. Indo-European Languages.
Noun Class. See Agreement.
Nouns.
NP. Notation for Noun Phrase. See

Phrase Structure.
Nucleus. See Syllables.
Number.
Numerals.
Nungish Languages.
Nupoid Languages.
Nuristani Languages.
Nyulnyulan Languages.
O

───═══───



Objects.
Oblique. See Case.
Obsolescent Languages.
Oceanic Languages.
Omotic Languages.
Onomatopoeia. See Sound Symbolism.
Optimality Theory (OT).

  • Overview.

  • Phonology.

  • Syntax.


Orality. See Discourse. Ethnopoetics. Linguistics and Literature. Written Language. Writing and Written Language.
ORDERING. See Formal Grammar. Phonological Derivations. Lexical Phonology. Optimality Theory.
Ordinals. See Numerals.
Origins of Language. See Evolution and Language. History of Linguistics.
Orthography. See Writing and Written Language.
OT. Abbreviation for Optimality Theory.
Otomanguean Languages.
Otopamean Languages.
Overextension. See Acquisition of Language.
P

───═══───



Paezan Languages.
Palawano Languages.
Pali.
Paman Languages.
Pama-Nyungan Languages.
Panini.
Panoan Languages.
PAPUAN LANGUAGES. See New Guinea Languages.
Paradigms.
Paragrammatism.
PARALINGUISTICS. See Nonverbal Communication.

PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING. See Connectionism. Computational Linguistics. Optimality Theory.
Parameter. See Principles and Parameters. Acquisition of Language. Formal Grammar.

Parasitic Gaps.
Parole. See Saussure.
Parsing.

  • Computational.

  • Semantic.

  • Psycholinguistic.


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