Table extinct and Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) avian taxa



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Table S1.Extinct and Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) avian taxa

Family

Taxon

Former distribution

Extinction date (min.–max. where available)1

Justification notes2

Species / subspecies status3

Struthionidae

Arabian Ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus

Middle East

1966 (1941–1966)

An individual shot and eaten in Bahrain in 1941 is the last confirmed record, but one found dead in Jordan in 1966 is thought to relate to this taxon (Folch 1992).

LC / EX

Dromaiidae

Tasmanian Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis

Tasmania, Australia

1845

A specimen thought to represent the last wild individual was collected in 1845 (Dove 1924). A captive individual that died in 1873 was probably this subspecies but it is unclear whether this, and another that died in captivity in 1884, were of this taxon or the nominate (Le Souëf 1904, Dickison 1926).

LC / EX




King Island Emu Dromaius ater

King I, Australia

1804 (1802–1805)

The last wild specimen was collected in 1802, and it was extinct in the wild by 1805. A captive bird survived in France until 1822 (Pfennigwerth 2010).

EX




Kangaroo Island Emu Dromaius baudinianus

Kangaroo I, Australia

1819 (1802–1836)

It was common when collected in 1802. The last bird was reported to have been killed 'some years before' 1836, when the island was settled permanently (Morgan and Sutton 1836).

EX

Cracidae

Alagoas Curassow Mitu mitu

NE Brazil

1988

The most recent reports in the wild were of individuals hunted in 1984 and 1988 (del Hoyo 1994).

EW

Numididae

Moroccan Guineafowl Numida meleagris sabyi

Morocco

1974 (1950–1974)

Numbers of the subspecies diminished greatly after the 1940s, with the last records from 1970-1974 (Thévenot et al. 2003), although these may refer to hybrids, in which case it may have been extinct as early as 1950 (Martínez 1994). Thorough surveys are required to confirm that the taxon is extinct, and so it is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)

Phasianidae

Italian Grey Partridge Perdix perdix italica

Italy

1982 (1975–1988)

This taxon survived until at least 1975 (Lovari 1975) but was considered extinct by 1988 (Matteucci 1988), as a consequence of hybridisation with captive-bred and released individuals of the nominate subspecies (Liukkonen-Anttila et al. 2002).

LC / EX




New Mexico Grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi

New Mexico, USA

1952

The last specific report of this taxon was from the Colfax County, New Mexico in 1952 (Merrill 1967).

LC / EX




Heath Hen Tympanuchus cupido cupido

NE USA

1932

This taxon became restricted to Martha's Vineyard in the 1870s and finally disappeared in 1932 (De Juana 1994).

VU / EX




New Zealand Quail Coturnix novaezelandiae

South I, New Zealand

1875

The last record was from around 1875, thought to represent the last individual of the species (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

EX

Anatidae

Bering Canada Goose Branta canadensis asiatica

Bering Sea region

1914

This taxon is considered to have gone extinct around 1914 (Fuller 2000).

LC / EX




Mauritius Shelduck Alopochen mauritianus

Mauritius

1696 (1693–1698)

By 1693, the species was rare and, by 1698, it was extinct (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Reunion Shelduck Alopochen kervazoi

Réunion

1691 (1671–1710)

Dubois mentioned finding geese on the island in 1671–1672, but the species was specifically mentioned to have become extinct by Boucher in 1710(BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Amsterdam Duck Anas marecula

Amsterdam I, French Southern Territories

1793

The last report (of presumably this species) was by Barrow in 1793 on St Paul (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Mauritius Duck Anas theodori

Mauritius

1696

The species was last mentioned as extant in 1696 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Anatidae cont.

Coues's Gadwall Anas strepera couesi

Teraina, Kiribati

1899 (1874–1924)

The taxon has not been seen since its discovery in 1874 (Carboneras 1992). A 1924 expedition from the Bishop Museum in Honolulu found none (Greenway 1967).

LC / EX




Borrero's Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera borreroi

Colombia

1955 (1950–1955)

There have been no records since the 1950s and the subspecies is likely to be extinct (Carboneras 1992). More detailed searches would be required to confirm this though, and so it is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)




Niceforo's Pintail Anas georgica niceforoi

C Colombia

1951 (1946–1956)

The subspecies was described in 1946 and considered to be extinct by 1956 (Carboneras 1992).

LC / EX




Labrador Duck Camptorhynchus labradorius

NE North America

1875

The last confirmed specimen was collected off Long Island, New York, in 1875 (or possibly 1878) (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Auckland Islands Merganser Mergus australis

Auckland Is, New Zealand

1906 (1902–1910)

The species was last seen alive in 1902. By the time the first Auckland Islands reserve was set up in 1910, it was extinct (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

EX

Procellariidae

Large St Helena Petrel Pterodroma rupinarum

St Helena

1502

The species presumably became extinct soon after the discovery of the island in 1502 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Jamaica Petrel Pterodroma caribbaea

Jamaica

1936 (1879–1936)

Last collected in 1879 and may have been driven extinct around 1936 due to hunting for food and predation by mongooses (Haynes-Sutton et al. 2009). However, nocturnal petrels are notoriously difficult to detect and without further comprehensive searches the species is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

CR(PE)




Small St Helena Petrel Bulweria bifax

St Helena

1502

The species presumably became extinct soon after the discovery of the island in 1502 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Hydrobatidae

Guadalupe Storm-petrel Oceanodroma macrodactyla

Guadalupe, Mexico

1917 (1912–1922)

The last confirmed report was of a breeding bird seen in 1912. Surveys in 1922 confirmed it is probably extinct (BirdLife International 2011), but because of the difficulties associated with tracking nocturnal petrels, and the suitable conditions that remain on the island, it could survive and is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

CR(PE)

Podicipedidae

Alaotra Grebe Tachybaptus rufolavatus

Lake Alaotra, Madagascar

1997 (1985–2009)

The last confirmed report of the species was in 1985. By 2009, all wetlands where it could feasibly survive had been surveyed, leaving no reasonable doubt that the last individual had died (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Atitlan Grebe Podilymbus gigas

Lake Atitlán, Guatemala

1985 (1983–1986)

The species was reduced to 30 individuals by 1983 and was extinct by 1986 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Colombian Grebe Podiceps andinus

Lake Tota, Colombia

1979 (1977–1981)

The last confirmed record was in 1977, and intensive studies in 1981 and 1982 failed to find the species (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Threskiornithidae

Reunion Ibis Threskiornis solitarius

Mascarenes

1761

The last report was by Pingré (1763) who visited Rodrigues in 1761 and reported the bird to be near extinction (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Ardeidae

Black-backed Bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae

South I, New Zealand

1898 (1890–1900)

The species was last recorded in the 1890s (Tennyson and Martinson 2006) and was extinct by 1900 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Reunion Night-heron Nycticorax duboisi

Réunion

1687 (1674–1700)

The only historical record of the species is by Dubois. By 1700 it was extinct (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Ardeidae cont.

Mauritius Night-heron Nycticorax mauritianus

Mauritius

1697 (1693–1700)

Leguat's description of "great flights of bitterns" in 1693 probably refers to this species. By 1700 it was extinct (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Rodrigues Night-heron Nycticorax megacephalus

Rodrigues, Mauritius

1744 (1726–1761)

Last recorded by Tafforet in 1726. In 1761, Pingré specifically noted that there were no longer any "butors" on the island (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Bonin Night-heron Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris

Ogasawara Is, Japan

1895 (1889–1900)

The last specimen was captured in Ogasawara in 1889. It was extinct by 1900 (Martínez-Vilalta and Motis 1992).

LC / EX

Phalacrocoracidae

Pallas's Cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus

Komandorski Is, Russia

1852 (1840–1857)

The five known specimens were collected during 1840–1850. In 1882, Stejneger was told by the island's residents that the last birds had disappeared about 30 years before (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Falconidae

Guadalupe Caracara Caracara lutosa

Guadalupe, Mexico

1903

It was last recorded in 1903, and is now extinct (Barton et al. 2004).

EX




Reunion Kestrel Falco duboisi

Réunion

1672 (1671–1672)

The only historical record of small falcons is of the "emerillons" reported by Dubois in 1671–1672 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX

Otididae

Moroccan Bustard Ardeotis arabs lynesi

Morocco

1962

The last published record of this taxon was in 1962 (Johnsgard 1991). There have been more recent reports, but these are more likely to refer to A. a. stieberi (Collar 1996). Although it is likely to have gone extinct, further searches are needed before confirming this and so it is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)

Rallidae

Hawkins's Rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi

Chatham Is, New Zealand

1895

Recent evidence, including a letter from Dannefarerd to Rothschild in 1895 describing the species's appearance, behaviour and the Moriori hunting method, suggests that this species survived into at least the late 1800s (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Red Rail Aphanapteryx bonasia

Mauritius

1693

The species probably went extinct around the time that Leguat wrote that it was ‘very rare’, in 1693 (Cheke 2006).

EX




Rodrigues Rail Aphanapteryx leguati

Rodrigues, Mauritius

1744 (1726–1761)

The species was last recorded by Tafforet in 1726. In 1761, Pingré noted that it was extinct (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Goldman's Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani

Rio Lerma, Mexico

1964

The taxon has not been seen since 1964 and much of its wetland habitat has been drained. However, there is a possibility that it may survive (Taylor 1996), so until further surveys have been made it is best treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

LC / CR(PE)




Bar-winged Rail Nesoclopeus poecilopterus

Fiji

1973

It is known from 12 specimens from Vitu Levu and Ovalau collected in the 19th century, and reports from Taveuni in 1971 and Vitu Levu in 1973 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Macquarie Rail Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis

Macquarie I, Australia

1887 (1879–1994)

The taxon was common in 1879 (Scott 1882) but could not be found in 1894 (Hamilton 1894) or subsequently.

LC / EX




Guam Rail Gallirallus owstoni

Guam

1987

The species was extirpated from the wild in 1987 (BirdLife International 2011).

EW




Wake Island Rail Gallirallus wakensis

Wake I, United States Minor Outlying Islands

1946 (1945–1946)

It has not been seen since 1945. Thomas D. Musson, a resident of the island from 1946-1949, never saw the species (Greenway 1967).

EX




Tahiti Rail Gallirallus pacificus

Society Is, French Polynesia

1939

It was last recorded from Mehetia in the 1930s (Taylor and Van Perlo 1998).

EX

Rallidae cont.

Dieffenbach's Rail Gallirallus dieffenbachii

Chatham Is, New Zealand

1856 (1840–1872)

Already scarce when the type specimen was collected in 1840, the species was extinct by 1872 (BirdLife International 2011).

EX




Chatham Rail Cabalus modestus

Chatham I, New Zealand

1894 (1893–1895)

The last confirmed live birds were found in 1893. It was extinct by 1895 (Tennyson and Martinson 2006).

EX




Peruvian Rail Rallus semiplumbeus peruvianus

Peru

1886

It is known only from the type specimen, collected in 1886 (Taylor 1996). This taxon is likely to have gone extinct, but as it is so poorly known, shy and cryptic, and lives in thick forest, this cannot yet be confirmed, and it is best considered Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).

EN / CR(PE)




Western Lewin's Rail Lewinia pectoralis clelandi

Southwest Australia

1955 (1932–1977)

This taxon has not been seen since 1932 (Taylor 1996), with a specimen collected in 1931 (Whittell 1933). Atlas surveys in 1977–1981 failed to locate it (Blakers et al. 1984), as did searches of its wetland range in 1981–1985 and follow up atlas work in 1998–2002 (Barrett et al. 2003).

LC / EX
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