The list of glosses



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The list of GLOSSES
This list contains labels already listed in the Leipzig Glossing Rules, as well as a number of new labels, which have been collectively devised, under the control of Bernard Comrie, in order to fit the general principles of the LGE, while being adaptable to automatic searches in softwares such as ELAN.

The list is not exhaustive and can be completed. Additions should fit the requirements of LGE expanded by CorpAfroAs:



  1. Three letters by default, more only if absolutely necessary,

  2. Glosses containing a negative prefix implying the existence of a positive gloss (non-factual as opposed to factual for instance) should contain the prefix n in small letter, followed by the gloss in capitals (nFCT as opposed to FCT).

17 August 2012 Version




1st part of circumfix

circ1

2nd part of circumfix

circ2

Abessive case

ABESS

Ablative case

ABL

Absolute

ABSL

Absolutive case

ABS

Abstract suffix

ABST

Accusative

ACC

Action (noun)

AC

Active

ACT

Addressee

ADRE

Adessive case

ADESS

Adjectival

ADJL

Adjectival verb

V.A

Adjective

ADJ

Adjectivizer

ADJZR

Adposition

ADP

Adverb

ADV

Adverbializer

ADVZR

Adversative

ADVS

Affective

AFFC

Affirmative

AFF

Affix

AFFX

Agentive

AGT

Allative case

ALL

Anaphoric

ANAPH

Animate

ANIM

Animate gender

ANIMG

Annexed state

ANN

Anterior, past before past

ANT

Anti passive voice

ANTIP

Anticausative voice

ANTIC

Aorist

AOR

Apophony

APHO

Apotony

ATO

Applicative voice

APPL

Appreciative

APPREC

Assertive

ASS

Associative

ASSOC

Attributive

ATTR

Augmentative

AUG

Auxiliary

AUX

Auxiliary Verb

V.AUX

Aversive case

AVRS

Back-channelling

BKL

Benefactive case

BENF

Beneficiary

BEN

Borrowing

BORR

Case

CASE

Causal

CSL

Causative voice

CAUS

Centrifugal

CFG

Centripetal

CTP

Cinrcumfix

CIRC

Class

CLS

Classifier

CLF

Clitic

CL

Clitic pronoun

PRO.CL

Codeswitching

CSW

Codeswitching-English

CSW.ENG

Codeswitching-French

CSW.FRA

Codeswitching-Hausa, etc.

CSW.HAU

Collective

COL

Combination of Person-Number-Gender & Tense-Aspect-Mood

PNG.TAM

Combination of TAM & PNG

TAM.PNG

Comitative

COM

Comparative

CMPR

Complementizer

COMP

Completive

COMPL

Complex predicate

CP

Compound noun

CN

Conditional

COND

Conjunction

CONJ

Consecutive

CONS

Consecutive

LINK

Consensual

CNS

Construct state

CS

Contablative cae

CNTABL

Contallative case

CNTALL

Conterminative case

CONTERM

Continuous

CNT

Continuous aspect

CONT

Contlative case

CONTLAT

Contrast(ive)

CONTR

Converb

CNV

Converb

CVB

Coordinative

COORD

Copula

COP

Copulative

COPV

Counterfactual

CTF

Covert

COV

Cryptic morpheme

CRPT

Dative

DAT

Declarative

DECL

Deductive

DED

Defective verb

V*

Definite

DEF

Deictic

DEICT

Delative case

DELAT

Demonstrative

DEM

Demonstrative pronoun

PRO.DEM

Deontic modality

DEO

Deponent middle voice

DEPMID

Depreciative

DEPREC

Derivation

der

Derived Verb/Verbal form

V.DER

Determiner

DET

Detransitivizer

DTR

Different Subject

DS

Diffusive

DIFF

Diminutive

DIM

Directional

DIR

Discourse marker

DM

Distal

DIST

Distributive

DISTR

Ditransitive

DITR

Double

DBL

Dual

DU

Dubitative mood

DUB

Durative

DUR

Elative case

ELAT

Emphatic

EMPH

Emphatic pronoun

PRO.EMPH

Enunciative

EN

Enunciative particle

PTCL.EN

Equative

EQ

Ergative case

ERG

Essive case

ESS

Evidential

EVD

Exasperation

EXASP

Exclamation

EXCL

Exclamative

EXCM

Exclusive (1PL)

EXCL

Exhortation

EXHORT

Existential

EXS

Expletive

EXP

Factitive

FACT

Factual

FCT

False start

FS

Feminine

F

Filler

FILL

Final Proposition Marker

FNPM

Focus

FOC

Foregrounding

FRGD

Form of address

ADRF

Frequentative

FREQ

Frequentive aspect

FRQ

Future

FUT

Future in future

FFUT

Future in past tense

PFUT

Future perfect

FUTPRF

Gemination

GEM

Gender

G

Gender

N.G

General tag for interrogative marker

Q

Generic

GNR

Genitive

GEN

Genitive Link

GL

Gerund

GER

Glossonym morpheme

LGG

Goal marker

GOAL

Grammaticalized noun

THING

Greater paucal number

GRPAU

Greater plural number

GRPL

Habitual

HAB

Head-referring pronoun

PRO.HEAD

Hesitation

HESIT

Homonymy

HOM

Hortative

HORT

Human

HUM

Ideophone

IDEOPH

Idiomatic

IDIOM

Illative case

ILL

Immediate (future, past)

IMM

Imminent

IMN

Imperative

IMP

Imperfective

IPFV

Impersonal

IMPS

Inablative case

INABL

Inallative case

INALL

Inanimate

INAN

Inaudible

XXX

Inceptive

INC

Inchoative

INCH

Inclusive (1PL)

INCL

Incompletive

ICPL

Indefinite

INDF

Independent

IDP

Independent object pronoun

PRO.IDP.OBJ

Independent pronoun

PRO.IDP

Independent subject Pronoun

PRO.IDP.SBJ

Indicative

IND

Individual

IDV

Infinitive

INF

Ingressive

INGR

Injunctive

IJT

Innessive case

INESS

Instrumental

INS

Integrative Case

INTG

Intensive

INT

Interablative case

INTABL

Interallative case

INTALL

Interessive case

INTESS

Interjection

INTJ

Interlative case

INTLAT

Interminative case

INTRM

Interrogative Adverb

ADV.QUEST

Interrogative pronoun

PRO.HEAD.QUEST

Interrogative pronoun

PRO.QUEST

Interterminative case

INTTRM

Intertranslative case

INTTRS

Intial Proposition Marker

INPM

Intransitive/intransitivizer

INTR

Irrealis

IRR

Irregular

IRG

Iterative

ITER

Jussive

JUSS

Kinship

KIN

Labile

LAB

Lative case

LAT

Lengthening

LENGTH

Lengthening

LENGTH

Linker

L

Locative Adverb

ADV.LOC

Locative case

LOC

Locative pronoun

PRO.LOC

Locution

LC

Locution

LC

Long form

LG

Malefactive

MALF

Manner

MNR

Masculine

M

Middle

MID

Modal

MOD

Modified 1

MDF1

Modified 2

MDF2

Motive

MTV

Mover

MOV

Multiplicative numeral

MULT

Narrative

NAR

Near future tense

NRFUT

Negative

NEG

Negative particle

PTCL.NEG

Negative perfect

NEGPRF

Negative perfective

NEGPFV

Neuter gender

N

Neutral

NTR

Nominalizer, Nominalization

NMLZ

Nominative

NOM

Non-Active

nACT

Non-Assertive

nASS

Non-Factual

nFACT

Non-Focus

nFOC

Non-future tense

nFUT

Non-past

nPST

Non-personal

nPS

Non-progressive aspect

nPROG

Non-subject

nSBJ

Noun

N

Noun classifier

NCLF

Noun Conjunction

CONJ.N

Noun derivation

der.N

number : verb category

V+number

Numeral

NUM

Numeral classifier

NUMCLF

Object

OBJ

Oblique

OBL

Onomatopea

ONOM

Optative

OPT

Ordinal

ORD

Outcome

OTC

Overt

OV

Participle

PTCP

Particle

PTCL

Partitive case

PART

Passive

PASS

Past

PST

Past in past

PPST

Past perfect

PSTPRF

Patient

PAT

Paucal

PAU

Pejorative

PEJ

Perfect tense

PRF

Perfective aspect

PFV

Perlative case

PRLAT

Permissive modality

PERM

Person-number-gender

PNG

Personal

PS

Phasal aspect

PHA

Pluractional

PLAC

Plural

PL

Plural Noun

N.PL

Plurative

PLUR

Polar

PLR

Polite

POL

Positive

POS

Possessed case

POSSD

Possessive

POSS

Possessive pronoun

PRO.POSS

Possessor

PSSR

Post-verbal negation

POSTNEG

Postposition

POSTP

Postverbal

POSTV

Potential

POT

Predicate, predicative

PRED

Predicator

PREDR

Prefix

PRFX

Prefixed conjugation – verbal stem

PRFX

Prenoun

PREN

Preposition

PREP

Present

PRS

Present perfect tense

PRSPRF

Presentative particle

PRST

Presumptive

PRSM

Preverbal particle

PVB

Previous Reference Marker

PRM

Proclitic

PROCL

Profession morpheme

PROF

Progressive aspect

PROG

Prohibitive

PROH

Pronominal aspect

ASP

Pronoun

PRO

Proper Noun

NP

Property

PRT

Proximal

PROX

Punctual

PUNCT

Quality

QLT

Quantifier

QNT

Realis

REAL

Reassertive

REAS

Reciprocal

RECP

Reciprocal middle voice

RECPMID

Reduced

RED

Reduplication

RDP

Reflexive

REFL

Reflexive middle voice

REFLMID

Reflexive passive voice

REFLPASS

Relative

REL

Relative adverb

ADV.REL

Relative future tense

RELFUT

Relative past tense

RELPST

Relative present tense

RELPRS

Relative pronoun

PRO.REL

Remote future tense

REMFUT

Remote past tense

REMPST

Reported discourse

RD

Reported speech opener

OPN

Resultative

RES

Same Subject

SS

Semelfactive

SEM

Serial verb construction

SVC

Short form

SH

Simultaneous

SMLT

Simultaneous aspect

SIM

Singular

SG

Singulative

SING

Situative

SIT

Slang

SLNG

Sociative

SOC

Source

SRC

Spatial

SPC

Specific

SPEC

Specifier

SPCF

Stative

STAT

Still tense

STILL

Subablative case

SUBABL

Suballative case

SUBALL

Subessive case

SUBESS

Subject

SBJ

Subject Relativization

RELSBJ

Subjunctive

SBJV

Sublative case

SUBLAT

Subterminative case

SUBTRM

Subtranslative case

SUBTRS

Suffix

SUFX

Suffixed conjugation, verbal stem

SUFX

Superablative case

SUPABL

Superallative case

SUPALL

Superessive case

SUPESS

Superlative (adjective, case)

SUP

Superterminative case

SUPTER

Supertranslative case

SUPTRN

Swallowing noise

GULP

Syncretism

SYNC

Syntactic particle

PTCL.SYNT

Tag question marker

TAG

Temporal

TEMP

Tense-aspect-mood

TAM

Terminative (aspect, case)

TRM

Theme

THM

Time Adverb

ADV.TEMP

Topic

TOP

Topic particle

PTCL.TOP

Transitive, transitivizer

TR

Translative case

TRN

Ventive

VENT

Verb

V

Verb class sp.

V%

Verb class sp.

V0

Verb class sp.

V0

Verb class sp.

V1

Verb class sp.

V3a

Verb Conjunction

CONJ.V

Verb derivation

der.V

Verb Marker

VM

Verb Plural Suffix

VPL

Verb used in idiomatic construction

Vidiom

Verbal extension

PTCL.EXT

Verbal Noun

N.V

Verbal noun (preceded by N)

VBL

Verbal Noun of a class 1 Verb

N.V1

Verbal Noun of an irregular Verb, etc.

N.V*

Verbalizer

VBLZ

Verbonominal

VN

Versive

VERS

Virtual

VRT

Vocative

VOC

Witnessed

WIT

Youth language

YTH


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