The school board of miami-dade county, florida



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EXTENDED LEARNING MODULES
Language Arts/Reading

8th GRADE

Student Packet

TUTORING SESSION 4
Benchmark Focus Lesson:

LA.8.1.7.3- Conclusions and Inferences
FCAT Instructional Passage:

Charles Franklin Kettering
Name_______________________

THE SCHOOL BOARD OF MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA
Perla Tabares Hantman, Chair

Dr. Martin Karp, Vice Chair

Dr. Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall

Susie V. Castillo

Carlos L. Curbelo

Dr. Lawrence S. Feldman

Dr. Wilbert “Tee” Holloway

Dr. Marta Pérez

Raquel A. Regalado

Jude Bruno

Student Advisor





Alberto M. Carvalho

Superintendent of Schools




Milagros R. Fornell

Chief Academic Officer

Office of Academics and Transformation
Marie L. Izquierdo

Assistant Superintendent

Academics, Accountability and School Improvement

Office of Academics and Transformation


Karen Spigler

Administrative Director

Department of Language Arts/Reading

Benchmark Focus Lesson 1: Conclusions and Inferences

LA.6-8.1.7.3 Determines the main idea or essential message in a grade level text through inferring… and identifying relevant details.

Readers make inferences and draw conclusions based on information provided by the author.


Be cognizant of details as you read. You should highlight or underline important information that will help you make inferences and draw conclusions.


  1. It was a sunny, hot day in July. Jerry gathered his favorite shorts, sun block, and water bottle. He searched for the sunglasses he recently purchased at the mall as he remembered that his surfboard was in the garage.

What conclusion can the reader draw about where Jerry is going? What information is provided?
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________


  1. Mom went to the grocery store to purchase supplies. As she walked down the aisle, she checked her shopping list to make sure that she had not forgotten any important items. She put the flour, eggs, butter, and sugar in the cart and found some colorful candles. She wanted dad’s birthday to be perfect.

What is Mom doing? What conclusions can the reader draw from the information?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Benchmark Focus Lesson 2- Differentiating between Fact and Opinion
A fact is something than can be proven. An opinion expresses a person’s thoughts or feelings. Read the statements orally and determine whether the statement is a fact or an opinion. Be prepared to share your responses and discuss how you determined whether the statement is a fact or an opinion.
1. Blueberry muffins are better than banana nut crunch muffins. ____________
2. Teenage girls are always better gymnasts than teenage boys. ____________
3. It rains frequently in Miami, during the summer months. _________________
4. The Catalina Mountains are in Tucson, Arizona. _______________________

Charles Franklin Kettering

Ever since Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity in 1780, inventors have been trying to find ways to use it. Most of their ideas have focused on ways to make everyday chores easier or safer. Think of the many ways our lives have changed because of electricity. The electric light bulb is a good example. Electric light is safe, clean, and as easy to use as flipping a switch. The many simple devices that we use every day without thinking all began with a curious mind and a good idea.

Charles Franklin Kettering had just that sort of curious mind. He was born on a small farm in Ohio in 1876. His childhood was spent working on the family farm and attending school. He was always very curious about everything around him. It did not take him long to learn just about everything there was to know about the tools and machines on the farm.

His family did not have much money, so if Charles wanted anything special, he had to earn it for himself. When Charles’s chores on the Kettering farm were done, he had permission to seek odd jobs on other farms. One of his first jobs was cutting a neighbor’s wheat, for which he was paid fourteen dollars ($14.00). He used the money to purchase a telephone, a new invention the Kettering’s did not yet have. Charles took it apart, studied all the inside works, and put it back together again perfectly. This was the first of many electrical and mechanical experiments he would perform in his lifelong search for new ideas.

After Kettering graduated from Ohio State University with a degree in electrical engineering, a large manufacturing company in Dayton, Ohio quickly hired him. This was in 1906, but even then, nothing in the world of business could happen without the use of electricity. His employers wanted Kettering to invent new electrical machines that would make business simpler and safer. It did not take him long to come up with his first big invention, the “OK” charge telephone. Clerks in department stores were able to punch in a dollar amount that a customer wanted to charge.

The charge amount was then sent directly up to the office for an “OK” from the manager. Business owners were so impressed with the time and money they saved that they called Charles Kettering a genius. Kettering also invented an electric cash register, one that did not need to be hand cranked. This saved even more time and money for business owners by helping cashiers to work faster with fewer mistakes.

After Kettering started his own research company in 1909, he was hired to invent the one machine that made him more famous than any other. The automobile was becoming more and more popular, but there was one big problem: autos had to be hand cranked to start. Not only did this process require a lot of strength, it was also quite dangerous. Engine backfires often caused the cranks to jerk back. Drivers suffered broken hands, wrists, and arms.

An automobile manufacturer named Henry Leland was troubled by stories of his customers being injured by his cars. He asked Kettering to come up with a “self-starter” for his newest automobile. Kettering loved any challenge that involved using electricity, inventing, or making things safer. This one had all three. He remembered his work on the electric cash register, and this seemed to be just another crank problem. It was not long before he had created the electric automobile self-starter. It was put into all of Leland’s new automobiles. Soon most other automobile makers were putting Kettering’s “crankless battery” into their new models as well.



Over the next five decades, Charles Kettering continued to invent new and better ways of doing old things. Among his best-known inventions are leaded gasoline, safety glass, four-wheel brakes, an incubator for newborn infants, and a magnetic imaging system used by hospitals. At the time of his death in 1958, he held 140 U.S. patents, and he had applied for many more. His career is truly a tribute to the power of the curious mind.

1. According to the article, what was Charles Franklin Kettering’s first invention?

A.

a charge telephone

B.

a crankless telephone

C.

an electric self-starter

D.

an electric cash register

2. How did Kettering’s charge telephone improve business?

F.

It increased the speed and efficiency of sales.

G.

It increased the number of choices for the customer.

H.

It prevented customers from spending too much money.

J.

It allowed business owners to supervise the charging practices of managers.

3. Which statement BEST summarizes the article?

A.

Charles Franklin Kettering began experimenting with machines and used his own money to invest in them.

B.

Charles Franklin Kettering was always interested in electricity, so he studied electrical engineering at The Ohio State University.

C.

Charles Franklin Kettering’s most famous invention was the “crankless battery,” which allowed cars to be started without hand cranks.

D.

Charles Franklin Kettering was an important American inventor who created more than 140 inventions that made lives more convenient.

4. Which sentence BEST expresses the main idea of the beginning of the article?

F.

Electric light is safe, clean, and as easy to use as flipping a switch.

G.

Most ideas focused on ways to make everyday chores easier or safer.

H.

Ever since Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity in 1780, inventors have been trying to find ways to use it.

J.

The many simple devices that we use every day without thinking all began with a curious mind and a good idea.

5. How does the author organize the information in this article?

A.

by describing Kettering’s life in chronological order

B.

by listing events from Kettering’s life according to their importance

C.

by stating the goal of Kettering’s life and supporting it with details

D.

by describing Kettering’s adult life and flashing back to his childhood

6. The author believes that Kettering’s success was primarily a result of his

F.

curiosity.

G.

education.

H.

interest in safety.

J.

knowledge of electricity.

7. Which word BEST expresses the author’s attitude toward Charles Franklin Kettering?

A.

doubtful

B.

envious

C.

pitying

D.

respectful


8. According to the article, why was Kettering hired to create a “crankless battery” for automobiles?

F.

Kettering was curious about machines.

G.

Kettering was known as an inventor of car gadgets.

H.

Henry Leland wanted to make cars lighter and faster.

J.

Henry Leland wanted to make cars safer and simpler.

9. There is enough information in the passage to conclude that

A.

Kettering developed better ways to grow crops.

B.

Early automobiles were difficult and dangerous to operate.

C.

Kettering was inspired by the inventor of the electric light bulb.

D.

Other automobile makers had already invented safer hand cranks.

10. What made inventing the automobile self-starter so interesting to Kettering?

F.

His friends had been injured by crank starters.

G.

He used the same mechanism as in the charge telephone.

H.

His personal areas of interest and expertise were required.

J.

He could help his new company grow larger and more successful.

11. Based on the article, what does the author MOST LIKELY admire about inventors?

A.

Inventors want to make tasks easier and safer.

B.

Inventors apply and receive patents for their work.

C.

Inventors take things apart and put them back together.

D.

Inventors make objects that can be sold to several companies.

12. Read the outline.

I.

He was born on a small farm in Ohio in 1876.

II.

He took apart and put back together a telephone.

III.

__________________________________________

IV.

He had his first big invention, the “OK” charge telephone.

V.

He invented the electric cash register.

VI.

He invented the automobile self-starter.

VII.

He continued inventing and invented leaded gasoline, safety glass, four-wheel brakes, an incubator for newborns, and a magnetic imaging system.

VIII.

He died in 1958.

What information should be added to the outline on Charles Kettering’s life?

F.

He held 140 U.S. patents.

G.

He started his own research company.

H.

He worked at his first job cutting her neighbor’s wheat.

J.

He obtained an electrical engineering degree from Ohio State University.

13. Which statement BEST summarizes the information in the first paragraph?

A.

Electric lights are safe.

B.

Inventors make simple devices.

C.

Electricity makes daily life simple.

D.

Many inventors try to invent ways to make life easier.



14. Explain how Charles Kettering’s inventions helped business owners. Use details and information from the article to support your answer. (2 points)



Scoring Rubric:

2 points: The response indicates that the student has a complete understanding of the reading concept embodied in the task. The student has provided a response that is accurate, complete, and fulfills all the requirements of the task. Necessary support and/or examples are included, and the information given is clearly text-based.

1 point: The response indicates that the student has a partial understanding of the reading concept embodied in the task. The student has provided a response that includes information that is essentially correct and text-based, but the information is too general or too simplistic. Some of the support and/or examples may be incomplete or omitted.

0 points: The response indicates that the student does not demonstrate an understanding of the reading concept embodied in the task. The student has provided a response that is inaccurate; the response has an insufficient amount of information to determine the student’s understanding of the task; or the student has failed to respond to the task.

ANTI-DISCRIMINATION POLICY

Federal and State Laws
The School Board of Miami-Dade County, Florida adheres to a policy of nondiscrimination in employment and educational programs/activities and strives affirmatively to provide equal opportunity for all as required by law:
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 - prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), as amended - prohibits discrimination on the basis of age with respect to individuals who are at least 40.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963, as amended - prohibits gender discrimination in payment of wages to women and men performing substantially equal work in the same establishment.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - prohibits discrimination against the disabled.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) - prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public service, public accommodations and telecommunications.
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) - requires covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to “eligible” employees for certain family and medical reasons.
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 - prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
Florida Educational Equity Act (FEEA) - prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin, marital status, or handicap against a student or employee.
Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992 - secures for all individuals within the state freedom from discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or marital status.

Veterans are provided re-employment rights in accordance with P.L. 93-508 (Federal Law) and Section 295.07 (Florida Statutes), which stipulates categorical preferences for employment.



Office of Academics and Transformation

2012-2013




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