The Second Chechen War and its Implications for Democratic Peace Theory



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16 Polity IV Country Report 2010: Russia. Rep. Center for Systemic Peace, n.d. Web. pg 3

17 Hoffman, David E. The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Print.

18 Ibid, 463

19 Hoffman, 375

20 Smith, 631

21 Metcalf, Lee K. "Presidential Power in the Russian Constitution." Transnational Law & Policy (1996-1997): 125-45. Hein Online. Web. pg 134

22 Metcalf, 138

23 Ibid, 135

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid, 135

26 Ibid, 136

27 Ibid, 137

28 Ibid, 139

29 Polity IV Country Report: Russia, 3

30 Lapidus, Gail W. "Contested Sovereignty: The Tragedy of Chechnya." International Security 23.1 (1998): 5. Web. pg. 9

31 For more information on attempts at subjecting Chechnya to Soviet rule, see Lapidus, page 9

32 Lapidus, 10

33 Tishkov, Valery. "Political Anthropology of the Second Chechen War." Security Dialogue, 1997 vol 28 (4): 425-437. pg 429

34 Lapidus, 13

35 Evangelista, Matthew. The Chechen Wars: Will Russia Go the Way of the Soviet Union? Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2002. Print. pg 16

36 Evangelista, 17

37 Evangelista, 21

38 Lapidus, 15

39 Ibid, 17

40 Ibid, 17

41 Ibid, 20

42 Lapidus, 23

43 Ibid, 46; Tishkov, 431

44 Lapidus, 46

45 Mansfeld and Snyder’s summary of the conflict can be found on page 257-258

46 Mansfeld and Snyder, 258

47 Ware, Bruce Robert. "A Multitude of Evils: Mythology and Political Failure in Chechnya." Chechnya: From past to Future. Ed. Richard Sakwa. London: Anthem, 2005. N. pag. Print. pg. 84

48 Ware, 81

49 Ibid, 82

50 Ibid, 88

51 Ware, 85

52 Ibid, 87

53 Szászdi, Lajos F. Russian Civil-military Relations and the Origins of the Second Chechen War. Lanham: Catholic University of America, 2008. Print. pg 314

54 Pain, Emil. "The Second Chechen War: The Information Component." Trans. Robert R. Love. Military Review (2000): 59-69. Web.

55 Ibid.

56 Pain, "The Second Chechen War: The Information Component" n.p.

57 Ware, 85

58 Evangelista, 70

59 Ibid, 57-58

60 Ibid, 56

61 Evangelista, 58

62 Van Herpen, 174 ; Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 74

63 Van Herpen, 174

64 Ibid.

65 Ibid.

66 Szaszdi, Russian Civil Military Relations, 326

67 Van Herpen, 173 “Mabetex was a construction company that was said to have paid $15 million in kickbacks to Yeltsin, his two daughters, and senior Kremlin officials, in order to receive a renovation contract for the Kremlin buildings.”

68 Van Herpen, 173 ; Dawisha, Karen. Putin's Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia? New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014. Print. pg 203

69 Van Herpen, 173 ; Dawisha, 203

70 Szaszdi, Russian Civil Military Relations, 281

71 Ibid, 326

72 Ibid.

73 Szaszdi, Russian Civil Military Relations, 318

74 Ibid, 328

75 Mansfeld and Snyder, 258

76 Smith, 632

77 Mansfeld and Snyder, 258

78 Mansfeld and Snyder, 258

79 Traynor, Ian. "Business as Usual for Kremlin Cronies as Putin Era Begins." The Guardian. N.p., 5 Jan. 2000. Web. 7 May 2015. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2000/jan/05/russia.iantraynor>.

80 Mansfeld and Snyder, 258

81 Mansfeld and Snyder, 67

82 OSCE Report on Russian Federation's 1999 State Duma Elections. Rep. OSCE, n.d. Web. pg 16

83 Hoffman, 172

84 OSCE Report on Russian Federation's 1999 State Duma Elections, 16

85 Hoffman, 172

86 OSCE Report on Russian Federation's 1999 State Duma Elections, 18; Gazprom was the state natural gas company

87 OSCE Report on Russian Federation's 1999 State Duma Elections, 3

88 OSCE Final Report on Russian Federation's Presidential Election 2000. Rep. OSCE, n.d. Web.

pg 25


89 I include ideology as a separate level of analysis for the sake of organization and clarity. Ideology plays a role in all the other levels of analysis. The international level of analysis is mainly influenced by the Neo-Eurasianist strategic culture of the Russian Federation. The domestic level of analysis is influenced by ideology through the Russian government’s strategic framing of the war in terms of a fight against terrorism when attempting to enlist public support. Finally, the individual level of analysis is penetrated by ideology, because Putin was a more ardent Neo-Eurasianist than his predecessor to the prime ministership, who was sacked in favor of Putin.

90 Szaszdi, Lajos F. "Russian Civil-Military Relations in 1999: Origins of the Second Chechen War." Order No. 3191603 The Catholic University of America, 2005. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web. 17 July 2015. pg 12

91 Skocpol, Theda. "Cultural Idioms and Political Ideologies in the Revolutionary Reconstruction of State Power: A Rejoinder to Sewell." The Journal of Modern History 57.1 (1985): 86-96. JSTOR. Web. 02 Apr. 2015. pg 91

92 Szaszdi, “Russian Civil-Military Relations in 1999,” 26

93 Pain, “The Second Chechen War: The information component,” n.p.

94 Although this could be seen as a strategic framing of the conflict, as opposed to an ideological framing of the conflict, Skocpol’s definition specifically posits that ideologies, ‘are developed and deployed by particular groups or alliances engaged in temporally specific political conflicts or attempts to justify the use of state power’ (Skocpol 91); thus, the deployment of a new rationale (anti-terrorism) to justify the use of state power in Chechnya during a specific temporal period can be soundly classified as ideological within the theoretical framework of this paper.

95 Pain, “The Second Chechen War: The information component,” n.p.

96 Pain, Emil. “The Chechen War in the Context of Contemporary Russian Politics" Chechnya: From past to Future. Ed. Richard Sakwa. London: Anthem, 2005. N. pag. Print. pg 71

97 Bacon, Edwin, Bettina Renz, and Julian Cooper. Securitising Russia: The Domestic Politics of Putin. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2006. Print.

98 Pain, “The Second Chechen War: The Information Component” n.p.

99 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 14

100 Szaszdi, “Russian Civil-Military Relations in 1999,” 27

101 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 294

102 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 294

103 Ibid, 213

104 Ibid, 345

105 Ibid, 295

106 Ibid, 334

107 Pain, “The Chechen War in the Context of Contemporary Russian Politics,” 70

108 Ibid.

109 Evangelista, 59

110 Szaszdi, “Russian Civil-Military Relations in 1999, 42

111 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 326

112 Ibid, 327

113 White, David. The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006. Print. pg 111

114 Remnick, David. "Patriot Games." The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 3 Mar. 2014. Web. 7 May 2015.

115 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 329

116 Van Herpen, 173

117 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 312; Van Herpen 177; Dawisha 212

118 Van Herpen, 173

119 Van Herpen, 177

120 Ibid, 173

121 Ibid.

122 Ibid.

123 Ibid, 174

124 Dawisha, 200

125 Ibid.

126 Ibid.

127 Ibid, 205

128 Ibid, 205

129 Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 312; Van Herpen 177; Dawisha 212

130 Dawisha, 212

131 Van Herpen, 176

132 Ibid, 178

133 Ibid, 179

134 Szaszdi, Russian Civil Military Relations, 314; For more information on the dubious authorship of the apartment bombings, see Dawisha, 212-220

135 Dawisha, 216

136 For more information on these manufactured wars, see Szaszdi, Russian Civil-Military Relations, 80

137 Ware, 81

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