Andrew Carnegie – the industrialist who preached the “Gospel of Wealth”, argued that the success of wealthy industrialists helped the entire nation
John D. Rockefeller – the industrialists who established Standard Oil, he attempted to create a monopoly, cartel and trust in that industry, gained control over much of the oil industry by managing a trust made up of Standard Oil and allied companies
Fredrick Winslow Taylor – studied worker productivity as the foundation for his system for the scientific management published in his 1911 book, The Principles of Scientific Management
Karl Marx/Friedrick Engels – German philosophers who wrote the Communist Manifesto which opposed capitalism, later used by Communists, founders of modern communism and socialism
August Spies - anarchists and newspaper editor who stirred up anger among the workers during the Haymarket Riot
Transcontinental Railroad – the railway extending from coast to coast completed on May 10, 1869, the government contributed to the building by awarding loans and land grants to private companies
Bessemer process – developed by inventor Henry Bessemer as a cheaper and more efficient method of producing steel, made skyscrapers and other wonders possible including the symbol of American success the Brooklyn Bridge
Telegraph – invented and patented by Samuel F.B. Morse, revolutionized American communications in the late 1800s
Telephone – invented by Alexander Graham Bell who established the American Telephone and Telegraph company, revolutionized American communications in the late 1800s
Brooklyn Bridge – symbol of American success made possible by the Bessemer process
Social Darwinism – the theory that discouraged government interference in economic matters, the theory stated that government should stay out of the affairs of business and the best would create success that would benefit society as a whole
Standard Oil – company owned by John D. Rockefeller
Pullman Strike – lead by popular labor organizer Eugene Debs who called for a boycott of Pullman cars leading to a strike, the government responded to the strike by using federal troops to control the workers
Other Topics/People to Consider:
Jacob Riis - this social reformer wrote the book Children of the Poor to draw attention to child labor practices in 1892
Samuel Gompers – opposed letting women join the American Federation of labor because he believed that women in the work force would drive the wages down
American Federation of Labor – organized only skilled labor…lead by Samuel Gompers
Explain why American industrialists of the late 1800s were called both “robber barons” and “captains of industry.” What viewpoint do you think most accurately depicts nineteenth-century industrialists?
Describe the theory of social Darwinism and its connection to big business. Do you agree with the philosophy of social Darwinism? Why or why not.
During the railroad strike, one newspaper accused the strikers of carrying out “a revolution… to undermine American institutions.” How did this characterization highlight the public’s view of labor unions? What does this tell us about American society during this time period?