1. Vietnam had been ______ into a Communist north and a non-Communist south during the early years of the Cold War. When a civil war broke out, Eisenhower sent U.S. military advisers to help train South Vietnamese soldiers.
Kent State University
2. When Kennedy became president in 1961, he continued to support ______ Vietnam. Hoping to prevent a Communist takeover, he increased the number of U.S. military advisers from 2,000 in 1961 to 16,000 in 1963.
3. In 1964, President Johnson concluded that South Vietnam’s government was in danger of losing control of the country to the ____ - South Vietnamese Communist guerrillas who had strong support from the North Vietnamese government. Johnson believed that the use of U.S. troops would stop the spread of communism in South Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia (“Domino Theory”).
4. In August 1964, two U.S. ships reported that they had been attacked by North Vietnamese gunboats in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam. Johnson asked Congress for a resolution increasing military aid to South Vietnam. Congress approved the _________.
5. As more young Americans were _____ and sent to fight in Vietnam, many college students questioned Johnson’s war policy.
6. By 1966, the nation was sharply divided between “doves” (those who opposed the war) and _____ (those favoring greater use of military power in Vietnam).
7. President Nixon announced that U.S. troops would gradually be withdrawn from Vietnam while South Vietnamese troops were trained to carry on the war by themselves. Nixon called this strategy ________.
8. In 1970, news of the bombing of Cambodia led to protests on many college campuses. At _____ in Ohio, four students were killed and several wounded when the National Guard opened fire to break up a peaceful demonstration.
9. In 1973, the United States and North Vietnam agreed to a ______.
10. In 1975, South Vietnam fell to ______ and Vietnam was reunited.
Activity 2: Matching
1. The _____ (the accumulation of all budget deficits stemming from debts owed to purchases of government bonds) jumped to a record figure, and inflation increased during and after the Vietnam War.
War Powers Act
2. Many members of Congress regretted the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. To limit the president’s power, Congress, in 1973, passed the _______.
3. The War Powers Act had the following provisions: within 48 hours of sending troops into combat, the president must inform Congress of the reasons for the action and if troops fight for more than 90 days, the president must obtain Congress’ ______ for continued fighting or bring the troops home.
4. President Nixon pursued a foreign policy known as _____ (a French word meaning “relax”) with the Soviet Union. It aimed at reducing U.S.-Soviet tensions.
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT)
5. A major goal of détente was to limit the production of _______. The term, détente, means a relaxation of tensions.
6. During Nixon’s first term, U.S. and Soviet diplomats held the _______. The result was an important breakthrough in the arms race – fixed limits on intercontinental, or long-range, ballistic missiles (ICBMS) and antiballistic, or defensive, missiles (ABMs).
7. To ease a severe Soviet food shortage, Nixon offered (and Congress later approved) the sale to the Soviets of $750 million worth of U.S. wheat. This _____ pleased the Soviet Union and American farmers alike.
8. During the 1960s, Mao’s Communist Chinese government began denouncing the Soviet Union. As China grew more and more suspicious of the Soviet Union, Nixon thought it was time to establish normal relations with the _______ (the official name of Communist China).
9. President Nixon visited _____ in 1972. This trip brought about a major shift in U.S. policy – a lessening of support for anti-Communist Nationalist China on the island of Taiwan.
10. Although China and the United States soon exchanged performing troupes and athletic teams, they did not exchange ambassadors until 1979, when the United States _______ recognized the People’s Republic of China.
People’s Republic of China
Activity 3: Multiple-Choice
1. Which situation was a result of the Vietnam War?
South Vietnam was able to maintain its noncommunist status.
The United States questioned its role as a police officer of the world.
Richard Nixon was forced to resign the presidency.
The War Powers Act was repealed by Congress.
2. One reason the United States became involved in the Vietnam War was to
introduce democratic elections to communist nations
encourage satellite nations to break their ties with the Soviet Union
undermine Soviet influence among nonaligned countries in Africa and Asia
6. “I think it will be a safer world and a better world if we have a strong, healthy United States, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing the other, not playing one against the other, an even balance.”
decreased United States dependence on Chinese exports
Activity 4: Reading – July 01, 2011; Presidential Proclamation – 40th Anniversary of the 26th Amendment “Forty years ago, the 26th Amendment to the United States Constitution took effect, lowering the universal voting age in America from 21 years to 18 years. Millions of young Americans were extended the right to vote, empowering more young people than ever before to help shape our country. On this anniversary, we remember the commitment of all those who fought for the right to vote and celebrate the contributions of young adults to our Nation. The right to vote has been secured by generations of leaders over our history, from the women's groups of the early 20th century to the civil rights activists of the 1960s. For young people, the movement to lower America’s voting age took years of hard work and tough advocacy to make the dream a reality. Yet, once proposed in Congress in 1971, the 26th Amendment was ratified in the shortest time span of any Constitutional Amendment in American history. In the midst of the Vietnam War, our Nation bestowed upon our young people the ability to change the status quo and entrusted them with a new voice in government. Today, young adults across America continue to exercise this enormous responsibility of citizenship. Countless young people are involved in the political process, dedicated to ensuring their voices are heard… Young adults have been a driving force for change in the last century, bringing new ideas and high hopes to our national dialogue. Today, we remember the efforts of those who fought for their seat at the table, and we encourage coming generations to claim their place in our democracy. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim July 1, 2011, as the 40th Anniversary of the 26th Amendment. I call upon all Americans to participate in ceremonies and activities that honor young Americans, and those who have fought for freedom and justice in our country.”
What is President Obama commemorating (remembering or honoring)? ________________________________________________________________________
What was the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? ________________________________________________________________________
How did the 26th Amendment change American society? ________________________________________________________________________
What war was occurring when the Amendment was passed? ________________________________________________________________________
Why did this war lead to this Amendment? ________________________________________________________________________
Do you agree with this Amendment? ________________________________________________________________________
Why do you agree with this Amendment? ________________________________________________________________________
Identify another Amendment about voting. ________________________________________________________________________
Identify an act associated with voting. ________________________________________________________________________
Why does voting matter? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What does the President say? _____________________________________________________________________________________
What is written on the escalator? _____________________________________________________________________________________
What is the meaning of the political cartoon? _____________________________________________________________________________________
How did the situation in the political cartoon divide American society? _____________________________________________________________________________________
Why did some Americans support the war? _____________________________________________________________________________________
Why did some Americans oppose the war? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Do you agree with the supporters or protesters of the war? Explain your answer. _______________
Activity 5: Cartoon Analysis
What does the individual sitting in the chair say? ________________________________________________________________________
What is written on the young man’s poster? ________________________________________________________________________
What is a “peacenik”? ________________________________________________________________________
What is written on the newspaper? ________________________________________________________________________
What is napalm? ________________________________________________________________________
Why did the American army use napalm in Vietnam? ________________________________________________________________________
How were the Vietnamese people affected by napalm? ________________________________________________________________________
How does the encounter between the man in the chair and the young man reveal a division in American society? ________________________________________________________________________
Why is the word “burn” used by the man in the chair? ______________________________________________________________________
Why is the man’s use of the word “burn” by the cartoonist ironic (using a word to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning)? ________________________________________________________________________
Do you believe this political cartoon was effective? ________________________________________________________________________
Why do you believe this political cartoon was effective? ________________________________________________________________________