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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Teacher’s Answer Key


United States Geography

Program based on the

National Football League

schedule from

September 9, - December 30, 2007
presented by the
TOPEKA CAPITAL-JOURNAL



TEACHER’S EDITION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE


FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY _ _ 2

STUDENT’S STUDY HINT SHEET _ _ 3

TWO-LETTER STATE ABBREVIATIONS _ _ 4

UNITED STATES TIME ZONE MAP _ _ 5

UNITED STATES AND NFL CITIES POPULATION TABLE _ 6

SEATING CAPACITY OF NFL STADIUMS _ _ 7

MATH & GRAPHING WITH STADIUM CAPACITY FIGURES _ 8

NFL CITY LOCATION MAP _ _ 10

ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES _ _ 11

ADDITION-SUBTRACTION, GRAPHING INSTRUCTIONS _ 14


WEEKLY QUIZZES
Week # 1 _ _ _ _ 18

Week # 2 _ _ _ _ 22

Week # 3 _ _ _ _ 24

Week # 4 _ _ _ _ 25

Week # 5 _ _ _ _ 26

Week # 6 _ _ _ _ 27

Week # 7 _ _ _ _ 29

Week # 8 _ _ _ _ 32

LATITUDE and LONGITUDE Answer Key _ _ 35

Week # 9 _ _ _ _ 36

Week # 10 _ _ _ _ 38

Week # 11 _ _ _ _ 40

Week # 12 _ _ _ _ 42

Week # 13 _ _ _ _ 46

Week # 14 _ _ _ _ 48

Week # 15 _ _ _ _ 49

Week # 16 _ _ _ _ 51

Week # 17 _ _ _ _ 53


STUDENT REFERENCE INFORMATION
CITY, STATE, TEAM NAME Quiz and Answer Key _ _ 56

VERBS and the SPORTS PAGE _ _ _ 58


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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

FIVE THEMES IN GEOGRAPHY

Source: National Geographic Society


LOCATION: (Absolute and Relative): Location answers the basic question: Where? Absolute and relative location are two ways of describing the positions of the Earth's physical and cultural features. For example, knowing the absolute, or exact, location of Tucson, AZ, showed us where the forest fires occurred. A grid system representing latitude and longitude is one way of showing absolute locations. Another way of looking at location has to do with the interaction of places. This is relative location-the way a city is connected to other places. A map can provide a starting point for gathering information. IN WHAT MOUNTAIN RANGE IS MT. RAINIER LOCATED? Exactly where did Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi coast?

PLACE: (Physical and Human Characteristics): All places on Earth have special features that distinguish them from other places. Geographers usually describe places by their physical and human characteristics. Los Angeles, CA, and its neighboring communities, for example, are known for such physical characteristics as sandy beaches, abundant sunshine, and a mild climate. Human characteristics such as the density of population and its ethnic makeup also play an important role in shaping the image of Los Angeles. WHAT PHYSICAL AND HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS MAKE THE PLACE YOU LIVE DIFFERENT FROM ANY OTHER? HOW DO THESE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECT YOUR LIFE? HOW IS LIFE IN BAYOU COUNTRY DIFFERENT FROM YOUR CITY or the area in which you live?

HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: (Relationships Within Places): People interact with their environments and change them in different ways. Large-scale agricultural development of the dry Texas Panhandle, for instance, did not occur until the invention of circular irrigation systems that distribute water from underground wells. But such change has a price: The region's water supply is rapidly diminishing. Geographers examine how human-environment interactions develop and what their consequences are for people and the landscape. LOOK AROUND YOU: HOW HAVE PEOPLE CHANGED YOUR ENVIRONMENT? WHY HAVE THEY MADE SUCH CHANGES? WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THESE CHANGES?

MOVEMENT: (Mobility of People, Goods, and Ideas): People everywhere interact. They travel from place to place, they communicate, and they depend upon other people in distant places for products, ideas, and information. A good example of movement exists in the highly urbanized northeast corridor between Boston and Washington, D.C. Here, people can quickly fly from one city to another. Farmers efficiently send products to restaurants and supermarkets by truck and trains. Let every trip to the supermarket be a geography lesson! From where does all that produce come? Contaminated lettuce and spinach grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California show up in restaurants in New Jersey. Are you feeling the “pinch” of this at the retail level? Geography helps us understand the nature and effects of such movement. HOW DO YOU AND YOUR FAMILY DEPEND UPON PEOPLE IN OTHER PLACES? HOW DOES MOVEMENT AFFECT WHAT YOU CAN BUY IN STORES IN YOUR CITY OR TOWN?

REGIONS: (How They Form and Change): Regions are areas on the surface of the Earth that are defined by certain unifying characteristics. These characteristics may be physical, or they may be human. The peaks and valleys of the Rocky Mountains, for example, form a physical region. The Corn Belt, on the other hand, forms a human region. Large farms and similar crops unite several midwestern states into this region, where corn has been the mainstay. Regions provide an organized way to study Earth's landscapes and peoples. CAN YOU IDENTIFY SOME PHYSICAL AND HUMAN REGIONS IN THE UNITED STATES? DRAW A MAP OF THESE REGIONS. DO ANY OF THEM OVERLAP?


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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Student’s Study Hint Sheet

Student Reference Information


CAPITALS --DENVER ATLANTA INDIANAPOLIS NASHVILLE(TN)

PHOENIX (AZ) --Stadium is in Glendale, but we use the capital.

BOSTON (N.E.) --Stadium is in Foxboro, but we use the capital.

Washington, D.C. is the nation's capital.


RIVERS -- Mississippi River cities: Minneapolis(MN), St. Louis, New Orleans

Ohio River cities: Pittsburgh, Cincinnati

Missouri River city: Kansas City

Detroit River city: Detroit

Delaware River city: Philadelphia

Cumberland River city: Nashville(TN)

Pittsburgh: Ohio River formed at confluence of Allegheny and Monongahela

Philadelphia is at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill

St. Louis is near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri
ATLANTIC OCEAN CITIES: LANDLOCKED CITIES:

MIAMI DALLAS

BOSTON (N.E.) DENVER

JACKSONVILLE ATLANTA

NEW YORK JETS PHOENIX

NEW YORK GIANTS CHARLOTTE

INDIANAPOLIS

PACIFIC OCEAN CITIES: STATES--MORE THAN ONE TEAM:

SAN DIEGO FLORIDA (3)

SAN FRANCISCO NEW YORK (3)

CALIFORNIA (3)

OHIO (2)

TEXAS (2)

MISSOURI (2)

PENNSYLVANIA (2)


BAY CITIES: PENINSULA STATES

TAMPA ON TAMPA BAY FLORIDA

MIAMI ON BISCAYNE BAY MICHIGAN

SEATTLE ON ELLIOTT BAY WASHINGTON

GREEN BAY ON GREEN BAY DELMARVA formed by

SAN DIEGO ON SAN DIEGO BAY Delaware, Maryland & Virginia

BALTIMORE ON CHESAPEAKE BAY

OAKLAND ON SAN FRANCISCO BAY

SAN FRANCISCO ON SAN FRANCISCO BAY
GREAT LAKE CITIES: PANHANDLE STATES

BUFFALO ON ERIE TEXAS

CLEVELAND ON LAKE ERIE IDAHO

CHICAGO ON LAKE MICHIGAN FLORIDA

OKLAHOMA

WEST VIRGINIA

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Two-Letter State Abbreviations

Student Reference Information

Alabama AL "Heart of Dixie" Montana MT "Treasure State"

Alaska AK "Last Frontier" Nebraska NE "Cornhusker State"

Arizona AZ "Grand Canyon State" Nevada NV "Silver State"

Arkansas AR "Land of Opportunity" New Hampshire NH "Granite State"

California CA "Golden State" New Jersey NJ "Garden State"

Colorado CO "Centennial State" New Mexico NM "Land of Enchantment

Connecticut CT "Constitution State" New York NY "Empire State"

Delaware DE "First State" North Carolina NC "Tar Heel State"

Florida FL "Sunshine State" North Dakota ND "Flickertail State"

Georgia GA "Peach State" Ohio OH "Buckeye State"

Hawaii HI "Aloha State" Oklahoma OK "Sooner State"

Idaho ID "Gem State" Oregon OR "Beaver State"

Illinois IL "Prairie State" Pennsylvania PA "Keystone State"

Indiana IN "Hoosier State" Rhode Island RI "Little Rhody"

Iowa IA "Hawkeye State" South Carolina SC "Palmetto State"

Kansas KS "Sunflower State" South Dakota SD "Rushmore State"

Kentucky KY "Bluegrass State" Tennessee TN "Volunteer State"

Louisiana LA "Pelican State" Texas TX "Lone Star State"

Maine ME "Pine Tree State" Utah UT "Beehive State"

Maryland MD "Old Line State" Vermont VT “Green Mt. State” Massachusetts MA "Bay State" Virginia VA "Old Dominion State"

Michigan MI "Wolverine State" Washington WA "Evergreen State"

Minnesota MN "Gopher State" West Virginia WV "Mountain State"

Mississippi MS "Magnolia State" Wisconsin WI "Badger State"

Missouri MO "Show Me State" Wyoming WY "Equality State"

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®



Population Table

THE WORLD ALMANAC 2007 - Page 596 - 598

Student Reference Information


CITIES METROPOLITAN AREAS

1. New York 8,143,197 1. New York 18,323,002

2. Los Angeles 3,844,829 2. Los Angeles 12,365,627

3. Chicago 2,842,518 3. Chicago 9,098,316

4. Houston 2,016,582 4. Philadelphia 5,687,147

5. Philadelphia 1,463,281 5. Dallas 5,161,544

6. Phoenix 1,461,575 6. Miami 5,007,564

7. San Antonio 1,256,509 7. Washington 4,796,183

8. San Diego 1,255,540 8. Houston 4,715,407

9. Dallas 1,213,825 9. Detroit 4,452,557

10. San Jose 912,332 10. Boston 4,391,344

11. Detroit 886,671 11. Atlanta 4,247,981

12. Indianapolis 784,118 12. San Francisco 4,123,740

13. Jacksonville 782,623 13. Riverside, CA 3,254,821

14. San Francisco 739,426 14. Phoenix 3,251,876

15. Columbus, OH 730,657 15. Seattle 3,043,878

18. Baltimore 635,815 16. Minneapolis 2,968,806

20. Charlotte 624,067 17. San Diego 2,813,833

23. Seattle 578,887 18. St. Louis 2,698,687

24. Boston 573,911 19. Baltimore 2,552,994

25. Denver 559.034 20. Pittsburgh 2,431,087

27. Washington, D. C. 550,521 21 Tampa 2,395,997

28. Nashville 549,110 22. Denver 2,179,240

35. Atlanta 470,688 23. Cleveland 2,148,143

38. New Orleans 454,683 24. Cincinnati 2,009,632

39. Cleveland 452,208 25. Portland 1,927,881

40. Kansas City 444,965 26. Kansas City 1,836,038

44. Oakland 395,274 27. Sacramento 1,796,857

45. Miami 386,417 28. San Jose 1,735,819

48. Minneapolis 372,811 29. San Antonio 1,711,703

52. St. Louis 344,362 30. Orlando 1,644,561

56. Tampa 325,989 31. Columbus, OH 1,612,694

57. Pittsburgh 316,718 32. Providence 1,582,997

58. Cincinnati 308,728 33. Norfolk 1,576,370

66. Buffalo 279,745 34. Indianapolis 1,525,104

??. Green Bay 100,353 35. Milwaukee 1,500,741

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®


Seating Capacity of Stadiums

National Football League-2007

Student Reference Information


University of Phoenix Glendale, AZ Cardinals 65,000

Georgia Dome Atlanta, GA Falcons 71,228

M & T Bank Stadium Baltimore, MD Ravens 70,107

Ralph Wilson Stadium Orchard Park, NY Bills 73,967

Bank of America Stadium Charlotte, NC Panthers 73,298
Soldier Field Chicago, IL Bears 61,500

Paul Brown Stadium Cincinnati, OH Bengals 65,515


Cleveland Browns Stadium Cleveland, OH Browns 73,300
Texas Stadium Irving, TX Cowboys 65,529
Invesco at Mile High Stadium Denver, CO Broncos 76,125
Ford Field Detroit, MI Lions 64,500
Lambeau Field Green Bay, WI Packers 72,928
Reliant Stadium Houston, TX Texans 71,054
RCA Dome Indianapolis, IN Colts 55,531
Jacksonville Municipal Stadium Jacksonville, FL Jaguars 67,164
Arrowhead Stadium Kansas City, MO Chiefs 79,451
Dolphin Stadium Miami, FL Dolphins 75,192
Metrodome Minneapolis, MN Vikings 64,121
Gillette Field Foxboro, MA Patriots 68,756
Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, LA Saints 65,000
Giants Stadium E. Rutherford, NJ N.Y. Giants 80,242
Giants Stadium E. Rutherford, NJ N.Y. Jets 80,242
Oakland MdAfee Coliseum Oakland, CA Raiders 63,132
Lincoln Financial Field Philadelphia, PA Eagles 68,400
Heinz Field Pittsburgh, PA Steelers 65,000
Edward Jones Dome St. Louis, MO Rams 66,000
Qualcomm Stadium San Diego, CA Chargers 70,000
Monster Park San Francisco, CA 49ers 69,732
Qwest Field Seattle, WA Seahawks 67,000
Raymond James Stadium Tampa, FL Buccaneers 65,908
LP Field Nashville, TN Titans 69,143
FedEx Field Washington, DC Redskins 91,704
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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Math with the Stadium Capacity

The seating capacity table of the NFL stadia may be used for math lessons with your newspaper. Every boxscore of NFL games will include an attendance figure, and some may include stadium capacity along with that figure. Students may subtract the actual attendance from the stadium capacity to determine how many empty seats were in the stadium on any given game day. For example, at the bottom of a boxscore you may see: A - 56,623(62,518). The figure within parentheses is stadium capacity, and 56,623 is actual attendance.


More advanced classes/students may divide the actual attendance by the stadium's capacity to determine the percentage of capacity for a particular game. Having students figure the percentage of attendance is an interesting and quick exercise to do with a calculator. After calculating the percentage of stadium capacity each week, portray this on a line or bar graph. Send these graphs to the coach or team owner at season's end. THIS DEED WILL BE APPRECIATED.
MAKE A COLORFUL BAR GRAPH. Round-off the attendance of your favorite team to the nearest five hundred(500) and construct a vertical bar graph for the 16 weeks "your team" plays. This bar graph will be bright and colorful if you suggest the students draw the bar each week in the color of the opposition’s dominate team color. For example, Pittsburgh's colors are black and gold, Green Bay's are green and yellow, St. Louis’ are blue and gold, etc.
The attendance figure may be used for simple place value lessons, or for practice in writing exponents.
Primary students can look at the scores of Sunday's games to determine if the numbers are odd or even. Intermediate grade students may determine that the scores are prime or composite numbers. Composite numbers should be factored to their prime components.
ANOTHER MATH SUGGESTION THAT MIGHT BE DEVELOPED FROM ANY SECTION OF THE NEWSPAPER. Simple or more challenging subtractions lessons can be developed from the many tables of information that appear frequently in all sections of the newspaper. When any information is presented in a descending numerical order, have a subtraction lesson by determining the difference between the first number and the second number in the listing; between the second and third, third minus fourth, fourth minus fifth, etc.

Request a “Stat Sheet” from this author via your NIE Coordinator if you want to follow your favorite team with a weekly spreadsheet application. The sheet is completed by having the students obtain seven(7) bits of information from the sports page boxscore and writing them down in the proper columns. Then after the first week, the students make seven simple ADDITIONS to keep a RUNNING total of the points, yards rushing, yards passing, and attendance as the season progresses. Then seven DIVISIONS by the game number to figure the average points, yards rushing, yards passing, and attendance per game as the weeks whirl by.

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Enrichment Activities

1. This makes me Unusual! Challenge your students to find an article(s) about each NFL city that distinguishes it from the other NFL cities. South Mountain Park in Phoenix is the world’s largest municipal park. Stone Mountain Park near Atlanta is the largest granite dome in North America. Phoenix is the most populous state capital. Atlanta’s Hartsfield Airport is now the world’s busiest.


2. County Counting! Mount a large map of your state in the classroom and find a dateline or article representing each county in your state. You may not be able to do this for all of the 254 counties in Texas; maybe for the 102 counties in Illinois; and certainly for the 21 counties in New Jersey. Contact a city or state official for a map.
3. What’s important in each State? During the course of the NFL season, clip articles daily and weekly from your newspaper that show unique, unusual or important products or features from each state. Attach these articles to a large outline map of the United States. For example, cherries in Michigan, diamonds and rice in Arkansas, Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota, wheat in Kansas, or corn in any of the Corn Belt states. Kalamazoo, MI, grows 75% of the bedding plants in the U.S. You should cover every state during the NFL season. California produces 90% of the garlic in the nation. Where is Gilroy? See sample state product exercise on page 51
4. Which quarterback was the best on Sunday? Each boxscore in Monday’s newspaper will tell you about the quarterback’s efficiency with figures that read as: 16-30-2. This means that the QB completed 16 passes out of 30 attempts with two(2) interceptions. Forget about the interceptions. Write 16/30 as a common fraction and reduce it to lowest terms, 8/15; or change it to the decimal equivalent rounded to thousandths place, .533. Of course, not all completion- attempts fractions can be reduced. This math exercise will have the students solving 20-30 problems every Monday or which ever day you choose to do the assignment.

5. Which team was best on Sunday? This is a simpler version of the quarterback exercise. A headline may read “Bears maul Ravens, 36 - 14.” Write each game score as a common fraction, 14/36, and reduce when possible. Again, 12-15 problems each Monday.


6. How many Empty Seats? Included in each boxscore is an attendance figure. Use the Stadium Capacity table you have and subtract the actual attendance from the capacity to determine how many unoccupied seats there were on game day. Taking math to a higher level, use these figures to determine the per cent of capacity. Calculators?
7. Be Weather Wise! Have a simple subtraction lesson from the weather page of the newspaper by having students find the difference between the high temperatures in the cities of all the competing teams. Will a team be flying into warmer or colder weather to play their game? Will you do this one or five times a week?

8. Identify those States. From the weather page, select 10-15 cities from around the nation that have their high and low temperatures listed. Make sure the selected cities are in different states. Calculate the difference between the high and low temperature in each city. On an outline map of the U.S., write the difference within the appropriate state.


9. Math practice with the Population. Supply the students with the population table provided in the

continued


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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY packet, and let them determine the difference in the size of the cities of

the competing teams. For other cities, see THE WORLD ALMANAC, 2007, pages 596 - 598.
10. Population movement from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt. Draw a rectangle from Boston to

Minneapolis to St. Louis to Baltimore. This is the Rust Belt. During the course of the NFL season, clip newspaper articles related to population and employment movement away from the Rust Belt and toward the Sun Belt. Assign a couple of students to be demographers and clip any articles related to trends in population shifts in the U.S. Indianapolis is the “Cinderella of the Rust Belt,” or the “Shining buckle on the Rust Belt.”


There will be declining population in Alabama, Mississippi, North Dakota, West Virginia and Wyoming. Increasing population in Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Nevada, North Carolina and Texas. These states are being called the “New Sun Belt”.
11. Headline Vocabulary. Select two or three headlines from the newspaper that have a challenging vocabulary word in them. Using a dictionary or thesaurus, replace the selected word in each headline with a simpler synonym. Make sure the synonym fits in context. “Emaciated dogs die”,

“Coaches’ rancor keeps escalating.” Rewrite this headline so it’s singular possessive.


12. Pronouns from the Lovelorn. Read Dear Abby on any day, and pick out the pronouns to discuss their usage. Find pronouns in the comics.
13. Contractions with the Comics. Everyone reads the comics. Did you ever think about the many contractions used each day? Identify 10 - 12, and have the students write the two words each contraction stands for.
14. Homonyms and Headlines. Look at headlines and subheadlines on just the front page. How many words can you identify for which you know homonyms?
15. Weekly ranking of the football teams in the NCAA. The Associated Press, CNN or Coaches ranking of the top college football teams will appear in your newspaper every Monday or Tuesday. The total number of votes each team received will be listed from high to low. How many more points/votes did #1 get than #2, #2 than #3, #3 than #4, etc.? Do 10 subtraction problems one day, and 10 the next. Write the votes each team received in Roman Numerals.
16. Non-native ecological problems in the United States. Have students research the threat to our ecosystem caused by these non-native specimens. Nutria, zebra mussels, fire ants, kudzu, Africanized bees, Asian carp, wild(feral) hogs, phragmites, Formosan termites, Sea Lamprey, African frogs, tamarisk(salt cedar)bush, Indo-Pacific lionfish, emerald ash borers(agrilus

plannipennis), hydrilla, soy bean rust, Atlantic cordgrass(spartina alterniflora) and sea squirts. In July of 2006, it was reported that an aphid type insect brought here from Japan in the

1920s on ornamental plants is destroying hemlock trees in the Great Smoky Mountains.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, Great Smoky Mountains, “Season of Smoke”, August 2006, pages 90 - 107. Article is all about scenery, not about problems in the park.
On Nov. 4, 2005, the Diaprepes root weevil, a pest native to the Caribbean, caused an area of Long Beach, CA, to be quarantined. The weevil threatens more than 270 species of plants, including many citrus plants of Southern California.

From what country did they come? When did they first appear in the United States?

Did they come into the United States intentionally or by accident?

If intentional, what was their intended purpose?

If intentional, how long did it take to realize the idea, theory or concept was not working and had gone awry?

continued

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These specimens have no natural enemies or controls in the United States.



What were the natural enemies or controls in the originating country?

See: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “Attack of the alien Invaders”, March 2005,

pages 92 - 117.
17. Ethanol. Clip newspaper articles to study the pros and cons of the ethanol debate in the United

States during the NFL season. Is the American public being scammed? See notes on page 55.


18. Honey Bees. What is causing the demise of the honey bees? People in the agricultural industry

depend on bees for pollination, and if this doesn’t happen farmers stand to lose billions of dollars.


American Beekeeping Federation(www.abfnet.org)(www.americanhoneyproducers.org)

(Texas Apiary Inspection Service) (www.beesurvey.com) Discuss “colony collapse disorder”. Where do the bees go? The hives are shunned by other bees and insect scavengers. Researchers have found the parasite Nosema ceranea in dead bees.


The workers fly away, leaving the queen and her eggs, larvae and pupae to die. CCD is now in 24 states. Almonds, cucumbers, apples, peaches and more than 80 other American crops rely on commercial honeybee pollination. 80% of the world’s almonds are grown in California, and almond growers depend on the bee. One man said, “Without bees, we don’t eat.”
Beekeepers produce $200 million worth of honey annually.

19. Five themes of Geography. Divide a bulletin board into five equal parts, and use one of the Five Themes of Geography as a heading for each section of the board.


LOCATION PLACE HUMAN- MOVEMENT REGIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL

INTERACTIONS

Clip articles from your newspaper that would pertain to each section or illustrate each theme.


LOCATION: Clip pictures of things that you know exactly where they are. Liberty Bell, Gateway Arch, Mt. Rushmore, Time Square, exact street intersections (Hollywood & Vine), precise latitude and longitude coordinates of hurricanes.
PLACE: Cable cars make you think of San Francisco, mountains of Colorado, corn fields of Iowa. Cape Hatteras. Locate a few datelines each day. Where is it happening?
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTIONS: Too many people in south Florida! How is the area being affected? How are cities changing? Find articles about urban decay or downtown revitalization. Rural areas change as suburbs grow. How is the Hispanic immigrant movement affecting cities, schools, hospitals, governmental agencies, etc.?
MOVEMENT: People, goods and ideas move. People moving to the Sun Belt or from cities to suburbs. However, cities are being renewed as people are tired of traffic congestion and high

gas prices. People are moving where there is public transportation. Via computers and satellites, ideas are communicated across the nation and around the world in seconds.


REGIONS: Physical regions are easy to identify, but human regions are not. Have students thinking about ethnic, language and social regions within their own state or city.
PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY is a powerful framework for students to understand the people, places,

and environments of the United States and the connections to the students’ own lives.


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