Typhoon (the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline)



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A hurricane is a severe tropical storm that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, or the South Pacific Ocean east of 160E. Hurricanes need warm tropical oceans, moisture and light winds above them. If the right conditions last long enough, a hurricane can produce violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains and floods. In other regions of the world, these types of storms have different names.



  • Typhoon — (the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline)

  • Severe Tropical Cyclone — (the Southwest Pacific Ocean west of 160E or Southeast Indian Ocean east of 90E)

  • Severe Cyclonic Storm — (the North Indian Ocean)

  • Tropical Cyclone — (the Southwest Indian Ocean)

Hurricanes rotate in a counterclockwise direction around an "eye." A tropical storm becomes a hurricane when winds reach 74 mph. There are on average six Atlantic hurricanes each year; over a three-year period, approximately five hurricanes strike the United States coastline from Texas to Maine. The Atlantic hurricane season begins June 1 and ends November 30. The East Pacific hurricane season runs from May 15 through November 30, with peak activity occurring during July through September. In a normal season, the East Pacific would expect 15 or 16 tropical storms. Nine of these would become hurricanes, of which four or five would be major hurricanes. When hurricanes move onto land, the heavy rain, strong winds and heavy waves can damage buildings, trees and cars. The heavy waves are called a storm surge. Storm surge is very dangerous and a major reason why you MUST stay away from the ocean during a hurricane.

Hurricanes typically last from two to fourteen days. They tend to move from east to west, at speeds between 10 and 30 mph. Their intensity is ranked on a scale of 1 to 5 called the Saffir-Simpson scale. This scale measures three types of activity: wind speed, air pressure, and storm surge. The storm surge is a 50 to 100-mile-wide dome of water that sweeps across the coastline near where a hurricane makes landfall.



How do they determine the "category"?
Category 3, 4, and 5 hurricanes are collectively referred to as intense or major hurricanes. These intense hurricanes cause over 70% of the damage in the United States, even though they account for only 20% of all hurricane strikes. Check the chart below to see how scientists rate hurricanes.




Saffir-Simpson Category

Maximum sustained wind speed (mph)

Minimum surface pressure (mb)

Storm surge (feet)







1

74–95 mph

980mb

3–5 ft







2

96–110

979–965

6–8







3

111–130

964–945

9–12







4

131–155

944–920

13–18







5

> 155

< 920

> 18







How are Hurricanes Named?

Hurricanes names are chosen from a list selected by the World Meteorological Organization. The Atlantic is assigned six lists of names, with one list used each year. Every sixth year, the first list begins again. Each name on the list starts with a different letter, for example, the name of the very first hurricane of the season starts with the letter A, the next starts with the letter B, and so on. The letters "Q", "U", "X", "Y" and "Z", however, are not used.



Often when an unusually destructive hurricane hits, that hurricane's name is retired and never used again. Since 1954, forty names have been retired. In 1996 Hurricane Luis was retired. Is your name among the currently used or retired hurricane names?






Retired Names


Retired
Name


Replacement
Name


Allison

Andrea

Floyd

Franklin

Georges

Gaston

Iris

Ingrid

Keith

Kirk

Lenny

Lee

Michelle

Melissa



Hurricane Names Selected for the Atlantic Basin

1997/2003

1998/2004

1999/2005

2000/2006

2001/2007

2002/2008

Ana

Alex

Arlene

Alberto

Allison*

Arthur

Bill

Bonnie

Bret

Beryl

Barry

Bertha

Claudette

Charley

Cindy

Chris

Chantal

Cesar

Danny

Danielle

Dennis

Debby

Dean

Dolly

Erika

Earl

Emily

Ernesto

Erin

Edouard

Fabian

Frances

Floyd*

Florence

Felix

Fran

Grace

Georges*

Gert

Gordon

Gabrielle

Gustav

Henri

Hermine

Harvey

Helene

Humberto

Horrtense

Isabel

Ivan

Irene

Isaac

Iris*

Isidore

Juan

Jeanne

Jose

Joyce

Jerry

Josephine

Kate

Karl

Katrina

Keith*

Karen

Kyle

Larry

Lisa

Lenny*

Leslie

Lorenzo

Lili

Mindy

Mitch*

Maria

Michael

Michelle*

Marco

Nicholas

Nicole

Nate

Nadine

Noel

Nana

Odette

Otto

Ophelia

Oscar

Olga

Omar

Peter

Paula

Phillippe

Patty

Pablo

Paloma

Rose

Richard

Rita

Rafael

Rebekah

Rene

Sam

Shary

Stan

Sandy

Sebastien

Sally

Teresa

Tomas

Tammy

Tony

Tanya

Teddy

Victor

Virginie

Vince

Valerie

Van

Vicky

Wanda

Walter

Wilma

William

Wendy

Wilfred


* Hurricanes retired since 1985.




Below you will find the listing of hurricane names for the Atlantic Ocean for the year 2014. For every year, there is a pre-approved list of tropical storm and hurricane names. These lists have been generated by the National Hurricane Center since 1953. At first, the lists consisted of only female names; however, since 1979, the lists alternate between male and female.


Hurricanes are named alphabetically from the list in chronological order. Thus the first tropical storm or hurricane of the year has a name that begins with "A" and the second is given the name that begins with "B." The lists contain hurricane names that begin from A to W, but exclude names that begin with a "Q" or "U."
There are six lists that continue to rotate. The lists only change when there is a hurricane that is so devastating, the name is retired and another hurricane name replaces it. The 2014 hurricane name list is the same as the 2008 hurricane name list with the exception of three names that were devastating hurricanes in 2008 and thus retired. Gustav was replaced by Gonzalo, Ike was replaced by Isaias, and Paloma was replaced by Paulette.
2014 Hurricane Names
Arthur

Bertha


Cristobal

Dolly


Edouard

Fay


Gonzalo

Hanna


Isaias

Josephine

Kyle

Laura


Marco

Nana


Omar

Paulette


Rene

Sally


Teddy

Vicky


Wilfred

Hurricane Katrina brings disaster to Gulf Coast; Lennox Lions reach out to help



Wednesday, September 7, 2005 10:52 AM EDT













Hurricane Katrina, one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history, devastated the Gulf Coast of the United States from New Orleans, Louisiana to Mobile, Alabama. Katrina made landfall in the early morning of Aug. 29, 2005. The hurricane is believed to have killed thousands of people, and known to have displaced more than 1 million - a humanitarian crisis on a scale unseen in the U.S. since the American Civil War.

Federal disaster declarations blanketed 90,000 square miles of the United States, an area almost as large as the United Kingdom. The hurricane left an estimated five million people without power, and it may be up to two months before all power is restored. Disaster relief plans are in operation in the affected areas.

Early in the morning of August 30, 2005 and as a direct result of Hurricane Katrina, breaches in three places of the levee system on the Lake Pontchartrain side of New Orleans caused a second and even greater disaster. Heavy flooding covered almost the entire city over a sustained period, forcing the total evacuation of over a million people.

On Sept. 3, 2005 US Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff described the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as "probably the worst catastrophe, or set of catastrophes" in the country's history, referring to the Hurricane itself plus the flooding of New Orleans.

Hurricane Katrina will be remembered for its vast devastation of the Gulf Coast regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. The hurricane will also be remembered for the ineffective planning for hurricane preparedness, as well as the slow response on the part of federal, state and local governments to provide effective search and rescue and safe refuge for the storm's victims.

Around the country, people are reaching out to help the victims of this disaster.



The Richelieu Apartments before Hurricane Camille
The Richelieu Apartments after Hurricane Camille
What hurricane names have been retired?

If a storm has been particularly deadly at the annual meeting of the WMO committee the name can be retired. 


Some storms that affected North Carolina and have since been retired: Isabel, Floyd, Fran, Bob, Gloria, Ione and Connie. Many storms have been retired.

What happens if more than 21 named tropical storms occur in the Atlantic in a single season? 

Additional storms will take the names from the Greek alphabet, (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, etc.), according to the National Hurricane Center.


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