U. S. Professional sports: the nhl



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U.S. PROFESSIONAL SPORTS: THE NHL

Kelly Burnett MKT 454

Robert Cortes Dr. Iksuk Kim

Crystal Ganzorig



Jonathan Ngo

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Still recovering from a league-wide lockout in 2005 and a shutout from ESPN broadcasting, the National Hockey League is looking forward to rebuilding their brand in the U.S. sports industry. With only 15% of the market share in the U.S., the NHL is looking to compete more with top 3 major U.S. pro sports leagues: MLB, NFL, and NBA (2). The keys to success as are with all U.S. sports teams/leagues are in generating high ticket sales, sponsorships, selling merchandise, and mass media exposure. This report will compare the NHL to the other major U.S. professional sports leagues, and how it can improve its popularity with American sports fans to become more profitable in the U.S. sports industry.
II. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS: U.S. Professional Sports Industry Overview
The U.S. Professional Sports Industry is a lucrative industry that is primarily dominated by the “Big 4” leagues: the National Football League (NFL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), Major League Baseball (MLB), and the National Hockey Association (NHL). According to Plunkett Research, the “Big 4” leagues bring in a total of $21 billion in annual revenue (See Figure 1). The major sources of income associated with professional sports teams are ticket sales, broadcasting and media rights, advertising and sponsorships, licensing, merchandising, and concession sales.




  1. NFL and MLB are Industry’s Cash Cows

The National Football League (NFL) is the most popular and profitable spectator sport in America generating more than 37% of the sports industry’s revenue (2). Major League Baseball (MLB) is a close second with 29% of the sports industry’s revenue (2).

  • In 2010, average value of an NFL team=$990 million; MLB team= $491 million (2).

  • Example: The Dallas Cowboys are the most valuable franchise in the NFL and overall U.S. pro sports teams with a net worth of $1.65 billion (1). The most valuable MLB team is the New York Yankees with annual revenue of around $525 million (1).

  • According to a 2004 ESPN poll, 70% of all U.S. sports fans follow the NFL.

  • The MLB website, www.mlb.com, was the first to implement online streaming of live games, and as of today is the most profitable video subscription service on the web.

  • More than 1.5 million subscribers have signed up since the site’s launch in 2003

  1. The NBA has a strong U.S. presence while the NHL lags in U.S. popularity.

The NBA and NHL are the third and fourth most popular spectator sports in America. While average MLB and NFL game attendance is between 30,000 and 60,000 spectators, the NBA and NHL only average around 17,000 (See Figure 1). Every league has suffered dismal ticket sales due to the recession, but what the NHL still lacks is a solid U.S. fan base. For example, the NHL attracts the smallest fraction of television audiences when compared to other sports such as football, baseball and basketball.

  • Most profitable NBA teams are the NY Knicks and LA Lakers with values over $600 million

  • Most profitable NHL teams are the Toronto Maple Leafs and the NY Rangers with value of $413 million and $365, respectively

While the NBA focuses on expansion overseas, the NHL is attempting to improve its

popularity in the U.S. The NHL plans to reach a younger audience through an online service called GameCenter Live. The service which launched in 2008 affords subscribers the ability to watch almost any NHL game live on its web site. The service is available for $169 for the entire season (6).



  1. Loyal Fans, Ticket Sales, and Media Exposure Drive the Industry.

According to IBIS World, the sports industry has doubled in size and profitability from 1997 to 2007. Today, major sports franchises are investing much more into player contracts and stadium renovations and amenities, which have provided a significant boost in ticket sales and media coverage. The industry has relied upon ticket sales and media coverage as their main source of revenue; about 35-40% (2).

  • Loyal Fans – With high ticket prices and improved game attendance shows fans have faith in the entertainment value of investing in their favorite teams.

  • Selling Branding Rights – Sports teams selling their brand name or endorsing anything for corporations usually helps make the industry a lot of money.

  • Fantasy Teams – Fantasy teams also help to build hardcore fans by adding more involvement in the sports season.

With the high ticket prices (See Figure 2), it is important to constantly entice fans to continue seeing value in live sports entertainment. The economic recession hit the sports industry hard. The industry’s revenue decreased by 3.0% in 2009 (2), and of all the professional sports leagues, the MLB suffered the most. According to Team Marketing Report, 10 of the league’s 30 teams reduced their ticket prices to boost audience attendance.
III. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
Today’s consumers drive the marketplace, and their willingness to spend their disposable income on sports tickets is key to a thriving sports industry. Since the recession, the economy has rebounded by a strong 8.7% in 2010 thanks to stabilized ticket prices and increased disposable income (2). According to IBIS World, revenue growth is expected to increase at an average annual rate of 3.9% to 5%, with a 9.3% spike during 2011 alone (See Figure 3). With consumer spending back on the rise we can already start to see an improved revenue stream for the sports industry (See Figure 4). However, the factors that are collectively going to continue to influence each league’s success are:

  • Competition from Substitutes- There are an increasing number of avenues through which households can spend their discretionary sports, entertainment and other recreational dollars. An improvement in the quality or a reduction in the price of a competing event such as a concert can negatively affect demand for sports. Live radio, TV and online broadcasting of sporting events are also a direct substitute for attending a venue to see a game.

  • Leisure and Recreational Activity- Rising interest in professional or semi-professional spectator sports will increase demand and industry sales through ticket and merchandise sales. Attending professional sports match is also highly time-consuming, as matches typically last about three hours excluding the time it takes getting in and out of the venue. This driver is expected to increase slowly during 2011 and presents a potential opportunity for the industry.

  • Per capita disposable income- Changes in interest rates, taxes and employment levels affect per capita disposable income, and per capita disposable income influences industry demand. The more disposable income people have, the more likely they are to spend on discretionary items such as tickets to a sporting event. This driver is expected to increase slowly during 2011.

  • Time spent on leisure and sports- Changes in peoples' available leisure time have a direct effect on spectator sports attendance. The more leisure time people have, the more likely they are to attend sporting events or participate in sports, which may make people more likely to attend or watch sports events on TV. This driver is expected to decrease slowly during 2011.

(Reference 2)

Professional Hockey has always had some trouble finding great success and popularity in America. As the NFL and MLB started to rebound back from the bad economy, the NHL still managed to lag behind in 2010. According to Forbes, the average franchise is worth $228 million as of 2011, up 2% from 2009, yet 14 teams saw their values decline amid struggles to sell tickets and gain sponsorships in a weak economy (1). More than half the league lost money last season. In Figure 7, you can see the four main factors that directly and indirectly affect the NHL’s success in the U.S.: Television, Online, Merchandise, and Tickets (See Figure 7).


BRIEF HISTORY OF NHL
The National Hockey League officially began on Dec. 19, 1917 as a breakaway league from the Canadian National Hockey Association which was founded in 1909 (www.nhl.com). The Boston Bruins were the first American team created in 1924 that sparked American interest in the sport. In an effort to sustain hockey’s presence and gain a television contract in the U.S., the NHL started expanding in the mid-1960’s. During the expansion, The NHL took all but one of the NHA's teams and saw the creation of 6 new teams and franchises. Canadians upset by the U.S.’s poaching of hockey teams created the World Hockey Association in 1972. Both the NHL and WHA fought for players and teams during the next couple of years, which ended in a merger agreement in 1979. Today, the NHL is 90 years old with 30 member teams including, 24 in the U.S. and 6 in Canada. Hockey is currently the most popular sports league in Canada and widely followed in the northern U.S., but has expanded in southward cities such as Miami, Tampa Raleigh, Nashville, Atlanta, Dallas, and Phoenix, with varying success (wikipedia.org).

In NHL history, there have been 3 league-wide labor issues that occurred between 1992 and 2005 (www.nhl.com).



  1. 1992: 10 day strike by the NHL Players Association; settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

  2. 1994-1995: A lockout forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to 48 games; a collective bargaining agreement was set for 1998, but then extended to 2004.

  3. 2004: No new agreement was made to settle the 1995 lockout, so another lockout of the players union and all NHL operations was enforced; NHL was shut down for 310 days, lost a whole season, and a new salary cap bargain allowed the NHL to resume play in 2005 with only 15 games in the season. (www.nhl.com)

The NHL was the first pro sports team to lose an entire season. Losing that entire season significantly hurt hockey’s popularity in the U.S. because ESPN dropped hockey from its’ schedule which lost a huge T.V. audience for the sport. As of right now in the U.S., NHL games are only televised on NBC and Versus via the NHL Network. Since launching in Canada in 2001 and arriving in the U.S. in 2007, the NHL Network has built a base of some 40 million North American homes (8), but a primetime spot back on ESPN is its main focus.
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS OF NHL HELP/HINDER ITS U.S. POPULARITY?

  1. NHL’s Current Pros

  • U.S. fans drawn to hockey games for the fighting; Rule 47 in the NHL Rule Handbook governs fighting during games (8).

  • More competitive, exciting games thanks to last season surrounding Chicago Blackhawks Stanley Cup win (8).

  • The leagues’ two biggest stars — Sidney Crosby of the Pittsburgh Penguins and Alex Ovechkin of the Washington Capitals — have emerged as big draws (8).

  1. NHL’S Current Con’s

  • NFL, MLB, and NBA still wildly more popular and culturally embraced in U.S.; bigger TV ratings and draw bigger live audiences

  • Hockey games don’t resonate well on TV; slowly improving with the help of HDTV

  • Hockey equipment and facilities are more costly compared to baseball, basketball, and football


IV. COMPETITOR ANALYSIS

As mentioned before, the NHL competes in a tough sports industry environment in the U.S. The NHL is constantly vying for sports fans shared with the 3 three dominate leagues; the NBA, NFL, and MLB. The NHL is the fourth most profitable league, but it is certainly not the most popular (See Perception Map- Figure 5). Other sports leagues including NASCAR have a stronger following and more viewers because of the big T.V. contracts each of those leagues sign. For example, NHL games aired on NBC garnered a low 1.0 rating from the Nielsen Co. compared to ratings as high as 29.6 for Monday Night Football (6). The focus of the NHL is to compete for more viewership of NHL content than the other pro sports leagues in America. A complete list of the NHL’s competitors can be seen in Figure 6.



With the help of new technology and creative marketing strategies, the NHL will have a fighting chance to gain a bigger fan base in the coming years. There are talks of a possible MLB and NFL lockout this year due to contract disputes with players and teams. Also, there are talks of ESPN bringing the NHL back to its network. Finally, social media has created huge advancements in building new fans and increasing brand awareness. The NHL just has to start capturing more audience viewers for the sport’s popularity to really take off and compete with the other 3 big pro sports leagues.
NHL:

  • 15% of sports industry’s operating revenue (2)

  • 1.0 Nielson Rating

  • T.V. Stations Aired on: NBC, Versus, NHL Network, FOX Sports


NFL:

  • T.V. revenue for 2008 was about $4 billion

  • This was more than what was spend for NBA, MLB, NASCAR, PGA, NCAA basketball tournament and the Summer Olympics in 2004 combined

  • T.V. Stations Aired on: ESPN, NFL Network, FOX, CBS


MLB:

  • Negotiated a seven-year, $1.75 billion deal with Fox in 2007

  • Signed an eight-year, $2.37 billion contract with ESPN through 2013

  • T.V. Stations Aired on: ESPN, FOX, MLB Network, TBS


NBA:

  • At the end of 2007-2008 season NBA signed a $2.4 billion, six-year deal with ABC and ESPN

  • In addition NBA also signed a $2.2 billion contract with Turner Broadcasting

  • A new, eight-year, $7.5 billion deal with ABC, ESPN and Tuner began in the 2008-2009 season

  • The NBA also broadcasts games to approximately 15 million homes through NBA TV

  • T.V. Stations Aired on: ESPN, TNT, ABC, NBA TV, FOX Sports



V. CONSUMER ANALYSIS
NHL’S TARGET AUDIENCE
Potentially, the NHL’s target audience is all sports fans, as they aim to gain more notoriety and popularity amongst U.S. sport fans. As of right now, the biggest followers of the sport have been typically males ages 36 and younger with a tendency to be more tech savvy than the average sports fan. This would explain why the NHL’s social media mediums have taken off faster than other pro sports leagues. Statistics show that the NHL will continue to specifically market to affluent male viewers since:

  1. 68% of NHL spectators are male (9)

  2. The average age of those 68% males is 36 (9)

  3. Of those 68% males, 55% of them have a professional or managerial job that pays an average household income of almost $89,000 (9)

According to consensus reports, the NHL draws the highest concentration of young upscale viewers than any other televised sport (9). Figure 8 shows geographically where those U.S. NHL fans are predominately based (see Figure 8).

NHL FAN COST INDEX
The NHL ranked how much an average hockey fan was willing to spend at a regular game. The index below lists the average costs fans from each of the top 10 NHL teams. The costs include four average-priced tickets, four small drinks, two small beers, four hot dogs, two game programs, parking, and two adult-size caps, in dollars.

1. Dallas Stars, $386.12

2. New York Rangers, $374.78

3. Colorado Avalanche, $351.90

4. Toronto Maple Leafs, $349.18

5. Philadelphia Flyers, $327.74

6. Los Angeles Kings, $321.32

7. New Jersey Devils, $317.72

8. Boston Bruins, $297.44

9. Atlanta Thrashers, $294.62



10. Pittsburgh Penguins, $290.18 [SOURCE: Plunkett Research]

HOW THE NHL CONNECTS WITH U.S. CONSUMERS?
With limited resources to hockey in the U.S., compared to Canada, the NHL conducts a lot of their marketing in the U.S. by using T.V. and the internet. This makes sense that hockey has been able to improve its popularity with American consumers via the internet. Fans have complete access to the internet and are able to get more information than ever. This also explains why the NHL has been able to find a target audience with tech savvy users. Below are some of the most popular ways consumers find information about the NHL.

  1. T.V. Broadcasting & Radio

  • NHL games are broadcasted on the Comcast owned cable sports network,VERSUS; TV deal is worth more than $70 million a year and has over 40 million U.S. subscribers (8).

  • Fans can listen to every live NHL game via the radio on V Cast. The audio feeds feature the hometown announcers and analysts from every game, available throughout the season as well as playoffs. Fans that live far from their favorite team can use V Cast to stay on top of all the NHL action.

  1. Online & Social Media

  • Subscribership to the out-of-market online video package “GameCenter Live” was up 25% through the first 24 days of the 2009-10 season (8).

  • Mike DiLorenzo, director of social media marketing and strategy for the NHL, created the NHL Fans microsite. This is a massive collection of social media that ties together blogs, videos, tweets, user pages and message boards (10).

  • NHL Fans has a content sharing agreement with SB Nation (as does Yahoo! Sports) and uses blogs created by its own users (10).

  • Fantasy Hockey is another tool that keeps consumers in touch with the sport.


VI. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR GROWTH OF NHL IN U.S.


  1. Street Hockey – Introducing Street hockey to the children would get more kids involve with the NHL. Kids like a sport they are able to play. All they need is hockey sticks, roller blades and a puck. They can draw a line for the goal or have a bucket or something. There is not always an ice rink kids for kids to play in. Kids like the popular sports now like NBA, NFL, and MLB because they are able to play it in the park. The NHL cannot build mini ice rinks but they can build street hockey rinks at parks. .Introducing street hockey is a good way to boost kids to like hockey, which will make them in to fans for the NHL in the future because it is like ice hockey Invest more in promoting and gaining more participants in street hockey in the U.S.

  2. Cheap Hockey Gear - high-tech hockey gear needs to be sold at more reasonable prices so it could increase customer value.

  3. Getting available on basic channels or Primetime – the local team has to play a certain amount of games on basic channels so people can watch it more often to get more interested not just the playoff games. Get NHL back on primetime ESPN broadcasts so they can showcase their talent.

  4. More American players or Diversity – The NHL has more Canadian players than American and they have more American teams than Canadian. I think adding more American players will give the fans more reason to support the NHL because there are more local heroes to idolize and adds more patriotism. It also can add more fans around the world base on who is in the league.

  5. Creating a WNHL – By creating a women hockey league it gets more women to be involve with the sports and it is like how the NBA has the WNBA.

  6. More fighting – The fighting adds more excitement to the game. Some people go to the games just to watch the fights. Continue to let hockey players fight on the court; highly profitable entertainment with hockey fights.

  7. More competitiveness – The hockey team has to spread out more star players and weaker teams have to win every once in a while to keep the game competitive. Right now in the NHL, there are a few teams that have never won and have no star players.

  8. Compromising – The league and the team’s player or coaches have to compromise on all their issues because it is better to have a season to play in than no season at all.

  9. New sources of revenue - Develop new sources of revenue to reduce burden of high ticket prices; remove salary cap and increase revenue-sharing; better value sports ticket packages.

  10. Improve marketing in US - Hockey audience is very loyal, and wants an inside perspective on the NHL especially among those fans that are outside the market of their favorite team. Hokey has a big opportunity on much focused consumer market to activate. That means NHL have to improve their distribution strategies, and they have to be much more adroit at product development and make sure they continue to tailor their messaging on a one-to-one basis.

  11. Surveys – Asking consumer how they feel about the sport. Increase complaints means they have to fix a problem. Encourage consumers to speak their minds. Ask the guests what they want.

  12. New technology - there is also a new sport product. The higher profile sport products enjoy extension in video games. Creating the game, for example ESPN and the NHL combined with Nintendo or Sega.


CONCLUSION
The NHL competes and will continuously compete in a U.S. sports culture more inclined towards baseball, football, and basketball. The NFL, NBA, MLB are staples in the eyes of sports fans compared to the NHL. Proof of this is shown by how quickly ESPN was willing to drop the sport from its schedule following the 2004-2005 NHL lockout. Despite falling off the radar in the U.S. for awhile, the NHL has since reclaimed some of its popularity by capitalizing on its many strengths including, social media, online audio and video streaming, and the NHL Network. The NHL is currently the 4th most profitable sport in America, but has the potential to gain more market share to surpass the NBA in the near future. Compared to the NBA, the NHL games are a lot more affordable and competitive than NBA games. Also, sports fights tend to be very appealing to U.S, audiences, which is an advantage the NHL has because fighting is a legal rule in hockey; therefore, attracting more audiences. The NHL could become a bigger competitor in the sports industry in the coming years if it continues to capture sports fans in the U.S. and when it is able to become a staple on ESPN again.

References




  1. Forbes.com. “NHL/NBA/NFL/MLB Team Valuations.” Information for the World’s

Business Leaders – Forbes.com.Web. 20 Feb. 2011. .

  1. IBIS World. (2010 August). Sports Franchises in the U.S. Retrieved from IBISWorld

Database.

  1. Plunkett, J. W. (June 30, 2010). Revenue Sharing Boosts Major League Baseball. Sports

Industry. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from Plunkett Research Database.

  1. Plunkett, J. W. (June 30, 2010). NBA Team Values Fall/NBA China Progresses. Sports

Industry. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.plunkettresearchonline.com.

  1. Plunkett, J. W. (June 30, 2010). NFL: The Biggest Money in U.S. Sports. Sports

Industry. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.plunkettresearchonline.com.

  1. Plunkett, J. W. (June 30, 2010). NHL Ticket Sales Slow. Sports Industry. Retrieved

February 15, 2011 from http://www.plunkettresearchonline.com.

  1. Professional Sports Teams and Organizations – Quarterly Update 11/15/2010. (15 

November). First Research Industry Profiles, 0.  Retrieved February 11, 2011,
from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. (Document ID: 2189131311).


  1. Reynolds, M. (2010). WHY THE NHL IS SUDDENLY COOL. (cover story).


Multichannel News, 31(43), 6-7. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.


  1. Sports Common Census. "NHL Fan Map." Common Census. U.S. Government, Oct.

2010. Web. 5 Mar. 2011. .


  1. Wyshynski, Greg. "Inside the NHL's Social Media Innovations, Growing Pains - Puck Daddy - NHL  - Yahoo! Sports." Yahoo! Sports - Sports News, Scores, Rumors, Fantasy Games, and More. Web. 7 Mar. 2011. .




APPENDIX
Figure 1.
Sports Industry Overview

 

Amount

Units

Year/Season

Source

Estimated Size of the Entire Sports Industry, U.S.

414

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Annual Company Spending for Sports Advertising, U.S.

27.3

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Major League Baseball (MLB)

MLB League Revenue

6.8

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Overall Operating Income

522

Mil. US$

2009

Forbes

Number of MLB Teams

30

Teams

2009

MLB

Average MLB Game Attendance (162 Game Season)

30,314

Spectators

2009

ESPN

Average MLB Team Value

491

Mil. US$

2009

Forbes

National Football League (NFL)

NFL League Revenue

7.8

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Overall Operating Income

1,034

Mil. US$

2008/09

Forbes

Number of NFL Teams

32

Teams

2009/2010

NFL

Average NFL Game Attendance (16 Game Season)

67,519

Spectators

2009

ESPN

Average NFL Team Value

1.0

Bil. US$

2008/09

Forbes

National Basketball Association (NBA)

NBA League Revenue (Basketball Related Income)

4.0

Bil. US$

2009/10

PRE

Overall Operating Income

233

Mil. US$

2008/09

Forbes

Number of NBA Teams

30

Teams

2008/09

NBA

Average NBA Game Attendance (82 Game Season)

17,149

Spectators

2009/10

ESPN

Average NBA Team Value

367

Mil. US$

2008/09

Forbes

National Hockey League (NHL)

NHL League Revenue

3.0

Bil. US$

2009/2010

PRE

Overall Operating Income

184

Mil. US$

2008/2009

Forbes

Number of NHL Teams

30

Teams

2009/2010

NHL

Average NHL Game Attendance (82 Game Season)

17,070

Spectators

2009/2010

ESPN

Average NHL Team Value

223

Mil. US$

2008/2009

Forbes

Sporting Equipment Sales

Revenues, U.S. Sporting Goods Manufacturers*

71.8

Bil. US$

2009

SGMA

Retail Sporting Equipment Sales

39

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Other Sports Industry Revenue

NCAA Sports Revenue (Including Div. I, II and III)

0.7

Bil. US$

2009/2010

NCAA

Other Spectator Sports Leagues

4.3

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Racetracks

8.7

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Golf Courses

19.8

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Fitness & Recreational Centers

20.7

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Other Amusement & Recreation

20.5

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

Other Revenues Associated With U.S. Sports Industry**

180

Bil. US$

2010

PRE

PRE = Plunkett Research estimate; SGMA = Sporting Goods Manufacturing Association.


Figure 2.

Average Ticket Prices in 2009

NFL                                  $74.99

NBA                                  $48.90

NHL                                  $51.41

MLB                                  $26.64

Source:  ESPN, Team Marketing Report




KEY STATISTICS FORECAST for Sports Franchises in the US SOURCE: IBIS World

 

 

 




 

 

 

 

Revenue ($m)

IVA ($m)

Establishments

Enterprises

Employment

Domestic Demand ($m)

 

2010

22,049.60

15,594.90

800

757

49,981

12,317.80

2011

24,097.90

17,006.00

804

761

50,381

12,663.00

2012

25,024.40

17,969.60

821

778

51,388

13,106.00

2013

26,169.70

18,551.00

813

770

51,183

13,775.00

2014

27,841.60

19,195.60

820

777

51,439

14,229.00

2015

29,009.80

19,752.00

830

789

51,850

14,827.00

2016

29,135.20

20,335.20

839

797

52,317

15,272.00
Figure 3.

Figure 4.


F

igure 5.




Inexpensive Ticket Price


OTHER (Tennis, Boxing, Soccer)




Lowest Annual Revenue

Expensive Ticket Price


BASKETBALL



HOCKEY


U.S. Pro Sports Popularity based on Individual Revenue and Average Ticket Prices


Highest Annual Revenue


BASEBALL



RACETRACKS (Horse, Auto)



GOLF

FOOTBALL

*Based on single ticket costs for one individual sporting event for each sport as of 2010 SOURCE: ESPN

OTHER: Avg. Ticket Price= $20-$60, Annual Revenue= $4.3 Billion

(Soccer, Tennis, Boxing)
RACETRACKS: Avg. Ticket Price=$49-$69, Annual Revenue= $8.7 Billion

(Horse, Auto)
HOCKEY: Avg. Ticket Price= $52, Annual Revenue= $3 Billion

BASKETBALL: Avg. Ticket Price= $49, Annual Revenue= $4 Billion

BASEBALL: Avg. Ticket Price= $27, Annual Revenue= $6.8 Billion

GOLF: Avg. Ticket Price=$20-$100, Annual Revenue= $19.8 Billion

FOOTBALL: Avg. Ticket Price= $75, Annual Revenue= $7.8 Billion
Figure 6.

Top of Form



Company

NAIC

Description

State

Country

Employees**

2010 Sales in Thousands*

2009 Sales in Thousands*

AMERICAN HOCKEY LEAGUE

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

MA

US

 

 

 

ASSOCIATION OF TENNIS PROFESSIONALS

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

UK

 

 

 

CANADIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

ON

Canada

 

 

 

CENTRAL HOCKEY LEAGUE

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

AZ

US

 

 

 

ECHL (EAST COAST HOCKEY LEAGUE)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NJ

US

 

 

 

FIFA (FEDERATION INTERNATIONALE DE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

Switzerland

361

 

1,021,750

INTERNATIONAL BOXING FEDERATION

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NJ

US

 

 

 

INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (IOC)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

Switzerland

 

 

 

LADIES PROFESSIONAL GOLF ASSOCIATION (LPGA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

FL

US

 

 

 

MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL (MLB)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

MAJOR LEAGUE SOCCER (MLS)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

MINOR LEAGUE BASEBALL

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

FL

US

 

 

 

NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION (NBA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE (NFL)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE (NHL)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

NATIONAL THOROUGHBRED RACING ASSOCIATION

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

KY

US

 

 

 

NBA DEVELOPMENT LEAGUE

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

PROFESSIONAL BOWLERS ASSOCIATION

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

WA

US

 

 

 

PROFESSIONAL BULL RIDERS INC

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

PROFESSIONAL GOLFERS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (PGA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

FL

US

 

 

 

UNION OF EUROPEAN FOOTBALL ASSOCIATIONS

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

Switzerland

 

 

 

UNITED SOCCER LEAGUES

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

FL

US

 

 

 

UNITED STATES CYCLING FEDERATION (USCF)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

UNITED STATES GOLF ASSOCIATION (USGA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NJ

US

 

 

144,281

UNITED STATES OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (USOC)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

UNITED STATES TENNIS ASSOCIATION (USTA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

US FIGURE SKATING

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

US SOCCER FEDERATION

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

IL

US

 

 

 

USA BASKETBALL

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

USA GYMNASTICS

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

IN

US

 

 

 

USA HOCKEY

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

USA SWIMMING

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

CO

US

 

 

 

USA TRACK & FIELD INC

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

IN

US

 

 

 

WOMENS NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION (WNBA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

NY

US

 

 

 

WOMENS TENNIS ASSOCIATION (WTA)

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

FL

US

 

 

 

WORLD BOXING ASSOCIATION

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

Panama

 

 

 

WORLD BOXING COUNCIL

813990

Sports Leagues & Associations

 

Mexico

 

 

 

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SOURCE: http://www.plunkettresearchonline.com/ResearchCenter/Profiles/search2.aspx?industry=30&Category=813990

Figure 7.




Figure 8.





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