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Infotech

English for computer users



Student's Book

Santiago Remacha Esteras



Щ CAMBRIDGE

UNIVERSITY PRESS

PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, United Kingdom 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA 10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia

© Cambridge University Press 1996

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 1996 Third printing 1997

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

ISBN 0 521 45980 X Student's Book ISBN 0 521 45981 8 Teacher's Book ISBN 0521 459826 Cassette



Contents

Map of the book w
Thanks and Acknowledgements viш
Section 1 Computers today 1
Unit 1 Computer applications 2

Unit 2 Configuration 7

Unit 3 Inside the system 11

Unit 4 -Szfo and bytes 17

Unit 5 Buying a computer 21
Section 2 Input/output devices 26
Unite 6 Type and click! 27

Unit 7 Capture у our favourite image 32

Unit 8 Viewing the output 36

Units 9 Choosing a printer 40

Unit 10 I/O devices for the disabled 45
Section 3 Storage devices 50
Unit 11 Floppies 51

Unit 12 Hard drives 56

Unit 13 Optical breakthrough 60
Section 4 Basic software 65
Unit 14 Operating systems 66

Unit 15 The Graphical User Interface 70

Unit 16 A walk through word processing 74

Unit 17 Spreadsheets 80

Unit 18 Databases 83
Section 5 Creative software 88
Unit 19 Graphics and design 89

Unit 20 Desktop publishing 94

Unit 21 Multimedia 98
Section 6 Programming 102
Unit 22 Program design 103

Unit 23 Languages 109

Unit 24 The PostScript revolution 112

Unit 25 Jobs in computing 116
Section 7 Computers tomorrow 120
Unit 26 Electronic communications 121

Unit 27 LANs and WANs 127

Unit 28 New technologies 132
Notes for Student A 137
Notes for Student В 141
Glossary 145
Acronyms and abbreviations 151
Trademarks 153

Map of the book



UNIT


LISTENING


READING


Section 1


1 Computer applications


Using computers at work


What can computers do?


Computers








today


2 Configuration


Types of computer systems


What is a computer?




3 Inside the system


Describing a computer

system



What's inside a microcomputer? Main memory: RAM and ROM




4 Bits and bytes




Units of memory: bits, bytes, KB, MB, GB; binary system Bits for pictures




5 Buying a computer


Buying a computer in a shop


Computers for particular work situations


Section 2 Input/output


6 Type and click!


Different input devices


About the keyboard Point and click! (the mouse)


devices


7 Capture your favourite image


Types of scanners


What does a scanner do? Facts and opinions in advertisements




8 Viewing the output


Health and safety


The monitor




9 Choosing a printer


Ink-jet printers


Types of printers Adverts for printers




10 I/O devices for the disabled

Adaptive technology for the blind

Computers for the disabled

Section 3 Storage


11 Floppies


Buying disks


Types of disks Technical details


devices










12 Hard drives


Disk fragmentation


When buying a hard disk . . . (drive mechanisms)




1 3 Optical breakthrough


What's a CD-ROM?


Optical disks: pros and cons


IV

SPEAKING


WRITING


GRAMMAR


VOCABULARY


How are/were computers used in your school?


Specific computer applications


Present simple passive Data + 3rd person singular verb


Word fields: computers in education, banks, sports, airports, medicine, factories, entertainment








Basic terminology: hardware, software, peripherals, input/ output devices, central processing unit


Your ideal computer system




Contextual reference Defining relative clauses


Acronyms and abbreviations: CPU, ALU, RAM, ROM, bit, SIMMs




Translation




Prefixes: dm-, hexadeci-, kilo-, mega-,








giga-, mini-, micro-, In-, tn-, mono-, multi-


Role play: buying a computer


Recommending a computer to a friend




Vocabulary tree: terminology


Describing and identifying input devices


Describing a joystick


for + -ing which + verb which/that is used + to + inf.


Word field: input devices Symbols and special keys Mouse actions: click, drag






Comparatives and superlatives


Word building: suffixes Persuasive words in advertisements


Describing your computer screen


Explaining tables


Instructions and advice: imperative, should, ought to


Monitors: resolution, pixels, display, hertz, VGA, LCD, CRT, phosphors


Describing the printer you would like to use


The pros and cons of the printer you use


Discourse cohesion: reference signals and linking devices Comparison: revision


Types of printers: daisywheel, dot-matrk, ink-jet, thermal and laser printers, photosetters


Discussing devices for computer users with vision and mobility limitations


A letter asking for information about I/O equipment for disabled workers


Noun phrases; modifiers


Braille, speech synthesizers, Morse code, optical head pointer, voice recognition


How to protect your disks




Instructions with must/must not


Floppies: track, sector,format, magnetic, read /write heads, directory, DD/HD








Suffixes: -ic, -ism, -ize, -liable, -er




Completing a hard disk advertisement




Hard disks: access time, data transfer rate, password, fragmentation, removable cartridge


Choosing the most suitable storage devices for specific purposes


Completing a table with relevant information about optical disks


Discourse cohesion: reference signals and connectors and modifiers


Acronyms and abbreviations: laser, ms, WORM, CD-ROM, EOD




UNIT


LISTENING


READING





Section 4 Basic


14 Operating systems


System utilities (screen saver, virus detectors, etc.)


Operating systems





software











-'


15 The Graphical User Interface


Microsoft Windows operating systems


GUIs







1 6 A walk through word processing


The 'Cut and Paste' technique


Word-processing facilities Writing tools: spell checker, online thesaurus, grammar











checker







17 Spreadsheets


Spreadsheet programs









18 Databases


Mail merging


Basic features of database











programs





Section 5


19 Graphics and design


A basic tool palette


Computer graphics





Creative











software


20 Desktop publishing


Fonts, a necessary part of DTP


What is 'desktop publishing?







2 1 Multimedia


A multimedia system Software: revision


Multimedia magic!





Section 6 Programming


22 Program design


Steps in producing a program


Programming languages Flowcharts







23 Languages


С language


A short description of BASIC







24 The PostScript revolution


The PostScript language (gap dictation)


What is PostScript?







25 Jobs in computing


A job interview


Job advertisements





Section 7 Computers


26 Electronic communications


Videotex systems


Channels of communication Hackers!





tomorrow


27 LANs and WANs


A computer network


Network configurations WANs and worldwide











communications







28 New technologies


How a pen computer works


New products





VI

SPEAKING


WRITING


GRAMMAR


VOCABULARY


What's the function of the operating system?


Answering a quiz




System software Basic DOS commands Acronyms and abbreviations: OS, MS-DOS, IBM




A summary


Ways of reducing sentences


GUIs: windows, icons, pull-down menus, pointer, user-friendly


Comparing word processors


Describing the process of moving text


Sequencers:/»/, now, next, finally


WP programs: edit, format, search, replace, indent, WYSIWYG, clipboard


Visual representations versus spreadsheets


Producing an invoice with a spreadsheet program




Spreadsheets: cell, column, row, formula, invoice, expenses




Writing a standard letter to clients


Plurals


Databases: field, record, file, sort, update


Describing 2D and 3D

graphics





Gerunds (-ing nouns)


Graphics: patterns, primitives, attributes, dithering, zoom, rotation, scaling, rendering


Exchanging information about computers for newspapers


A letter to a newspaper


Affixation, conversion, compounding


DTP packages: layout application, 'imagesetter, service bureau, font software designer, import




A leaflet advertising multimedia products


Conditional clauses


Multimedia PC: built-in sound, stereo speaker, sound card, animation, full-motion video




Making a flowchart


Infinitive constructions


Programming: compiler, debug, flowchart Prefixes and suffixes


Sharing information about computer languages


Describing С language


The passive


Acronyms: BASIC, FORTRAN, LISP, PROLOG, COBOL


Personal experience with




The past simple


Forming new words with script


computers








Discussing personal qualities and professional skills


Letter applying for a job


Far, since and ago Past simple and present perfect


Jobs: programmer, DTP operator, computer operator


Discussing computer crime (hacking, software piracy)




The past simple: revision


Data communication services: fax, BBS, e-mail, modem Prefixes: tele-, auto-, inter-, trans-


Describing two networks connected via satellite


Descriptions of network connections


Prepositional phrases of 'reference'


Networks: local area network, node, transceiver, protocol, token, gateway


Discussing the advantages and limitations of pen computers


Making predictions


will + infinitive The future continuous The future perfect may /might /could + inf.


New technologies: electronic publishing, virtual reality, video teleconferencing


VII

Thanks

The author would especially like to express his gratitude to Мй Paz, Marina and Violeta, without whose support this

book would not have been possible.

My special thanks to Will Capel for his invaluable comments and advice.

Thanks are also due to the following for their comments on the first draft of the book: Anna Maria Bergamini;

Michel Chariot at IUT, Cergy-Pontoise, France; Max Gallo at Insearch, University of Technology, Sydney,

Australia; Magda Hayek; Gisella Lange, Milan, Italy; Terry Wynne at the Fachochschule fur Technik, Esslingen,

Germany.


Angel Benedi for his help and generous advice on technical aspects.

Mary Margaret Michel, Ma Antonia Quinones, Filar Gallego, Manuel Vazquez,

Enrique Artal andj. Antonio Martinez for their ideas and suggestions.

The Department of Mathematics (Zaragoza University).

Vincente Casanova, Tony Galvez, and the staff of Campus Informatico, S.A. for their materials and technical

support.


Students and teachers of Institute Pilar Lorengar, Zaragoza: Javier Latorre, Javier Jimenez and Elena Marco, who

advised me on computer-related topics.

Brigit Viney for editing the typescript.

Joanne Currie for designing the book, Andy Robinson for producing it and Amanda Ogden for researching the

photographs. Thanks also to Peter Ducker for his design assistance.

Acknowledgements

The author and publishers are grateful to the authors, publishers and others who have given permission for the use of copyright material identified in the text. It has not been possible to identify the sources of all the material used and in such cases the publishers would welcome information from copyright owners, (p = page; t = top; с = centre; b = bottom; 1 = left; r = right)

pp 31 and 122-3 reprinted from Your First Computer by Alan Simpson, by permission of SYBEX Inc. ISBN number 0-89588-752-5, Copyright 1992 SYBEX Inc. All rights reserved; p 35 adapted advertisement for Туры Scanner by permission of Caere Corporation; pp 46-7 adapted extract from 'Computers for the disabled' by Joseph J. Lazzaro, reprinted with permission from the June 1993 issue of BTTE Magazine © by McGraw-Hill Inc. New York NY All rights reserved; pp 75, 77, 94—5 and Unit 8 on the cassette reprinted (or reproduced) from Understanding Computers by Nathan ShedroffJ. Sterling Hutto and Ken Fromm, by permission of SYBEX Inc. ISBN number 0-7821-1284-X, Copyright 1993, SYBEX Inc. All rights reserved; p 93 extract from Introduction to Computer Graphics by permission of Hewlett-Packard Limited; p 99 sections 2 and 3 adapted from 'Upgrading to multimedia' courtesy of PC Upgrade Vol 2, No 2,June 1993;p 132 text 1 taken from an article in BYTEMagazine and p 133 text 2 taken from'Electronic publishing' by Andy Reinhardt, both reprinted with permission from the August 1993 and September 1993 issues respectively of BYTE Magazine © McGraw-Hill Inc. New York NY All rights reserved. For permission to reproduce photographs and computer screens:

p 2 tl Barclays Bank pic; p 2 tr John Birdsall; p 2 bl Art Directors; p 2 br Pascal Rondeau/Allsport; p 5 Paul Scheult/Eyc Ubiquitous; p 7 Graham Portlock; p 12 Digital Equipment Corporation; p 15 Taheshi Takahara/ Science Photo Eibrary; p 21 t Byte Computer Superstore Ltd; p 21 bl, br Apple Computer UK Ltd; p 21 1 Digital Equipment Corporation; p 23 r Amstrad pic; p 241 Compaq Computer Limited; p 24 r Apple Computer UK Ltd; p 35 Caere Corporation; p 42 Hewlett-Packard Limited; p 45 tl Hank Morgan/Science Photo Library; p 45 tr Action for Disability, Newcastle-upon-Tyne/Simon Eraser/Science Photo Library; p 45 cjacky Chapman/ Financial Times; p 45 bl Don Kryminec/Science Photo Library; p 45 br The Computability Centre; p 46 1 The Computability Centre; p 46 r Adam Hart-Davis/Science Photo Library; p 47 Chariot Magazine/Output UK; p 51 Paul Seheult/Eye Ubiquitous; p 56 ESS, a subsidiary of Integrated Technology (Europe) Ltd; p 58 screen from SUM Tune-Up by permission of Symantec Corporation; p 60 t Last Resort Picture Library; p 60 b Graham Portlock; p 63 Manning/Times Newspapers; p 67 t Microsoft Corporation; p 67 b Apple Computer UK Ltd; p 68 t IBM United Kingdom Limited; p 68 с AT&T (UK) Ltd; p 68 b Digital Equipment Corporation; p 70 the computer screen is reproduced by kind permission of Apple Computer Inc., Copyright Apple Computer Inc., All rights reserved; pp 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80 and 82 screen shots reprinted with permission from Microsoft Corporation; p 94 screen shot of Adobe ® PageMaker ® reproduced with the permission of Adobe Systems Europe Ltd; p 98 Microsoft Corporation; p 99 Graham Portlock; p 110 Microsoft Corporation; pp 117 and 119 Graham Portlock; pp 121 British Telecom/Scope Communications; p 122 IJohn Birdsall; p 122 r Philippe Plailly/Eurelios/Science Photo Library; p 123 1 The Electronic Frontier Ltd (Tel: 01734 810600); p 123 tr Paul Sehcult/Eye Ubiquitous; p 123 br screen from Teletext on ITV and Channel Four by permission of Teletext Ltd; p 125 screen from New Prestel Ltd; p 130 b Nottinghamshire Country Council Leisure Services, photograph by John Birdsall; p 132 tl Philips Communications & Processing Services Ltd; p 132 tr NASA/Science Photo Library; p 132 b University of Sunderland; p 134 Amstrad pic; p 135 Apple Computer UK Ltd; p 136 cartoon by Patrick Blower. Thanks also to Sibelius Software, Cambridge for the use of their premises and equipment for the photograph on P99.

Illustrations by Oxford Illustrators, Paul Collicut and Amanda MacPhail. Facsimile artwork by Kevin McGeoghegan. Cover design by Meta Union Design Limited.

Vii



Computers today

Unit page

  1. Computer applications 2

2 Configuration 7


3 Inside the system 11

4 Bits and bytes 17


5 Buying a computer 21


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